civil rights movement: APUSH Flashcards

Terms Definitions
selma march
New Frontier
JFK's policy
"To Secure these Rights"
congress of racial equality
Stokely Carmichael
promoted black nationalism
Race Riots
Ex: Detroit in 1943
Dr. Jonas Salk
vaccine for polio
Understanding Clauses
more complicated literacy tests- interpret a certain section of the Mississippi State Constitution
Malcolm X
Adopted Islam; thought Christianity was hypocritical
Medgar Evers
civil rights activist - assasinated
Caesar Chavez
leading spokesperson for Mexican Amer. rights - led the United Farm Workers Organization Committee (UFWOC)
Black Panthers
Huey Newton and Bobby Seale; Quasi-military organization donning leather jackets , black berets, and brandising guns
Southern Democrats split in 1948 and formed Democrats and Dixies nominated Strom Thurmond picked up 39 votes
1496. "Flexible Response"
Kennedy abandoned Eisenhower's theory of massive nuclear war in favor of a military that could respond flexibly to any situation at any time, in different ways.
sitin on lunch counters, hotels, etc. by students and the Student nonviolent coordinating system (sncc)
Southern manifesto
response to Warren's liberalism in the courts - anti-liberal statement created by s. congressmen
Levitt towns
suburban assembly line production of housing - "white flight" to suburbs.1st one in NY
Executive order 9981
desegregation of the armed forces
Plessy v. Ferguson
established seperate but equal facilities
Central High School
1957-Little Rock school ordered to desegregate but then Arkansas National Guard came; Eisenhower didn't really believe in Civil Rights but hated disobeyers
Guinn v. Oklahoma
1915- Struck down the Grandfather Clause
Greensboro Sit-Ins
1960- Students at North Carolina AT&T were tired of segregation at Woolworth's Diner
August 1963
King's march on washington where he gave his I have a Dream Speech- 200,000 protesters came
Bull Connor
brutal and racist Police Chief in Alabama
1478. Vietnamization
The effort to build up South Vietnamese troops while withdrawing American troops, it was an attempt to turn the war over to the Vietnamese.
1408. "Military-Industrial Complex"
Eisenhower first coined this phrase when he warned American against it in his last State of the Union Address. He feared that the combined lobbying efforts of the armed services and industries that contracted with the military would lead to excessive Congressional spending.
Governor George Wallace
University of Alabama - "segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segreg. forever" - later runds for prez. and changes stance
Bakke case
racial quotas = unlawful (ex.=a white man denied from berekely b/c he was white)
Alice Paul
push for equal rights ammendment - never succeeds
Emmett Till
Killed in Chicago because he said "bye baby"
Long Hot Summers
Riots in black neighborhoods in N. cities
1471. Tet Offensive
1968, during Tet, the Vietnam lunar new year - Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding forces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war.
1456. White Backlash
Resistance to Black demands led by "law and order" advocates whose real purpose was to oppose integration.
1486. New Frontier
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
1443. Medgar Evers
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
1488. Peace Corps., Vista
Established by Congress in September, 1961 under Kennedy, dedicated Americans volunteered to go to about 50 third-world countries and show the impoverished people how to improve their lives.
Mongomery Bus Boycott
.Sparked by Rosa Parks .cheap taxi service aided boycotters
Charles Stuart
shoots pregnant wife and blames it on a black man
James Meredith
1st black man to attend University of Mississippi - JFK sends troops to protect
reapportionment decisions
in Baker V. Carr & Wesberry V. Sanders (under Warren) .tried to eliminate gerrymandering of black votes - made their voice more significant
16th street Baptist church
4 black girls killed in bombing
Brown v. Board of Education
1954- Overturned plessy stance and declared "separate but equal" unconsitutional
McLauren v. Oklahoma
1951- dealt with the Grad program at Oklahoma University
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Gave federal protection for blacks attempting to exercise their voting right
1448. Black Panthers
Led by Bobby Seale and Huey Newton, they believed that racism was an inherent part of the U.S. capitalist society and were militant, self-styled revolutionaries for Black Power.
1457. Robert Weaver (b. 1907)
Influential Black economist, he served in the Department of the Interior and was Secretary of Housing and Urban Affairs under Lyndon B. Johnson, becoming the first Black Cabinet official in the U.S.
1469. Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
An area that both militaries are required to stay out of in order to create a buffer between nations. In Vietnam, a five mile wide DMZ was established between the North and South along the 17th parallel.
Glideon Vv. Wainright,Escobedo v. IL,Miranda v. AZ
these three cases mainly protected the accused (right to a lawyer..etc...)
GI Bill of rights 1944
housing and educational aid to veterans - response to unemployment fears
Eisenhower on Civil rights
very conservative - didnt support it at first but appointed Earl Warren
Freedom Summer of 1964
N. Whites came to S. to register blacks to vote
1473. Daniel Ellsberg, Pentagon Papers
Papers were part of a top-secret government study on the Vietnam War and said that the U.S. government had lied to the citizens of the U.S. and the world about its intentions in Vietnam.
1470. Domino Theory
1957 - It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall, producing a domino effect.
1497. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1963
The Soviet Union was secretly building nuclear missile launch sites in Cuba, which could have been used for a sneak-attack on the U.S. The U.S. blockaded Cuba until the U.S.S.R. agreed to dismantle the missile silos.
1422. Little Rock, Arkansas Crisis
1957 - Governor Faubus sent the Arkansas National Guard to prevent nine Black students from entering Little Rock Central High School. Eisenhower sent in U.S. paratroopers to ensure the students could attend class.
1414. To Secure these Rights
A report by the President's Committee on Civil Rights, it was given a year after the Committee was formed, and helped pave the way for the civil rights era. It recommended that the government start an anti-lynching campaign and ensure that Blacks got to vote.
1494. Bay of Pigs, 1961
A small army of ant-Castro Cuban exiles were trained and financed by the U.S. in the hope their invasion would lead to a popular uprising to overthrow the Communist government. The invasion force landed at the Bay of Pigs in Southern Cuba, but received no popular support and were quickly wiped out by Castro's forces.
Brown v. Board of education
(under Warren) - overturned Plessy v. Ferguson - seperate facilities is not equal
1492. Nuclear Test Ban Treaty, 1963
Reacting to Soviet nuclear tests, this treaty was signed on August 5, 1963 and prohibited nuclear testing undersea, in air and in space. Only underground testing was permitted. It was signed by all major powers except France and China.
1454. Kerner Commission on Civil Disorders
In 1968, this commission, chaired by Otto Kerner, decided that the race riots were due to the formation of two different American cultures: inner-city Blacks and suburban Whites.
1477. Bombing of Laos and Cambodia
March, 1969 - U.S. bombed North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia and Laos. Technically illegal because Cambodia and Laos were neutral, but done because North Vietnam was itself illegally moving its troops through those areas. Not learned of by the American public until July, 1973.
1415. Desegregation of the Armed Forces, 1948
In July, Truman issued an executive order establishing a policy of racial equality in the Armed Forces "be put into effect as rapidly as possible." He also created a committee to ensure its implementation.
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. United States
1964- Upheld Civil Rights act of 1964
1495. United Nations in the Congo, 1960
A Black uprising against the Belgian colonial government in the Congo became increasingly violent with White settlers being raped and butchered. The U.N. sent in troops to try to prevent civil war.
1487. Kennedy and the Steel Price Rollback
Angry at steel companies for cutting wages and increasing prices in the face of his low-inflation plan, Kennedy activated the federal government's anti-trust laws and the FBI. Awed, steel companies cut their prices back for a few days, then raised them again slowly and quietly. Kennedy "jawboned" the steel industry into overturning a price increase after having encouraged labor to lower its wage demands.
1441. "I have a dream" speech
Given August 1963 from the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D.C. by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Sally Ride & Geraldine Ferraro
1st female in space & 1st female vp candidate for a major political party respectively
1432. Brown v. The Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
1954 - The Supreme Court overruled Plessy v. Ferguson, declared that racially segregated facilities are inherently unequal and ordered all public schools desegregated.
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