Civil Rights Vocab words Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bull Connor
...
15th Amendment
Voting Rights
suffrage
the right to vote
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference
SNCC
Students non-violent coordinating Committee which organized peaceful protests
fifteenth amendment
constitutional amendment that guaranteed voting right to African American men
1831
Nat Turner leads slave rebellion
1948
President Trumanforbids segregation in the Millitary
Jackie Robinson
first negro baseball player
Greensboro
Place where college students conducted the first sit-in at a lunch counter
pendleton act
It made compulsory campaign contributions from federal employees illegal, and established the Civil Service Commission to make appointments to federal jobs on the basis of examination rather than cronyism
Rosa Parks
arrest started Montgomery bus boycott
Integration
The action of making schools,parks,and other public facilities availabe to peole of all races on an equal basis
boycott
refusal to patronize any organization that practices policies perceived as politically, economically, or ideologically unfair
1877
Northern troops removed from South; blacks become unofficial slaves
Stokely Carmicheal
leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee, preached black power and wanted to destroy everything the western civilization has created.
Jim Crow
a slang expression for African Americans that emerged in the 1820s and came to signify the laws and governmental practices designed to segregate blacks from whites, especially in the American South.
Kerner Commission
group appointed by Pres.Johnson to study the causes of Urban Violence and that recommended the elimination of de facto segregation in american society
Duke Elington
He was talented black pianist, composer, poet, and band director
Greensboro Sit-ins
The Greensboro sit ins protesting segregation at lunch counters. They went to a lunch counter and non violently protested. They weren't served and they were harassed. It led to sit-ins across the country.
desegregation
the action of incorporating a racial or religious group into a community
Civil Rights Acts and Cases: Civil Rights Act of 1968
...
preferential treatment
a position that supports giving minorities preference in hiring, promotions, college admissions, and contracts.
ex. a black kid getting in to a certain college over a white kid when both there grades are the same.
Robert Moses
Harvard graduate, math teacher in Harlem, influential speaker for SNCC. Recruted rural blacks to register to vote
Greensboro, NC
-birthplace of the sit-in movement; February 1, 1960 four African American students from North Carolina A&T, a historically black college, sat at a segregated lunch counter in the Greensboro.
-these sit-ins sparked a massive movement throughout the Southern states as more and more protesters engaged in this type of demonstration.
-sit-ins and economic boycotts became a hallmark of the American civil rights movement.
Sit-in
nonviolent protests in which a person sits and refuses to leave
Soul Force
MLK's idea of using peaceful non-violent disobedience to work for civil rights
César Chávez
He was a Mexican-American labor leader. He was a labor activist and led the United Farm Workers. He led migrant farm workers in order to find a place to work at. His focus was to improve laborers' worker conditions.
Malcolm X
radical black leader who was ex-convict and member of Black Muslims. He rejected integration and though blacks should have their own nation. Died in February 1965
veteran
a person who has served in the military, especially in a war; a person with lots of experience in an occupation or skill; a former member of the armed forces.
Medgar Evers
Director of the NAACP in Mississippi and a lawyer who defended accused Blacks, he was murdered in his driveway by a member of the Ku Klux Klan.
President Eisenhower
President who forced Little Rock High School to integrate
Literacy tests
a prject where college students who wanted to help the Civil Rights movement in 1964 went down to the South to help black voting registration
British Invasion
Influx of bands and musicians from Britain during the 60's. Huge influence on the American music scene
Marshal Plan
George Marshal the US secretary of state saw Europe as very important to the USA, he saw the best way to keep them out of communism is to help restore their countries in 1947, June, and he proposed a plan to provide massive economic aid to Europe
Orval faubaus
governor of Arkansas, tried to keep out the little rock nine
affirmative action
policies that favor members of a protected group; used to
Freedman's Bureau
1865-1972-- Us war department run by Major General Oliver Howard-- provide basic health and education to former slaves- distribute food, clothing and land, 40 hospitals 4,000 schools- no tuition required
Plessy v. Ferguson
sumpreme court ruled that segregation public places facilities were legal as long as the facilites were equal
Hérnandez vs.Texas
Mexican Americans and all other racial groups in the United States had equal protection under the 14th Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
civil rights
legal or moral claims that citizens are entitled to make upon government
James Earl Ray
convicted of killing Martin Luther King Jr. in 1968 and sentenced to 99 years in jail
Brown II
another case issued by the Supreme Court, implementing the order from 1954, ruling that communities must work to desegregate their schools with all deliberate speed, but set no timetable and left specific decisions up to lower courts.
-Significant because a)Showed Supreme Courts sympathies for the CRM. b) It failed to bring about wholesale school desegregation (1968 - 58% of black children remained segregated). c)Showed Eisenhower's unwillingness to help CRM.
Suspect Classifications
Classifications of people on the basis of their race and ethnicity. The courts have ruled taht laws classifying people on these grounds will be subjected to "strict scrutiny."
James Meredith
He was a civil rights advocate who spurred a riot at the University of Mississippi. The riot was caused by angry whites who did not want Meredith to register at the university. The result was forced government action, showing that segregation was no longer government policy.
Elijah Muhammad
leader of Nation of Islam who taught Allah would bring black nation
suspect classification
category or class such as race, that triggers the highest standard of scrutiny from supreme court.
Freedom riders
early 60s movement by SNCC & CORE members to desegregate buses in the South
Human Rights
Rights provided to people by being a human that can't be deprived of by a government body, group or person
de jure discrimination
Racial segregation that is a direct result of law or official policy
Stokely Carmichael
a black civil rights activist in the 1960's. Leader of the Student Non-violent Coordinating Committee. He did a lot of work with Martin Luther King Jr.but later changed his attitude. Carmichael urged giving up peaceful demonstrations and pursuing black power. He was known for saying,"black power will smash everything Western civilization has created."
Montgomery Bus Boycott
started after Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on the bus: citizens refused to ride segregated buses to show the economic impact that African Americans had
# of slaves let go after civil war
4 million
Fannie Lou Hamer
-led the delegation of MFDP to Atlantic City in 1964 for the Democratic National Convention.
-she lead the group in Freedom Songs because she felt that the movement should have a largely spiritual component.
Racial Profiling
The use of an individual's race or ethnicity by law enforcement in order to decide whether to engage in enforcement.
Watts Riot
a white officer beat a black motorist in LA which caused 6 days of violence and thirty four people to die. Home were burned and the national guard had to be brought in.
March on Washington
August 1963 - civil rights leaders organized a massive rally in Washington to urge passage of President Kennedy's civil rights bill. The high point came when MLK Jr., gave his "I Have a Dream" speech to more than 200,000 marchers in front of the Lincoln Memorial.
- Significant because a)presented CRM as united b)it remained peaceful c)solidified support for new CR legislation.
white flight
the moving of white people from urban areas where blacks moved to, to suburbs
Voting Rights Act (1965)
Banned literacy tests and other laws that kept people from registering to vote. Also sent federal officials to register voters.
Class Action Suit
Lawsuit brought by an individual or a group of people on behalf of all those similarly situated.
Ku Klux Klan
founded in the 1860s in the south; meant to control newly freed slaves through threats and violence; other targets: Catholics, Jews, immigrants and others thought to be un-American
Governor Orval Faubus
The governor of Arkansas who sent the national guard to keep black students out of a school in Little Rock, Arkansas
Jim Crow Laws
Laws meant to form separation of the white and back people.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
banned segregation in all public places
Martin Luther King Jr
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Voting Rights Act, 1965
The Voting Rights Act (VRA) bans racial discrimination in voting practices by the federal government as well as by state and local governments. Passed in 1965 after a century of deliberate and violent denial of the vote to African-Americans in the South and Latinos in the Southwest - as well as many years of entrenched electoral systems that shut out citizens with limited fluency in English - the VRA is often held up as the most effective civil rights law ever enacted. It is widely regarded as enabling the enfranchisement of millions of minority voters and diversifying the electorate and legislative bodies at all levels of American government.
what is civil disobedience?
the refusal to obey an unjust law
Brown vs. Board of ed.
father of 8yearold Linda Brown had charged the board, kansas, with denying her admission to an all-white elementary school
what slaves did once they were free
sharecropper, go north, go! adventure
Strict scrutiny
A Supreme Court test to see if a law denies equal protection because it does not serve a compelling state interest and is not narrowly tailored to achieve that goal
16th Street Baptist Church Bombing
9/15/1963: Four Klansmen set up a box of dynamite with a time delay in the basement of the church. When the bomb detonated, four girls were killed. This was a turning point in the Civil Rights Movement, undoubtedly leading to the passage of the Civil Rights Act.
USA owed a lot of money
US had to do this after WWI
The term feminism describes the theory of
the equality of men and women.
What was Roe v. Wade?
It held that a right to privacy is broad enough to encompass a woman's decision whether or not to terminate a pregnancy
manacle
a restraint
Montegomery bus boycott
...
1972
EDUCATION Prohibited sex discrimination in education programs receiving federal aid.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
...
NAACP
organization that attacked segregation in the 1950s
Night Riders
the Ku Klux Klan
"BOMBINGHAM"
During the Civil Rights movement, Birmingham was a hub for both demonstrations and violence. Many bombs were set off targeting blacks, most notably a church bombing that killed four children, so the city was nicknamed Bombingham.
discrimination
When individuals are treated unfairly solely because of their race, gender, ethnic group, age, physical disability, or religion.
Jan 1957
SCLC formed, king elected president
Central High
The Little Rock Nine School
Martin Luther King Jr.
civil rights acctavists
Voting Restrictions
the restrictions made against African Americans from voting = literacy test, poll tax, grandfather clause
Watergate Affair
Several of Pres. Nixon's closest advisers were convicted of criminal charges involving an illegal break-in the the Democratic National Headquarters during Nixon's campaign for reelection
WPC
an organization that helped fight Jim Crow Laws
1600-1800
hundreds of thousands of slaves are send to U.S. to work in sugar and tobacco fields
Black Power
The movement that urged African Americans to gain control of political and economic power by force if necessary
Foreign Policy
keeps policy of containment, flexible response: have more options than nuclear weapons to respond to communism, helped developing countries so they would not turn communist, gave money to latin america but ended up in the hand of corrupt politicians (alliance for progress),
south
racism persisted here after the Civil War
segregation
a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
Members of CORE?
James Farmer was director, interracial, pacifists
de facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law
stereotype
to judge based on: appearance, race, age or culture
harry truman
president who backed civil rights initiatives.
Earl Warren
Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.
Freedom Summer
leader of major civil rights gorups organized voter registration in Mississippi
Selma March
The Selma to Montgomery march in 1965
Lawrence v. Texas
The majority held that intimate consensual sexual conduct was part of the liberty protected by substantive due process under the Fourteenth Amendment.
Nation of Islam
organization of black muslims that taught white society was oppressive, blacks should remain segregate, and they should only worry about helping themselves.
non-violent protest
a peaceful way of protesting against restrictive racial policies; marches, protests, boycotts used to desegregate
Voting rights act
U.S. legislation that aimed to overcome legal barriers at the state and local levels that prevented African Americans from exercising their right to vote accorded to them under the Fifteenth Amendment to the Constitution of the U.S.
Abolition
the act of abolishing a system or practice or institution (especially abolishing slavery)
civil disobedience
breaking a law that the protestors considered unjust and being willing to go to jail for it
Which trial produced "clear and present" danger rule?
Schenk v US
Voting Rts Act 1965
proposed by Johnson. The act eliminated the literary tests, it also stated federal examiners could enroll voters who had been denied the right to vote by local officals. The number of black voters tripled in the south.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
started because of Montgomery Bus Boycott, mission was to end segregation without violence. Martin Luther King Jr. was an important member
Little Rock 9
incident in which troops (sent by president Eisenhower) helped integrate a high school by allowing nine black students to enter school peacefully and not be prevented by angry mobs.
Little Rock Nine
Nine black students who would be admitted to a white school after integration ruling.
Ruby Bridges
The first black student to ever attend an all white elementary school.
Equal Pay Act
amending the Fair Labor Standards Act, aimed at abolishing wage disparity based on sex
"Jim Crow" laws
it legalizes segregation in the south for more then 75 years
One example of the president furthering civil rights
TRUMAN desegregated the military
Plessy Vs Ferguson
Supreme Court said that "seperate but equal" facilities were constitutional.."legalized" segregation
Sweat v. Painter
state law schools must admit black applicants
Comparable Worth
the issue raised when women who hold traditionally female jobs are paid less than men for working at jobs requiring comparable skill
The Black Panthers wanted African Americans to
lead their own communities.
Andrew Goodman, James Cheney, Michael Schwerner
Murdered in Philly by policemen
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Federal agency created to enforce the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which forbids discrimination on the basis of race, creed, national origin, religion, or sex in hiring, promotion, or firing.
Voting Rights Act 1965
Ended literacy tests imposed on people to vote. Also allowed federal officals to register voters in state where local officals practiced discrmination
de jure v. de facto segregation
by law v. by chance/tradition
Separate but Equal
Jim Crow Laws: its okay to be separated as long as everything is equal
Brown v. Board of Education
Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, overturned Plessey v Ferguson.
elizabeth eckford
one of the little rock nine, who is known for a picture of her walking in the face of a mob.
how much more did the state spend on educating a white kid rather than a black?
ten times
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
The Congress of Racial Equality was formed in 1942 to help combat discrimination through nonviolent, direct action. Led by James Farmer, it organized Freedom Rides that rode throughout the south to try to force desegregation of public facilities.
'63 March on Washington
civil rights event which led to the creation of the Civil Rights Act of '64
education of all handicapped children act
ensures that all children have access to an appropriate education and related services to meet their unique needs
University of California vs. Bakke
In 1978, the supreme court ruled that a white man, Alan Bakke, had been unfairly unfairly denied admission to medical school on the basis of quotas.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
a law designed to help end formal and informal barriers to African-American suffrage. MOST IMPORTANT LEGISLATION DURING THE MOVEMENT!!!
What was Brown V. The Board of Education?
A court case that challenged segregated schooling. And that Texas and Oklahoma had failed to provide equal educational experiences.
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