Civil Rights Vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Equal Rights Amendment
student nonviolent coordinating committee. A national protest group organized by students at Shaw University and an african-american university. Even though they had everything to lose, the students were determined to challenge the system.
Selma Campaign
for voting rights
-Montgomery Improvement Association.
-group formed after the first of the bus boycott to organize and continue protest.
-Led by MLK.
-sent the bus company a list of grievances.
National Advancement for the Association of Colored People
to claim as one's right
Black Panthers
political party-fought police brutality in the ghetto
National Organization for Women, broke down barriers of discrimination, attacked stereotypes, Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Fifteenth Amendment (1870)
constitutional amendment that guarenteed voting rights to African American men
Montgomery March
an anti-segregation march in Montgomery, Alabama.
Seperation of people of different races
Amelia Boynton
Georgia activist, participated in Bloody Sunday march
NAACP (1909)
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
who killed bobby steal?
palestinian sirhan sirhan
James Meredith
First african american student at university of Mississippi
Thurgood marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
Joseph McCarthy
Senator from Wisconsin responsible for Red Scare witch hunts
Feb. 21, 1965
Malcolm X killed in Harlem
Harry Ashmore
Arkansas writer, proud of
Brown decision
Medgar Evers
Black civil rights activist, Regional Council/Comitteee of Blacks
Jus Soli
Literally meaning "right of soil", confers citizenship by place of birth.
Marcus Garvey
black leader who believed American blacks should return to Africa
use of any unreasonable and unjust criterion of exclusion
John brown
abolitionist who was hanged after leading an unsuccessful raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia (1800-1858)
24th Amendment
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
Emancipation Proclamation
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
de jure
segregation that is imposed by law
separate-but-equal doctrine
the doctrine established in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) that African Americans could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities.
De facto segregation
segregation that exists by practice and custim
earth day
A day created in 1970 about celebrating and caring for the Earth
Rosa Parks
secretary of Montgomery NAACP for 12 years; took seat in fron of white section of bus and refused to move when a white man needed seat; arrested and stood trial for violating segregration laws
lee harvey oswald
United States assassin of President John F. Kennedy (1939-1963)
Black Power Movement
Formed black studies programs in colleges, adopted more natural hairstyles, clothes, african art and music, celebrated kwanza, "black is beautiful"
Doctrine of interposition
allowed states to impose their jurisdiction over federal jurisdiction
defacto segregation
separation of races existing in fact whether with lawful authority or not
Affirmative Action
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Supreme court decides of Brown v Board of board of education " seperate but equal"
Eonomic opportunity Act
appropriated nearly 1 billion for poverty relief.
voting rights act
banned literacy tests and empowered the federal government to oversee voting registration and elections in states that had discriminated against minorities.
New Frontier
JFK's plan. Higher minimum wage, and tax cuts. Spending on military and space programs. New programs to help unemployed.
De jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
jim crow law
any state law discriminating against black residents
equality of
giving people an equal chance to succeed
"seperate but equal"
The doctrine established in Plessy v. Furgeson that African-Americans could constitutionally be kept in separate but equal facilities
Nation of Islam
Group joined by Malcolm X that preached black nationalism
Catcher in the Rye
J.D. Salinger; explored the mental anguish of a teenage boy estranged from the crass materialism of his parents
Emmett Till
Murdered in 1955 for whistling at a white woman by her husband and his friends. They kidnapped him and brutally killed him. his death led to the American Civil Rights movement.
19th Amendment
Guaranteed women the right to vote in 1920.
to bring a race of people into equal membership in a society
SNCC- Student Nonviolent Coordinating Commitee
Stokely Carmichael leads; peaceful demonstrations
Jesse jackson
leader of sit ins and strong believer of integration
intermediate scrutiny
test, used by the Supreme Court in gender discrimination cases, which places the burden of proof partially on the government and partially on the challengers to show that the law in question is constitutional
Title IX
law that stipulates that if a school accepts federal funding, it must allow the same amount of sports for men as it does for women.
Probable Cause
a reasonable basis to believe a person or premises is linked to a crime
separate but equal principle
Says separate facilities based on race is allowed as long as it is equal
Planned Parenthood v. Casey
Facts of the Case:
The Pennsylvania legislature amended its abortion control law in 1988 and 1989. Among the new provisions, the law required informed consent and a 24 hour waiting period prior to the procedure. A minor seeking an abortion required the consent of one parent (the law allows for a judicial bypass procedure). A married woman seeking an abortion had to indicate that she notified her husband of her intention to abort the fetus. These provisions were challenged by several abortion clinics and physicians. A federal appeals court upheld all the provisions except for the husband notification requirement.
Can a state require women who want an abortion to obtain informed consent, wait 24 hours, and, if minors, obtain parental consent, without violating their right to abortions as guaranteed by Roe v. Wade?
In a bitter, 5-to-4 decision, the Court again reaffirmed Roe, but it upheld most of the Pennsylvania provisions. For the first time, the justices imposed a new standard to determine the validity of laws restricting abortions. The new standard asks whether a state abortion regulation has the purpose or effect of imposing an "undue burden," which is defined as a "substantial obstacle in the path of a woman seeking an abortion before the fetus attains viability." Under this standard, the only provision to fail the undue-burden test was the husband notification requirement. The opinion for the Court was unique: It was crafted and authored by three justices.
Plessy vs. Ferguson
a case brought to supreme court by black lawsuits challenging segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"
Civil Rights Act of 1968
law that ended discrimination in housing
Montgomery Bus Boycott
The blacks in Montgomery did not take the city buses for 381 days because they wanted to have the Jim Crow laws abolished. They started this because of Rosa Parks.
FBI Oklahoma City bombing
Terrorist attack on Alfred P. Murrah Federal building in April 19,1995. 168 people killed 800 injured. Two convicted for bombing-Timothy McVeigh and Nichols, said to avange the Waco incident
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Legislation passed by congress to outlaw segregation in public facilities and racial discrimination in employment, education, and voting; created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission.
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
SC overturns Plessy v. Ferguson
separate accommodations goes against 14th amendment
overturned 14th amendment claus; separate but equal is inherently unequal
Passes a series of laws designed to protect equality: 24th amendment, civil rights act (1864), voting rights act (1864)
*daughter was not allowed to enroll in all white school
integration of schools; schools still did not integrate because no timetable was set
Brown v. Board of Education
Supreme Court case which ruled that racial segregation in public schools was unconstitutional.
Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr
Began work in the Civil Rights movement as a young minister, taught peaceful protest.
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
States that you can't be turned away from employment by race or sex.
Jim Crow
A set of laws that were set in the South for blacks and whites--there were still some laws in the North, but not as many, and there were some grey areas
Poll Tax
A special tax that must be paid as a qualification for voting. In 1964, the 24th amendment to the Constitution outlawed poll tax in national elections. In 1966 the Supreme Court declared it on constitutional in all elections.
Voting Rights Act of 1965 What
Law that says that states cannot prohibit black people from voting by any means specifically literacy tests...
National Defense Education Act (NDEA Act)
1958 - This created a multi-million dollar loan fund for college students and granted money to states for upgrading curriculum in the sciences and foreign languages.
Addie Cullins, Denise McNair, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson
the 4 girls of the 16th street bombing
How would Brown v. Board of Education be implemented?
The Supreme Court allowed the local Federal Courts to overse the end of segregation by allowing them to approve or disapprove of local desegregation plans which was to be done with all deliberate speed
bringing together
13th amendment
abolished slavery
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
over 4,000 are lynched
civil rights march on Washington
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party. an American political party created in the state of Mississippi in 1964, during the civil rights movement. It was organized by black and white Mississippians, with assistance from the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and Council of Federated Organizations (COFO), to challenge the legitimacy of the white-only regular Democratic Party.
a citizen of another country
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP)
Intermediate Standard
equal protection standard; medium state interest; sex discrimination
Dwight Eisenhower
34th president of the US
Segregation examples
separate water fountains, bathrooms, entrances, etc.
civil disobedience
nonviolent resistance to laws considered unjust
process if bringing people of different races together
civil rights
rights that guarantee all citizens equal opportunities regardless of race, religion, sex, or national origin
Literacy Tests
Practices that existed in many Southern states, whose goal was to prevent African Americans from voting. These practices asked mostly Black voters very specific questions about the Constitution before they could vote.
Voting is a ____________ in a democracy.
reverse discrimination
non-minority groups are at a disadvantage because of affirmative action
Legal Deffence Fund- Thurgood Marshall challenged and overturned many forms of discrimination.
any action, practice, or belief that reflects the racial worldview—the ideology that some races are innately superior to others
malcolm X
leader- more aggressive that mlk. leader of muslims. spokesman for islam
space race
a race to explore outer space
Fifteenth Amendment
Civil War amendment that extended suffrage to former male slaves.
Earl Warren
Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes.
Obscenity is a legal term that applies to anything offensive to morals and is often equated with the term pornography.
black nationalism
belief of militant blacks who advocate separatism from whites & forming self-governing black communities
Langston Hughes
Was a black poet and famous writer
a tactic of refusing to purchase goods or refusing to cooperate with an organization in order to protest practices that are regarded as unfair.
a sentry's command to halt and prove identity
huey newton
founder of Black Panther Party which rejected non-violence and called for violent revolution as a means of AA liberation
Women's Rights: Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 & Title IX of the Education Act of 1972 (Sexual Harassment)
Korematsu v. United States
american citizens with japanese descent could be interned and deprived of basic constitutional rights
Freedom riders
black rode buses across US- boycott bus segregation
the proportion or share of a larger number of things that a smaller group is assigned to contribute
strict scrutiny
is the discrimanatory law or action necessary to promote a compelling state interest? is the law or action narrowly tailored to meet that interest? triggered when a fundamental right or a suspect classification is involved--race
suspect classifications
classifications of people on the basis of their race or ethnicity.
Thousands of state and local laws which were passed by southern states to keep Blacks separated and in an inferior position
Jim Crow Laws
march on washington
a gathering of 250,000 in washington d.c. to show support of Kennedy's proposal of a strong civil rights bill
state action doctrine
Rule stating that only actions of state and local governments, not those of private individuals, must conform to the equal protection clause
summer of love
Height of hippie movement, summer of 1967 in Haight-Ashbuy. Ends w/ Woodstock '69
Separate but Equal
Principle upheld in Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) in which the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public facilities was legal.
equality of result
Making certain that people achieve the same result
Plessy vs. Ferguson 1896
Homer Plessy (1/8 African American) sitting in a whites only train car, went to the supreme court, "separtate but equal doctrine" was upheld
white primary
one of the means used to discourage african american voting that permitted political parties in the heavily democratic south to exclude african americans from primary elections thus depriving them of a voice in the real contests. the SC declared White primaries unconstitutional in 1944
The Assassination of MLK
April 4, 1968- James Earl Ray
J. F. Kennedy
us president who ordered the civil rights act of 1964
On February 1, 1960, a group of Black students ordered lunch at a department store called Woolworths, but following an only-white policy, the lunch-counter refused to serve the students, but the four men just stayed at the resteraunt all day.  Eventually, this led to a civil rights movement, and Woolworths changed its segregation policy.
Martin luther King, Jr
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
Brown v Board of Education
1954 supreme court decision declaring racial segregation in schools unconstitutional
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee
Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.
Detroit Riots 1967
The Detroit Riot of 1967 began when police vice squad officers executed a raid on an after hours drinking club or "blind pig" in a predominantly black neighborhoods located at Twelfth Street and Clairmount Avenue.
White Citizen's council
The political arm of the Ku Klux Klan
Plessy v Ferguson-
1896. Segregation was legal as long as "separate but equal" facilities were provided (separate facilities were rarely equal)
Literacy Test
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote
Brown vs. Board of Education
1954 S.C decision declaring racial segregation in schools unconstitutional
Maryland v Garrison
Allowed the use of evidence seized in a mistaken search for drugs.
Watts Riots of '65
Riots in LA which occurred because of police brutality & prejudice
"I Have A Dream"
speech MLK gave in front of 200,000 people in front of lincoln memorial in washington DC to promote civil rights
Equal Employment Opportunity Comission
It was an agency that was created because of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and had a purpose to ensure that everyone had the same opportunities of others when it came to employment.
Jus Sanguinus
The law of the blood or to whom you are born
Letter from a Birmingham Jail
he responds to being an outsider by explaining how he came to be there, must create tension to draw attention to the matter and get people to want to negotiate, it is ok to break unjust laws, negative peace= when everything appears to be at peace but there is tension and hate below the surface, he is disappointed that he was labeled as extreme but late goes on to like it, extremists are not necessarily bad
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP)
Founded in 1909, NAACP was among the first groups to begin advocating equal rights to African Americans through nonviolent means including protests.
largest ethinic minority in the us
Hispanics (15% of the pop) 2050 (1/4 of the pop) largest hispanic group consists of Mexican Americans (66% of hispanic pop in us)
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas I
A lawsuit filed by Linda Brown who wanted to attenend another school that accepted blacks. Like the many other civil rights cases, it wen to the supreme court who ruled the School Board wrong (9-0) due to the 14th amendment. This case was celebrated by the NAACP and brought blacks new hope.
small village
Thirteenth Amendment
abolished slavery
Asian American Political Alliance
Activists for women's rights
Ella Baker
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
who killed mlk
james earl ray
Niagara Movement
black civil rights organization founded by WEB Dubois
Protests by black college students, 1960-1961, who took seats at "whites only" lunch counters and refused to leave until served; in 1960 many young people participated in sit-ins across the South. Their success prompted the formation of the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee.
nonviolent protest-group went to a segregated facility & refused to leave
Congress of Racial Equality. Founded in 1942. Participated in activism in the South in 1960
The movement that supports political, economic, and social equality for women.
Plessy v Ferguson
Allowed separate but equal doctrine
exclusionary rule
evidence illegally seized by law enforcement in violation of a suspects right to be free from search and seizure cannot be used in a criminal prosecution
grandfather clause
only people whose grandfathers had voted before the reconstruction could vote unless they passed a wealth or literacy test
Quota system
established the maximum number of immigrants from any given country
Southern Manifesto
Document written by legislators in Congress who opposed racial integration in public places and intended to counter the Supreme Court ruling in Brown v. Board of Education.
Freedom Summer
A voters' registration drive in Mississippi turned violent when three college students (from the north) were killed. SHS students recently brought one of the killers (Killen) to justice.
an affidavit in which the prosecutor swears there is enough evidence to justify a trial
Boynton v. Virginia
The case overturned a judgment convicting an African American law student for trespassing by being in a restaurant in a bus terminal which was "whites only." It held that racial segregation in public transportation was illegal.
Violent Organizations
Nation of Islam (Malcolm X), Black Power (SNCC under Stokely Carmichael), and Black Panthers (Huey Newton and Bobby Seale)
Selma March
The Selma to Montgomery marches were three marches in 1965 that marked the political and emotional peak of the American Civil Rights Movement.
This organization ensures that discrimination does not occur in hiring or promoting workers
Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC)
Sheriff Jim Clark
co-leader of Bloody Sunday; brought brutality to his local law enforcement
Pearsall Plan
Created by Thomas Pearsall, a plan that had three points: the responsibility for assigning pupils to schools was given to local school boards, blacks were urged to accept segregation voluntarily to preserve peace, and local school boards could abolish schools if the parents objected to integration
Fannie Lou Hamer
daughter of a Mississippi share cropper who won the honor of speaking for the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
In MOntgomery alabama, 1955 what lasted for a year that made Supreme Court declare segregated buses unconstitutional?
Montgomery Bus Boycotts
Kerner Commission
group formed by President Johnson to investigate the cause of race riots.
Dee Brown
wrote bury my heart t wounded knee
Dr. Martin Luther King Jr.
African-American civil rights activist, inspired millions of people with "I Have a Dream" and "I've been to the Mountain Top" speeches
Brown v. Board
Federal district court ruling upheld Plessy, SC overturned Plessy, ended segregated schools in Topeka
Laurie Pritchett
Police chief of Albany, Georgia who arrested and jailed all of the nonviolent protesters in his city
Albany Movement
considered by some to be a "failure" of the civil rights movement; lessons learned here informed the campaign in Birmingham
compelling interest
if the government needs to deny a civil right or protection there must be a good reason or no other way to achieve the need than by making that restriction
Heart of Atlanta Motel v. U.S.
-places of "PUBLIC ACCOMMODATION" had NO RIGHT to discriminate
dred scott vs. sanford
Supreme court case supporting that slaves were considered property
Plessy v. Ferguson
Supreme Court case allowed laws to discriminate against African Americans, said separate but equal is OK
Craig v. Boren (1976)
Gender discrimination can only be justified of it serves "important governmental objective" and be "substantially related to those objectives"
Ku Klux Klan
a racial group that donned white cloaks and hunted blacks
One of the most influential leaders in the American Campaign for Civil Rights all across the country.
black panther party
group formed in oakland california in 1966
Watts Riots
riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California
Lunch Counters
Where black people sit in the white only lunch counter. This is a good way of using non-violence but still getting the point across.
Anyone in the US who is neither a citizen nor a national
freedom of
right of people to speak, publish, and assemble
Booker T. Washington
Ex slave, with the benefit of an education. Said- "Agitating for equality was the extremist folly."
herman badillo
puerto rican elected as nyc to be the first representive in congress
sit in
a form of protest in which people sit and refuse to leave
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Federal law that increased government supervision of local election practices, suspended the use of literacy tests to prevent people from voting, usually African Americans.
Little Rock Nine
In September 1957 the school board in Little rock, Arkansas, won a court order to admit nine African American students to Central High a school with 2,000 white students. The governor ordered troops from Arkansas National Guard to prevent the nine from entering the school. The next day as the National Guard troops surrounded the school, an angry white mob joined the troops to protest the integration plan and to intimidate the AA students trying to register. The mob violence pushed Eisenhower's patience to the breaking point. He immediately ordered the US Army to send troops to Little Rock to protect and escort them for the full school year.
United Steelworkers v. Weber
Kaiser Aluminum was sued for reverse discrimination, but the courts ruled that it was a private company and could set its own policies
MLK Assassination
He was shot at the Lorraine Motel in Memphis.
Ray killed him. He was there for marches for sanitation workers.
Grand Jury
A formal device by which a person may be accused of a serious federal crime.
Martin Luther King, Jr.
SCLC founder, he won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1964
Literacy tests, grandfather clause, poll taxes, White primaries
Literacy tests: Voters had to prove basic literacy to be entitled to vote. Because of poor schools, Blacks were often prevented from voting. Grandfather clause: Said that a person could vote only if their grandfather had been registered to vote, which disqualified Blacks whose grandparents had been slaves. Poll taxes and White primaries were other methods used to keep Blacks from voting.
Affirmative Action can be described as all of the
legal discrimination against minority groups
National Organization for Women (N.O.W.)
Betty Friedan led this group that was founded to work for equal opportunities for women. They filed against gender discrimination and mobilized public opinion against the sexism in America.
1875 (Civil Rights Act of 1875)
Last law passed by Congress to guarantee full civil rights to African-Americans until 1957 when Congress passed 1st 20th century civil rights act
World War II helped shape civil rights
demand for soldiers created more jobs for blacks, blacks in the armed forces, voting rights
What was the big deal about bills passed between 1957 and 1968?
There were 5 passed, 3 of which were voting rights
One was anti-discrimination for housing
The Civil Rights Bill in 1964 dealt with voting, employment, schooling, and public accommodations
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