Civil War Battles Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Fredericksburg
Victor:Confederacy
Significance:Burnside is replaced by Hooker,
Vicksburg - State
Mississippi
Chancellorsville
Virginia
May 1-4, 1863
when was appomattox
april 9,1865
the wilderness
Virginia
May 5-30, 1864
antietam
bloodiest single day of fighting/confederate loss/great britian and france will not support the confederacy
Gettysburg
U: Meade, (Chamberlain)
C: Lee, Longstreet, (Pickett)
shiloh
-Named after a church
-Union victory
-Means place of Peace
-Lasted 2 days
-20,000 casualties
Petersburg
This railroad junction south of Richmond was the site of a 10 month standoff between Lee's and Grant's troops. The Union tried to defeat the Confederacy with explosives at the Battle of the Crater, but the plan backfired. The Union eventually broke through the Confederate line, sending Lee on the run and allowing the Union to capture the city and Richmond in April of 1865.
vicksburg
when asked for conditions of surrender, grant said the town must surrender unconditionally, thus earning the nickname "unconditional surrender grant"
Aboiut how many casualties in gettysburg
50,000
Monitor
Which Ironclad ship fought the Virginia at Hampton Roads?
Antietam (R)
Union. Bloodiest day in American history. established new war goal: free the slaves; Emancipation Proclamation - freed only the slaves in confederate states which were still in rebellion against the Union. European nations didn't suport the Conf. after defeat.
Chattanooga
Nov. 1863, TN, reinforced with troops Grant pushes Southern troops back preparing for an assault on Atlanta th heart of the confederacy
where was monitor vs. marrimack
hampton roads, virginia
manassas
another name for the first bull run
2nd Bull Run
Pope is replaced by McClellan
Siege of Petersburg
important because of supply, rail, communications center, and connected to Richmond. This siege utilizes "trench warfare". UNION WINS AT A HIGH COST!!
Richmond
Gen. Ulysses S Grant took the capital and it was burned
Confederate's Weaknesses
* Less population and $
* Less railroad which meant it was lees food for troops
* Only 1 factory to produce goods
Battle of Gettysburg
Pickett charged across Union Line "Picketts Charge"
*turning point*
2nd Bull Run (Manassas)
Confederate Victory, Decisive Battle of N. Virginia Campaign
Atlanta
Sherman's "gift" to Lee - beginning of his "march to the sea"
Emancipation Proclamation
January 1, 1863. All slaves in rebelling states were set free by Abraham Lincoln
Seven Days Battle
- Date: June/July 1862
-State: Virginia
-Generals: McClellan, Jackson
-Winner: Confederates
-Other: McClellan was replaced by Henry
1st Bull Run
Date: July 21st, 1861 in Virginia. Leaders: Union - McDowell Confederacy - Beauregard, Jackson, Johnston. Significance: Union army retreats to Washington. McDowell replaced with McClellan.
vicksberg
The battle, a turning point in the war , which determined who controled the mississippi River was
Date and place at Bull Run (Manassas)
July 21, 1861
March to the Sea
victory for Sherman burned Atlanta captured Savannah; Georgia May 1864
Battle of the Wilderness
both sides fired on their own people--> intense smoke and fog. Longstreet was shot here, and union continued to pursue Lee, even after heavy losses
Monitor vs Merrimac
march 1862, Virginia, this is the 1st ironclad battle to end in a draw, but the union blockade was still kept in tact
1st Battle of Bull Run (Manassas)
Confederate Victory, Convinced Lincoln administration War would be long and costly
Northern strategy
blockade the ports in the south to cut off supplies, take control of the Mississippi River and take control of the capital, Richmond
Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
feb. 1862,TN, Grant captures these two forts on the TN river and Cumberland river
advantages of the S
fighting for a cause they believed in, home field advantage
Shiloh - State
Tennessee
April, 1861
(Date) Ft. Sumter
Who won fort sumtner
Cofederacy
new orleans
april 18-29, 1862
Shiloh (R)
Union. Johnston is killed.
how many casualties in vicksburg
unknown!
July 1-3, 1863
(Date) Battle of Gettysburg
How many casualties in Fort sumter
NONE!!!!
Turning point, 3 day battle
Gettysburg- Union
Bull Run I
July 21,1861, Northern Virginia, McDowell vs. Johnston, South victory with union troops fleeing back to Washington in disarray, aka Manassas, first battle
generals at monitor vs. merrimack
worden buchanan jones
Terms of Surrender
southern soldiers could take their possessions and horses, not be punished as traitors, had to leave guns and supplies, higher ranking officers can take their weapons
Bull Run
First Battle of the Civil War
Union attacked Beaurguard but Stonewall came to help him
Northerners now knew this war would not be short
CONFEDERATE VICTORY
Fort Sumter
federal outpost in Charleston that was attacked by Confederate troops in the beginning of the Civil War
Destruction of Richmond
Lee leaves Petersburg and heads to Richmond. Richmond was on fire, and confed. Pres. Jefferson Davis had to abandon city. Grant and Lee met at Appomattox Court House and Lee surrendered.
New Orleans (R)
Union. Cut off valueable Conf. port city and closed mouth of Mississippi.
Second Battle of Bull Run or Manassas
Union was defeated
Glorietta Pass
Union Victory, Turning point of war in N. Mexico Territory, Secures western territory for Union
7 Days' Battle
5 battles fought in Richmond over 7 days
Forts Henry and Donelson
Grant used gunboats and army maneuvers to capture ___ on the Cumberland River. Part of the campaign for control of Mississippi river. 14,000 Confederates taken prisoner, great win for union, opened up Mississippi for attack
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
Southern strategy
wait for the north to give up, get help from Britain and France, capture Washington, D.C.
Ft. Henry & Ft. Donelson
Grant captured Henry by Fleet and Donelson by capturing it
He was named "Unconditional Surrender"
UNION VICTORY
First Battle of Bull Run
First "real" battle of the Civil War, it was expected by Union officials to be short but ended up a Confederate victory; showed that both sides needed training and the war would be long and bloody
Antietam - State
Maryland
Anderson
(Union guy) Ft. Sumter
Who won bull run
Confederacy
Gettysburg - Year
2nd in 1863
When was Fort Sumter
April 12-14,1861
Shenandoah
U: Sheridan
C: Jubal Early
September, 1862
(Date) Battle of Antietam/ Sharpsburg
Monitor and the Merrimack
Two American warships
advantages of the N
population, industry, wealth
Sherman March
1864, GA, This general destroys Atlanta and the sends troops on 300 mile destructive MARCH to the sea
when was monitor vs. marrimack
march 9, 1862
savannah
the city was captured by general william t sherman
7 days
South use theatrics to fool McClellan
August, 1862
(Date) 2nd Battle of Bull Run/ Manassas
Battle of Shiloh
* April 6, 1862
* Tennessee
* Confederate= General Albert Johnston
*Surprised Grant (Union Gen.)
*2nd Union army appeared and Union won
The the first human casualty of the civil war occured in
Baltimore
General George McClellan
which Union commander at Antietam directed a poorly planned and disorganized attack?
Cold Harbor
Lee built trenches on both sides w/ rivers protecting both flanks, very heavy casualties, men knew they were going to die, 4 weeks of fighting
Little Round Top
fought over viscously on the second day of Gettysburg by both sides for control to win the battle
chickamagua
marked the end of a union offensive in sout eastern tenessee and north western georgia. called the chickamagua campaign. the most significant union defeat in the western theatre and was the second highest casualities in the war. only major confederate victory. after this was sherman's march to the sea. union victory
Battle of Antietam/ Sharpsburg
Bloodiest 1-day battle in war; stopped Lee's northward advance
Battle of Fort Sumter
-First battle of the civil war
-South won
-one confederate horse
-expectation-short and bloodless
7 Days (Peninsula Campaign)
Date: July 21-July 1, 1862 in Maryland. Leaders: Union - McClellan. Conf. - Lee, Jackson, Stuart. McClellan goes south to attack Virginia. Conf. attacks, McClellan forced to retreat. Significance: Richmond saved. McClellan replaced with John Pope.
Ending of the Civil War
Richmond was the capital of the Confederacy and was constantly under attack by Union forces. Grant captured Richmond and half of the city was destroyed by fire. Appomattox Court House, Virginia at the McLean home; Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered his army to Union General Ulysses S. Grant.
Fredericksburg - State
Virginia
Generals at Antietam
N=McClellan; S=Lee
April, 1865
(Date) End of War
Fredericksburg - Year
4th in 1862
Battle of Chancellorsville
NORTH
-commander=General "fighting" Joe Hooker
SOUTH
-commander=General Lee
Importance
Thomas "stonewall" Jackson, the right hand man for Lee, died of pneumonia there
SOUTH WON
Battle of Fredericksburg
Pyrrhic Victory for CSA
Chancellorsville "Lee's Masterpiece"
-Conf won
-Virginia
-May 1-4, 1863
-Union-Hooker Conf-Lee, Jackson
1. devastating to North
2. Jackson died from shot in the arm
3. Hooker is replaced by Meade
4. Gave Lee and Conf confidence
About how many casualties to bull run?
4,000
secession
formal separation from an alliance or federation, the withdrawal of eleven Southern states from the Union in 1860 which precipitated the American Civil War
Total War
Destroy both military and civilian resources and make enemy unable to fight
Loss
(Union Win or Loss) Battle of Bull Run/ Manassas
Atlanta (R)
Union. New Union goal after Atlanta: Sherman would "march to the sea" dividing the Conf. north to south.
Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson
Victor:Union
Significance:Opens up the Tennessee River for the Union to travel to Alabama, and allows Union troops to march into Nashville.
Fort Henry & Fort Donelson
3. Feb. 1862, Tennessee: Union
anaconda plan
the union plan to win. squeezing the south. tae capitol. surround the south and then cut in two
Peninsula Campaign
came in between Bull Run I and Bull Run II
Battle of Chickamauga
Rosecran attacked Bragg
Day 1) No one gained land
Day 2) Union retreated
Bragg did not pursue enemy
CONFEDERATE VICTORY
Battle of Gettysburg: Day 2
Gen. Chamberlain (union) was at Little Round Top and John Bell Hood (confed) and Sickles (union) were at Devil's Den. Fighting in the Wheat field, Peach Orchard, Emmitsburg Rd. and Cemetery Ridge
what were some of the confederates strengths
officers, cotton, more experienced soldiers
Shermans March to the Sea
Gen. Sherman of the North marches from Atlanta to the ocean destroying everything in his path. TOTAL WAR mindset
Sherman's March
Victor:Union
Significance:Total Warfare, southern land destroyed, helps Lincoln get elected, freed many slaves
Appomattox Courthouse
April 9, 1865
where was bull run
manassas
Grant
(Union guy) Siege of Vicksburg
Chattanooga & Chickamauga
Victor:Union
Significance:Union gets in position to take Atlanta.
Fredricksburg
came in between Antietam and Chancellorsville
April 9, 1865
When did Lee surender?
Atlanta burned
Sept 2, 1864- sherman's march
appomattox
lee surrenders to grant at small courthouse in virginia on april 9, 1865
February 1861
Montgomery- 7 states make the constitution
Jefferson Davis is named the CSA President
Fredericksburg (R)
Confederate. Low point for Union morale. Burnside replaced with Hooker.
The Ironclads
against ships Draw. virginia and monitor, off of Chesapeake bay,IMPACT- changes navel tech.
Battle of Vicksburg
1863, Union gains control of Mississippi, confederacy split in two, Grant takes lead of Union armies, total war begins
Battle/Fall of Vicksburg
50,000 casualties. South general, John Pemberton surrenders to U.S Grant. Mississippi goes to Union.
outcome of vicksburg
union won and separated the confederacy
peninsular campaign
a major union operation. the first large scale offensive in the eastern theatre. an attempt to capture the confederate capitol of richmond
Battle of Ft. Henry
4,300 casualties. First Union victory. Gives Kentucky and Tennessee to Union.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
a novel published by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1852 which portrayed slavery as brutal and immoral
Now, fix me
she's ready for burial, ready to die.
First Bull Run
Rebel Yell; 1861 battle in which the South shocked the North with a victory; Manassas
second bull run
a battle which marked the emergence of lee as an army commander. confederate victory.
Battle of Pea Ridge/ Elkhorn Tavern
Gave Union upper hand in MO
What Happened at Antietam
N had 100k men; S had 50k. 24k casualties (11k for N, 13k for S). Standoff-kept England out and Emancipation Proclamation.
war in the west
north
Wilderness
UN=Grant/Meade & CS=Lee Inconclusive (Grant offensive)
First stand between Grant & Lee, Union doesn't retreat
Appomattox Court House
Lee surrendered to Grant
This battle was a Confederate surprise attack
Shiloh
the north
who won the battle at vicksburg?
no one
who won the the battle at seven pines?
Chancelorville
From April 30 to May 6 in 1863, a major battle was fought in Spotsylvania County, Virginia. The Unions army of Potomac, lead by Joseph Hooker, largely outnumbered Lee's Confederate Army of Northern Virginia. Is known as Lee's "perfect battle" since his sucessful division of troops againist an army double his size. The Confederates won by a huge victory, yet "Stonewall" Jackson was mortally injured in this battle.
SIEGE OF VICKSBURG
six-week long effort by the Union to cut off supplies to this Virginia city in order to gain control of the Mississippi River; Confederates surrender the city and Union control of the river cuts Confederacy in half (May-July 1863)
Chickamauga and Chattanooga
after leaving a huge gap in the Union lines at this battle, Confederate forces were able to attack and force the retreat of the entire Union army.
The Battle of Gettysburg
July 1-3, 1863 Who: Gen. Robert E. Lee (Confederate) and Maj. Gen. George G. Meade (Union) Union victory!
Gen. Robert E. Lee concentrated his full strength against Maj. Gen. George G. Meade's Army of the Potomac at the crossroads county seat of Gettysburg.
7/1: Confederate forces converged on the town from west and north, driving Union defenders back through the streets to Cemetery Hill. During the night, reinforcements arrived for both sides.
7/2: Lee attempted to envelop the Federals, first striking the Union left flank at the Peach Orchard, Wheatfield, Devil's Den, and the Round Tops with Longstreet's and Hill's divisions, and then attacking the Union right at Culp's and East Cemetery Hills with Ewell's divisions. By evening, the Federals retained Little Round Top and had repulsed most of Ewell's men.
7/3: During the morning, the Confederate infantry were driven from their last toe-hold on Culp's Hill. In the afternoon, after a preliminary artillery bombardment, Lee attacked the Union center on Cemetery Ridge. The Pickett-Pettigrew assault (more popularly, Pickett's Charge) momentarily pierced the Union line but was driven back with severe casualties. Stuart's cavalry attempted to gain the Union rear but was repulsed.
7/4: Lee began withdrawing his army toward Williamsport on the Potomac River. His train of wounded stretched more than fourteen miles.
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