Civil War Flashcards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
perpetual
everlasting
union capital
washington D.C.
edwin m. stanton
impeached jackson
Names for the north
-bluecoats
-union
north advantages
1:larger population
2:more factorys and weapons
3:better transportation
4:better navy
united states christian commission
encouraged the union
battle of gettysburg generals
union-george g. meade
confederates-robert e. lee
battle of fredricksburg generals
union-Ambrose e. burnside
confederacy-robert e. lee
Ironclad
warship covered with protective iron plates
Union victory that started with Confederates looking for shoes and ended with Pickett's Charge
Gettysburg
Stand Watie
Last Confederate General to surrender in Oklahoma Territory
secede
withdraw formally from membership in a federal union, an alliance, or a political or religious organization
Battle of Shiloh
Confederate forces suprised union troops & drove them across the Tennesee river; union got backup and won the battle but it was one of the most bloody battles in the civil war
Abraham Lincoln
Little experience in politics or military matters; in time proved to be a patient but strong leader & a fine war planner; Gained respect day by day
battle with the greatest number of overall casualties
Gettysburg
What new state joined the U.S.?
West Virginia
Robert E. Lee
-Leader of Confederate Army
-Lincoln asked him to be leader of the Union, but he didn't want to be against VA
-Great leader, plus led the Confederate Army for four years
-Didn't like slavery
West Virginia
48 virginia counties sided with the North
General Ulysses S. Grant
General of the Union forces
harpers ferry
john brown and group of abolitionists captured a federal arsenal located there
King Cotton
cotton was called king because cotton was important to the world market, and the South grew most of the cotton for Europe's mills.
Who was a against succession? (besides Abraham Lincoln)
Sam Houston
Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
10% plan
said a southern state could organize a government when 10% of the people had taken an oath
Clara Barton
founder of the American Red Cross, was a teacher and a nurse at the same time, or at least was both at one point
dred scott v. sandford
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that livig in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitional
Border State
a slave state that remained in the Union during the Civil War (Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, Kentucky, and West Virginia)
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
strategy for this side at the start of the war included fighting defensively and gaining European recognition
Southern
Fort Sumter, South Carolina
What battle began the Civil War?
reconstruction era
period after the Civil war when the US was trying to rebuild the South (physically) and the country ("symbolically")
appomattox court house
ended the war, where robert e. lee surrendered to ulyssess s. grant
Confederate States of America
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
Battle of Antietam
Civil War battle in which the North suceedeed in halting Lee's Confederate forces in Maryland. Was the bloodiest battle of the war resulting in 25,000 casualties
actor who shot Lincoln and was killed before he could be brought to court
John Wilkes Booth
Battle of Gettysburg
During what major battle did the North repel Lee's invasion?
What happened on February 8, 1861?
The Montgomery Convention was held, and the Confederate Constitution was written. A new nation was formed, and the constitution included giving more power to the states, and preserving slavery.
What happened at the 2nd Texas secession convention?
Texas quickly approved the confederate constitution, and created a new Texas constitution (1861), and ordered all government officials to take an oath to the Confederate States of America.
Why did Robert E. Lee surrender?
-No longer could the South win
-Army was hungry and weak
-Little to eat or drink
-Didn't want any more deaths
-The North captured Richmond
Explain the beginning of the Civil War.
Early in 1861, the Union captured all arsenals, forts, and navy yards within the Southern borders, and refused to evacuate Ft. Sumter (Charleston, South Carolina). The first shot was made by the Confederacy in Ft. Sumter
freedmen
freed slaves
dates
1861 to 1865
amnesty act
restored confederates rights
south advantages
1:better generals
2:better calvary
3:home field advantages
4:fighting to reserve their way of life
15th
gave freedmen the right to vote
battle of antietam generals
union-george. b mcclellan
confederate-robert e. lee
confederate capital
montgomery, alabama, then richmond, virginia and then danville, virginia
Thirteenth Amendment
The constitutional amendment ratified after the Civil War that forbade slavery and involuntary servitude.
side that had greater motivation, better military leaders, and the 'home-field' advantage
Southern
Seven Days Battle
Lee thwarted McClellan at Richmond,Virginia
winfield scott
union army, made the anaconda plan
Fort Sumnter
Fort attacked by South Carolina starting the Civil War. (April 12, 1861)
Four boarder states
Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland & Missouri
most Civil War soldiers were killed by
diseases
vicksburg
a decisive battle in the American Civil War (1863)
New South
a region of modern industry and commerce
sharecropper farming
landlords paid little for farmers to work their land
copperheads
democrats in the north that wanted the war to end right away
disease
killed off more men than the actual battles
Anaconda Plan
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
popular sovereignty
The concept that political power rests with the people who can create, alter, and abolish government. People express themselves through voting and free participation in government
54th Massachusetts Regiment
one of the first African-American regiments organzied to fight for the union in the Civil War
What caused the Civil War? (North)
~opposed slavery (abolitionists)~
~Westward expansion (opposed the extension of slavery)~
~ The Kansas Nebraska Act of 1854 aggravated them~
~Wanted to preserve the Union~
~Blamed the Southern Democrats for the economic depression~
Jefferson Davis
Who was President of the Confederate States of America?
civil service
made sure there was honesty in the government
Matthew Brady
changed people's view on the war with his war pictures, often risked his life to take pictures, was a photographer, before photos existed drawings were made to look heroic
Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson
nickname is stonewall because he stood like a stone wall against the union during Bull Run 1. He was on the confederate side. He died by a gunshot wound to his arm by his own men while they were make a reconnaissance of a region on May 2. He died from pneumonia 8 days later on May 8, 1863.
Ulysses S. Grant
an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869-1877). He achieved international fame as the leading Union general in the American Civil War.
Anacoda Plan
"Squeeze" and "Choke" the South out of its resources through blockades of bodies of water
income tax
Tax paid to the state, federal, and local governments based on income earned over the past year.
Who was the president of the U.S. during this time?
Abraham Lincoln
What are 4 north advantages in the beginning of the war?
Navy,Money,Factories,and Transportation.
wilderness campaign
Grant led his men through the woods to fight Lee
dred scott
enslaved man who tried to sue for his freedom
battle of bull run
either of two battles during the American Civil War (1861 and 1862)
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.
general who offered command of all the Union armies but chose to fight on the Confederate side
Robert E. Lee
Join the Union Army
After the signing of the Emancipation Proclamation what did many freed slaves do?
sparked revival among southern troops
trials of war and testimony of Jackson
What caused the Civil War? (South)
~Depended on slavery for the economy~
~Opposed tariffs on imports and exports~
~Sectionalism~
~State's rights~
~Lincoln was elected president~
Savannah, GA
Charleston, SC
New Orleans, LA
List 3 Southern port cities that faced a Union blockade during the Civil War.
What were the 3 strategies for the north?
Capture south's capital (Richmond), Naval Blockade, Gained control of the Mississippi River.
What did Lincoln say about secession?
He thought that the states had no right to secede, that the Union was perpetual, and vowed to carry out the law in all states, and to preserve the nation at all costs.
how did the North and South finance the war?
they raised taxes, made war bonds, and created a cheap currency not backed by gold or silver
Chancellorseville
lee defeated Hooker
Conscription
a military draft
Merimac
first Confederate ironclad ship
medical technology
no knowledge, barbaric methods
Names for the south
-greycoats
-Johnny rebs
-rebels
-confederates
compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river
battle of chancelorsville generals
union-joseph hooker
confederate-robert e. lee
the President of the Confederacy
Jefferson Davis
General Hooker
badly beaten at battle of Chancellorsville, Virginia
54th massachusetts
first all-black regiment which was helped formed by frederick douglass, made up of african american volunteers
Abraham Lincon
President during civil war ended slavery
1861-1865
The American Civil War was fought during these years. It began with the firing on Fort Sumter and ended with the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House almost four years later.
battle that gave the Union complete control of the Mississippi River
Vicksburg
william t. sherman
an American soldier, businessman, educator, and author. He served as a general in the Union Army during the American Civil War (1861-65), for which he received recognition for his outstanding command of military strategy and criticism for the harshness of the "scorched earth" policies that he implemented in conducting total war against the Confederate States
freedmens bureau
provided for all people (and races) who lost everything in the war
ruthford b. hayes
ended hostilities between north and south
Robert Shaw
colonel of the all-black 54th regiment who joined the civil war in 1863 and he was shot and Ft. Wagner
ft. sumter battle
started the civil war, confederates won
blockade
a war measure that isolates some area of importance to the enemy
Siege Of Vicksburg
1863 Union army's blockade of Vicksburg, Mississippi, that led the city to surrender during the Civil War
Fourteenth Amendment
an amendment to the Constitution of the United States adopted in 1868
side that invaded to help out their farmers, gain European support, and threaten the other capitol
Northern
President lincoln
- 1st president to be assassinated
-Southerners didn't like himm because he wanted to end slavery
-1863 wrote emancipation proclomation that freed slaves.
-goals for war: preserve union, reunite U.S., wanted N&S to get along
-wanted to rebuild south (it was all bombed out)
-did not reach goals because he was assassinated 5days after the civil war.
martial law
is a form of military rule that includes suspending bill of rights freedoms
causes of the civil war
president lincolns election, slavery opinions, abolitionists
Uncle Toms Cabin
written by harriet beecher stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Fugitive Slave Act
Law that provided for harsh treatment for escaped slaves and for those who helped them
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
side that offered a 'bounty' of up to $300 for men willing to join the army
North
Fourteen Amendment
It states that no state can make or enforce any law which "deprives any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law." Also, states could not "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws." This was passed to help blacks since the Civil Rights laws were not being enforced.
The 11 states that seceded formed the...
Confederate States of America
march to the sea
Sherman's march to Savannah which cut off confederate supplies received by the sea
south's military strategy
to wear out the better equipped foe so they would extend the duration of the war which would make it to expensive
changes in technology that resulted in weapons with greater range and accuracy
Rifled Musket and Minie Ball.
north wins the civil war
general lee of the south was running out of troops and food so he went to appotomax court house to get soldiers and supplies but general grant of the north surrounded lee and his troops by surprise and forced lee into surrendering to grant
First Battle of Bull Run
First "real" battle of the Civil War, it was expected by Union officials to be short but ended up a Confederate victory
What did women do during the civil war?
-took care of farms and factories.
-some became spies
-some became nurses
-cared for soldiers who were hurt
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