Civil War Reconstruction Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Union General
Washington, DC
union capital
freed men/women (johnson)
black codes
Election of 1872
Grant wins again
The Civil Right Bills were
changes or additions to the Constitution
Emancipation Proclamation
Lincoln's 1863 declaration freeing slaves in the Confederacy
Another economic achievement for the State Gov'ts was ? Reconstruction.
rebuilding of the former Confederate states
Closing off an area with ships
An iron-clad vessel built by Union forces to do battle with the Merrimack 1862
-Dems: hated tariffs, strong in south, immigrants, Lutheran, Catholics, anti-govt, cities
a machine that sends electric signals over wires
When the Confederates slowed to a walk, the cannon exploded and ? them
Election of 1868 and 1872
Grant is elected
act of wearing down by constant harassment or attack
Conscription Act
-South was desperate for troops and forced people into drafting
a negative term Southerners gave to Northerners also referred to as Yankees, who moved to the South during the Reconstruction era
Military Reconstruction
In response to white efforts to undermine Reconstruction, the fed. gov't established military rule over the former confederate states
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
Freed slaves
Which Americans were supposed to be helped by the 13the, 14th, and 15th amendments to the Constitution?
Andrew Johnson
A Southerner form Tennessee, as V.P. when Lincoln was killed, he became president. He opposed radical Republicans who passed Reconstruction Acts over his veto. The first U.S. president to be impeached, he survived the Senate removal by only one vote
black codes
Southern laws designed to restrict the rights of the newly freed black slaves
Humanitarian Explanation
Believed the freedmen, armed with the vote, would be better able to protect his family from white hostility in the South
Grapeshot, Metal
The Union forces loaded their cannons with ?, but they didn't have enough, so they started putting anything ? into them
A person who works fields rented from a landowner and pays the rent and repays loans by turning over to the landowner a share of the crops. You usually go into debt and cant come out.
The Wilderness Campaign
Grant pursues Lee and constantly engages Confederat forces. Lee finally surrenders to Grant.
Panic of 1873
This event triggered an unprecedented five year economic depression with unemployment rates as high as 15%.
54th Massachusetts Infantry
-best known black fighting unit
-led by Robert G. Shaw, they all died a heroic death attackaing a Confed fort
-most black soldiers only got to do menial grunt work and were mistreated and died of disease instead of combat
John Wilkes Booth
assassinator of Lincoln, he partly caused the 13th amendment have to be ratified by the states
Johnson's Reconstruction Plan
It called for special state conventions which were required to repeal the decreres of seccesion, and ratify the slave freeing 13th amendment and some people who paid could be pardoned
Who gave the Gettysburg Address? How long was it?
Lincoln; three minutes
Civil Rights Bill
Conferred on blacks the priviledge of American citizenship and struck at the Black Codes
Ku Klux Klan
What organization was created in the south to threaten freed slaves and thier supporters?
Plessy vs. Ferguson
court case declares separate but equal facilities for blacks were legal
describe Johnson's background
southerner (not a planter, but former slave owner) from newly-admitted Tennessee comes from very botton of white society in south
...hates planters and slaves (in order to make the speration b/w them and slaves bigger
Senate, National
Lincoln was nominated by the party to be the U.S. ? candidate. In this campaign, he obtained a ? rep
Confederate territory
Lincoln said that "all slaves in ?? territory shall be free.
Draft riots
Fights braking out in New York because the citizens were angry of being drafted into the military
Fort Sumter
a Union fort in the harbor of Charleston, SC
The North was superior in
firearms, manpower and economic resources
Freedmen's Bureau Established
was a U.S. federal government agency that aided distressed refugees and freedmen (freed slaves) in 1865-1872, during the Reconstruction era of the United States.
William T. Sherman
general who led The March to the Sea
Civil War and Reconstruction
(April 1860-1877)
- Both South and North thought that the war would be short
- April 15, 1861 Lincoln called for states to provide 75,000 volunteers to fight war
-- VA, TE, NC, and AR declared secession in respond
describe revisionist view of reconstruction
reconstruction was not a tragedy, instead it was a great and noble experiment in racial justice on a large scale in American history
disclaimer: there are examples of corruption & blundering hypocracy during reconstruction, however it was the 1st attempt to so this and was a nobel experiment
Battle of Gettysburg
Happens in summer of 63, TURNING POINT of the war, 3 day battle between 60,000 a piece
War, Economy
The EP was a ? measure aimed to disrupt the Southern ?
A Confederate soldier
In Sherman's sweep, who did he never see?
Dred Scott
He claimed in court that he had become a free person by living in free territory for several years.
Plessy VS Ferguson
a case that was brought to supreme court by black lawsuits to challenge the legality of segregation. The court ruled that segregation was legal as long as it was "equal"
Panic of 1878 and Cheap money
(bad for creditors) (too much expansion) ppl took out loans (unable to pay back) (businesses close) (Causes inflation)
-- Hard money wins and call for silver
-- Resumption Act of 1875: w/draw greenbacks
what happened between Lincoln's election in fall of 1860 and when he took office in march?
the south beleived they were without representation -began to succeed from union (11 confed states left)
Southern Retreat, 1863-65
What was the 3rd stage of the war called?
Lincoln's Plan for the South
The 10% Plan which included amnesty- which let a southern state form a new government if 10% of its voters swore loyalty to the union, and amnesty let the confederates swore loyalty to the union to be pardoned; although this didn't apply to confederate leaders
Fourteenth Amendment and its provisions
It fixed provision of the Civil Rights Bill: full citizenship to all native-born or naturalized Americans, including former slaves and immigrants
what are the 2 diff views of reconstruction?
1. tragic era historians
2. revisonist historians
Civil Rights Act of 1866
Passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition.
What happened at the battle of Palmito Ranch
Confederacy won but surrender had already taken place 5 weeks earlier
describe the irony of southern planters refusing to grow food (instead of tabacco) & why they refused to grow food
why: they thought they could make a profit of tabacco after south won war -but south never could win war
IRONY: these planters would benefit most from a southern victory
Battle of Antietam September 17, 1862
Bloodiest day of the Civil War. The South was convinced that their entry to Maryland would start a uprising towards secession-- this never happens. **The South realizes they will never get the Border States**
what was Rep party's worst fear that was realized?
Sam tilden (candidate of southern Dem south party of treason) won popular vote defeating Rep candidate Rutherfor B. Hayes
He would lead an army to defeat General Lee's soldiers and capture Richmond. At the same time, General Sherman's army would attack Atlanta.
What was General Grant's plan to end the war?
Desribe how UNITY (or lack of) is one of the reasons for the south's retreat
South was NOT united in Confed cause ...had unity probs far worse than North
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