civil war words Flashcards

Terms Definitions
dismayed
discouraged
south
wanted slavery
strategy
a careful plan
June 8th
Tennessee secedes.
Confederate states
Southern States
cultural
the way people live
Militant defense of slavery
ratify
to give official approval to
Anti-slavery
Was Abraham anti-slavery or pro-slavery?
2 ironclad vessels
monitor and merrimac
freedom
the condition of being free
Rose O'Neal Greenhow
female spy for CSA
Andersonville
worst Confederate prison camp in Georgia
July 1863, Union: Grant, Confederate: Pemberton, Is an impenetrable fort on the Mississippi, Grant starves the town into surrendering, and Confederacy split in two.
Vicksburg
Explain the significance of William Tecumseh Sherman.
c
William Lloyd Garrison
abolitionist; Liberator; fought slavery
abolitionist
person who wanted to end slavery
whiskey fraud
distillers joined with treasury offices to get around whiskey tax
South.
Which side had a right to secede?
Harriet tubman
possibly the most famous "conductor" on the underground railroad. helped over 300 slaves escape to freedom, being a former slave herself.
shrapnel
fragments of an exploding shell or bomb
Union
The northern states in the civil War
Union's first comander, fired by Lincoln, rehired, then fired again, "Lil Mac," "Young Napolean," and lost election of 1864.
George McClellan
Abraham Lincoln
Republican; felt slavery was morally wrong, wanted no slavery in the territories
vicksburg
7/63- same time as gettysburg. high cliffs over mountain, 250 mil stretch of missi. river. grant attempts overland assault. csa general nathan bedford forrest attacks grant repeatedly. at the yazoo delta=stream of vicksburg. grant resupplies, , and traps himself in vicksburg, lays siege for 2 and a half months and union wins b/c vicksburg surrenders!
North
Known as Union. President was Abraham Lincoln
Abe lincoln
President during Civil war wrote emancipation Proclamation, freed slaves, etc.
George McClellan
extremely cautious Union general who had previously been in the Mexican War and observed the Crimean War
Compromise of 1850
California admitted as free state
advantages for the north
factories, resources, and wealth
manpower
transportation
control of the water
Dysentery
A disease where the intestine becomes infected and was spread easily in camps
General lee surrendered to
general grant of the union
jeff davis
who was the president of the confederacy?
Stonewall Jackson
general in the Confederate Army during the Civil War whose troops at the first Battle of Bull Run stood like a stone wall (1824-1863)
Robert E. Lee
Confederate general who had opposed secession but did not believe the Union should be held together by force
preserve
To save; to keep from harm; to protect
Cold Harbor
Union soldiers had paper pinned to their backs showing their names and addresses, over 7000 died in minutes
blockade runners
Confederate ships who could sail in and out of Southern ports
May 1861
Union capture of Fort Monroe. Butler calls it a "contraband of war" and won't return escaped slaves.
54th Massachussetts
A regiment of black soldiers under command of the young Bostonian, Colonel Robert Gould Shaw. They led a bayonet attack on Fort Wagner
Richmond, Virginia
The confederate capital that was only about 100 miles from washington dc was
Jefferson davis.
President of the Confederate States of America
Anaconda Plan
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
Gettysburg
Battle fought July 1-3, 1863 in and around Gettysburg, PA. The battle with the largest amount of casualties in the Civil War. it is considered the turning point of the Civil War.
flank
the sides or ends of an army line
states' rights
issues should be decided by each state--major reason for the civil war
an organized system that helped slaves escape.
Underground Railroad
southern part of the US
had a mostly agricultural economy.
popular sovereignty
people hold the final authority in all matters of government
Battle of Antietam
Bloodiest day of battle in American history, eventually won by the north
Emancipation Proclamation
Written by Abe Lincoln to free slaves in the south
Clara Barton
served as a nurse to both sides; founded the Red Cross
Maryland, Kentucky, Missouri, Delaware
What were the 4 Border states?
Jim Crow Laws
passed AFTER the ratification of 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments; restricted the rights of former slaves (Blacks)
who was the first president of the confederate staes of america?
jefferson davis
willmot proviso
was a plan that specified that slavery should be prohibited in any lance that might be acquired from mexico
Describe Battle of Gettsyburg
,day 2 Chamberlain saves little Roundtop,
Dieseases During the war 
Biggest killer was disease(killed more than fighting)
Poor higene
insaitary doctors and surgens
Fleas,lice,tics
5 names for NORTH
1. Union
2.USA (United States of America)
3.Federals
4.Blue
5.Billy Yank
What role did Britain play in the Civil War?
It was neutral
George B. McClellan
a general for northern command of the Army of the Potomac in 1861; nicknamed "Tardy George" because of his failure to move troops to Richmond; lost battle vs. General Lee near the Chesapeake Bay; Lincoln fired him twice.
Number of Free States during Kansas-Nebraska Act
There were 16 Free States
Phillip Sheridan
was a Union general in the Civil War. He quickly rose to major general and headed the Army of the Potomac and was in close relations with Ulysses S. Grant. He is very famous for defeating Confederate forces at Shenandoah Valley in 1864 where he was one of the first to use "scorched earth" tactics during the war. His cavalry pursued Robert E. Lee and was very important in the Confederates surrender at Appomattox.
bayonet
a knife that can be fixed to the end of a rifle and used as a weapon
Sherman's March to the Sea
After the burning of Atlanta Georgia on Nov 15 1864, he marched 300 miles to savannah and arrived there December 22nd 1864, his purpose was to destroy the South's supply chain and morale
Battle of Bull Run
1st major battle, proved war was going to be long and costly
Appomattox court house
famous as the site of the surrender of the Confederate Army under Robert E. Lee to Union commander Ulysses S. Grant
3 weaknesses of the north
had to invade large, unfamiliar area of land(offensive war)
Supply lines were stretched very thin and susceptible to attack
President Lincoln had hard time finding qualified officers because the best were in the South
In his famous Emancipation Proclamation, lincoln announced...
that all southern slaves would be free unless the confederate states returned to the union by january. 1 , 1863
What was Lincolns main goal throughout his presidency?
he wanted to preserve the union
What was military strategy for The North?
1. Blockade the Confderate ports 2. Capture the Mississippi River 3. Capture Richmond, Virginia 4. Destroy the Confederate Army 5. Destry the Confederate farmland
What did Southern and Northern states argue over when new states began to join the USA? Why?
The states argued over if they were going to be free states.
what did popular sovereignty mean in the mid-1800'a?
it wold allow voters in a territory to decide whether they wanted to ban or allow slavery
equality
equal rights
antebellum
before war
Union Strategy
blockaded seaports
emancipate
to set free
Secession
to leace the union
define cavalry
soldiers on horseback
Shiloh
Confederates surprise Union at Tennesee church, one of bloodiest battles, but Grant reorganized Union troops and counterattacked and Confederates fled, changes strategy for both sides
republicans
jeffersons political party and ancestors of todays democratic party
Manassas
First major battle, picnickers attended
Conscription
Enrolling people into the military
General Thomas Jackson
Confederate General nicknamed "Stonewall" because of his actions in the 1st Battle of Bull Run
Isolationism
a national policy of avoiding involvement in world affairs
Profiteers
charged excessive prices for goods that the government desparately needed for war
manuscript
(n) document submitted to a publisher
Georgia
a state in southeastern United States
where was stonewall jackson die?
in chancellorsville
Assasination
A important person who is murdered
Abner Doubleday
Union general that ordered retreat from McPherson Ridge and Oak Ridge to Seminary Ridge and ultimately Cemetery Hill
who won the battle of gettysburg?
the north
leaders of gettysburg
union-meade, chamberlain; conf- lee, longstreet, picket
tenants
people who live and work another person's land
thirteenth amendment
abolished slavery everywhere in the united states
1856
Charles Sumner is beaten by southern senator 30 times by cane
Lincoln had trouble finding good generals for the Union army mainly because many of the best officers had joined
the Confederacy
•Emancipation Proclamation
The Emancipation Proclamation was an executive order ending slavery in the Confederacy. It was issued by President Lincoln after the battle of Antietam. The Emancipation Proclamation only freed slaves residing in the territories in rebellion against the government of the United States. This proclamation had the dual purpose of injuring the Confederacy and preventing Great Britain from entering the war in support of the Confederacy. It also pushed the border states toward abolishing slavery.
border state
a southern state that hasn't seceded
what did the emancipation procaltmation do
gave slaves freedom
Frederick Douglas
runaway slave who wrote an autobiography telling how terrible slavery was; became an important abolitionist
Mathew Brady
Important photographer of Civil War; changed how many viewed war.
Appomattox Courthouse
April 1865., the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
a flat bottomed boat used to make bridges
pontoon
Border States
slave states that didn't secede from the Union
Kansas Nebraska Act
allowed popular sovereignty in Kansas; led to major disagreements between proslavery and antislavery forces
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Abolish
to get rid of - they abolished slavery
Tenant gives landlord 50% of crops on land
Sharecropping
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Realistic fiction, exposes the horrors of slavery
Congress
The North thought that whether a state could be a slave state or not should be decided by
habeas corpus
a writ issued to prevent unlawful retreaints by the gov't
contraband
escaped or captured slaves taken in by the Union Army during the Civil War
Secede
to leave the union, to leave or withdraw
Gettysburg Address
One of the most inspiring addresses ever given by an American leader. It was given by Abraham Lincoln, president of the U.S. during the Civil War. He honored the soldiers who died in the Civil War.
Murfreesboro
fought on New Years Eve - Rosecrans vs. Bragg - no clear winner, nothing gained
Haversack
a purse or man bag where you kept personal belongings and food
Tariff
A tax placed on imports to make the manufactured goods of that country cheaper.
Frederick Douglass
Escaped slave who taught self to read and write, becomes a leader in the Abolition Movement
Seige of Vicksburg
May 1863, Union victory. The Union troops cut of the city of Vicksburg and shelled it. Civilians trapped in the city had to live in caves, and eat horses, dogs, and rats. Was a major victory.
Appomatox Court House
The site of Robert E. Lee's surrender
Battle at Gettysburg
Battle during the civil war where 51,000 men died between july 1-3 in 1863
yes
was it true that not only the north had to fight for notrth and south didnt have to fight for south
Oregon Treaty of 1846
49th parallel the boundary between Canada and US and extended territory to Pacific
Billy Yanks
This name was used to talk about the Northerner combatants coming from "Yankees" which was a nicknames for New Englanders. He is usually shown as wearing a regulation Yankee wool uniform with a wool coat four bass buttons, a forage cap, a flat top and leather visor. A nickname for the north.
When did the Union win the battle of Pea Ridge?
March 1862
general Ulysses s grant
general in command of the union army
uncle toms cabin.
a novel published by harriet be echer stowe in 1852 whichpar trayed slavery as brutal and immoral
salt pork
a staple of civil war food, sort of like jerky
Battle of Gettysburg
Lee's attack on the north in order to get the union troops away from Richmond; turning point of the war
Civilians
A person who is not a member of his or her country's armed forces
The Battle of First Bull Run
JULY 1861- in Manassas, P.T Beuragaurd (c), Jackson, Bee (c), southern victory
War strengths for the South
The North was invading the South, so Southerners fought harder to protect their homes. Also, many of the best officers in the Army joined the South like Robert E. Lee.
what if lincoln was NOT assasinated?
he eventually would of been killed by riots
What was a result of the Compromise of 1877?
Reconstruction ended as Republicans agreed to end military occupation of the South
At the battle of Bull Run the Confederates were losing. The Confederate soldiers saw how Jackson was standing strong like a "stone wall". His strength rallied the troops and the Union ended up running away. The Confederates called it the "great skedaddle"
How did Thomas Jackson become known as "Stonewall" Jackson?
what was the first battle of the c war
the 1st battle of bull run or also known as Mannasas in the south
#17
popular soveriegnty
Ironclad
armored naval vessel
Harper's Ferry, VA
...
USA
United States Of America
Scalawag
white Southerner supporting Reconstruction policies after the Civil War usually for self-interest
martial law
rule by military
Fort Sumter
Confederates fired on it.
. How many Americans died?
250,000
often paid for a substitute
wealthy men
14th amendment
-civil rights amendment
-july 9th, 1868
Border Ruffians
pro slavery bands from Missouri
January, 1861
Miss, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana seceded from the Union
April 9, 1865
Surrender of the Confederacy
Total War
Targeting military AND civilian resources to destroy an opponent's ability to fight.
blockade
the isolating, closing off, or surrounding of a place, as a port, harbor, or city, by hostile ships or troops to prevent entrance or exit.
General Ulysses S. Grant
led the Union Army.
Other three battles
1) Shiloh
2) Bunker Hill
3) Loos
abolitionists
people who forced the ending of slavery
September 18-26, 1863
Battle of Chickamauga. Southern Victory
charles sumner
leader of radical republicans, fought for equal rights for blacks,
McClellan
Organized that army of the Potomac and briefly served as general-in-chief
Casualty
This is a person who is dead,missing, or wounded.
Sam Hood
CSA officer that replaced JE Johnston after the Battle of Atlanta; had one arm and one leg
Know-Nothing Party
Political party inspired by the fear of immigrants, particularly German and Irish Catholic. These immigrants were seen as hostile to the Anglo-Saxon Protestant values. It was never a major party because of its exclusivity, and was fragmented over the issue of slavery.
Andrew Johnson
Lincoln's running mate in 1864, chosen from Tennessee to help mend the Union after the Civil War
Freedmen's Bureau
Federal agency designed to aid freed slaves and poor white farmers in the South after the Civil War
Petersburg: The Crater Incident
Scheme hatched by Ambrose Burnside
Left huge crater in the ground
Total failure- Burnside granted extended leave and was never recalled to duty
Sectionalism
the placing of the interest of one's own religion ahead of the interest of the nation as a whole
Laird Rams
two Confed warships with iron rams that were being constructed in England
Election of 1860
Presidential election that resulted in the election of Republican Abraham Lincoln.
Caused seven southern states to secede from the Union and form the Confederate States of America.
Bleeding Kansas
Was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters and pro-slavery "Border Ruffians" that took place in Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri between roughly 1854 and 1858 attempting to influence whether Kansas would enter the Union as a free or slave state.
DRED SCOTT V. SANDFORD
1857 Supreme Court decision that stated that slaves were not citizens; that livig in a free state or territory, even for many years, did not free slaves; and declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitional
Draft Riots
reaction to the enrollment act; also a racist reaction by some
Led a slave revolt at Harper's Ferry, Va. He is captured and executed, and becomes a martyr for the abolitionists.
John Brown
Offensive War
North has to invade the South, destroy the Confederate Army, and capture the capital
The north wanted western states to be _______
"free states"
John C. Calhoun
leader in the South who opposed Wilmont Proviso and proposed the Nullification Theory
Habes corpus
A legal order for an inquiry to determine.
What flag was first flown at Shiloh
the rebel flag
3 strengths of the Confederacy
fought defensvie war
knew terrain (homefield advantage)
believed they were fighting for independence(strong motivator)
Confederate States of America
what the south called themselves upon breaking away from the Union
Leaders of the South "Confederacy"
Jefferson Davis, and Thomas Jackson "Stonewall Jackson"
battle of vicksburg
may 18-july 4, 1863, 47 day battle, marked the beginning of the end of the north and south, north now controlled all of mississippi, mississippi, union won
William Tecumseh Sherman
General led Union troops to the sea. Sherman believed in total war. Destroyed anything in his path. Destroyed Atlanta.
human side of the war
-soldiers were away from their families
-families had to worry about how their men were doing in the war and if they were still alive.
-had to see other people you were with get killed in numerous ways. (shot, burned alive, disease, etc.)
-soldiers had to change their whole way of life
-families had to find out about the death or injury of their loved one
Constitution of Confederacy
6 year term for Pres
denied the Confed congress teh powers to levy a protective tarriff and to appropriate funds for internal improvements
prohibit foreign slave trade
Rosa Parks
refused to give up her seat to a white passenger. after she was jailed, the Montgomery bus boycott was organized. Civil rights leader
Grants union army surrounded/ captured...
lees confederate army in virgina and richmond
What were the major battles of the civil war?
Fort sumter, vicksburg, gettysburg, and appomattox
Why were civil war photos well liked?
first war to ever be photographed
could not fight for south, millikens fight, fought for union with north
what was the rolls of african americans during civil war
wanted to capture Fort Henry and Fort Donaldson
What was Grant's objectives in the west?
yank or the blue, federals, or billy yank
term for the soldier who faught for the union.
1849
Wilmot Proviso
#16
Jeff Davis
Battle of Petersburg
1864-65
Which ironclad was victorious?
neither
Lincoln's Assassination
April 14, 1865
Red Cross
international organization that provides relief to people in times of war or natural disaster
liberation
Freedom from opression or slavery
where war started
fort sumter, SC/
who had a well organized government?
north
13th Amendment
-end of slavery amendment
-december 6th, 1865
April 1861
Virginia seceded from the Union
Nat Turner
United States slave and insurrectionist who in 1831 led a rebellion of slaves in Virginia
Carpetbaggers
Northerners who went South during Reconstruction, motivated by either profit or idealism
landless whites
25-40% of white workers
-unskilled laborers, no land, few possesions, performed labor thought diff and dangerous
bull run
July 21, 1861
N- McDowell
S- Beauregard
Union Lost
Northern democrat who opposed to the war and were persecuted by Abe Lincoln
Copperhead
Peninsular Campaign
McClellans plan to capture Richmond, instead of going over land, he would go down the potomac river to a peninsula east of richmond rivers. from here the troops could approach the city; failed due to McClellan's cautiousness
attrition
the action or process of gradually reducing the strength or effectiveness of someone or something through sustained attack or pressure
draft
a system for requiring citizens to join their country's armed forces
Ironclad Ships
Important invention for the navy during the Civil War which emerged during the Battle of the Merrimac and the Monitor.
March 1862
"Act Prohibiting the Return of Slaves"
confederacy
the group of southern states that seceded from the union
Fort Sumpter
By early 1861, Confederate troops controlled almost all forts, post offices, and government buildings in the south. On April 12, 1861 First shots of Civil War, Confederates fired upon Federal fort, fort surrenders, war begins. Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina
differences of south before war
slavery, states rights
tenure office act
prevented the president from dismissing any federal official without consent of the senate
"Total War"
General Sherman destroyed the south's resources required to make war.
Overseer
One who manage the slaves and other workers
Abolitionist Movement
Begins with the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which prohibited slavery Northwest of the Ohio River. Not until Lincoln and the emancipation proclamation in 1863, which frees the slaves in the Southern States (which doesn't do anything, because they are seceded at this time and not under Lincoln's control) is anything done.
Free-Soil Party
dedicated to prevent slavery in the newly acquired territories such as Oregon and the Mexican territory
Dixie
Patriotic song played at the end of the Civil War
General grant
a Union (North) general in the American Civil War
54th Mass
one of the first African American regiments organized to fight for the Union in the Civil War
Battle of Shiloh
turning point of the Civil War
Fredrick Douglass
abolitionist; narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass; was a slave; born as Fredrick Bailey
Homestead Act
makes western lands available at low costs/ free to people whose families would farm the land for at least 5 years (160 acres)
New Orleans
City taken by Farragut (Navy) in 1862
James buchanan
candidate in 1856, tried to aviod slavery, union was main goal
Lecompton Constitution
supported the existence of slavery in the proposed Kansas state and protected rights of slaveholders. It was rejected by Kansas, making it an eventual free state.
KING COTTON
term used to describe the dominance of the South's cash crop (Cotton) on politics, agriculture, and society prior to the Civil War in the Ante-Bellum South.
Benjamin Wade
radical republican and a senator of OH wanted to abolish slavery completely, was the chair of the committee on the conduct of the war
Virginian, who graduated 2nd in his class at West Point.
Robert E. Lee
Advantages of Confederacy
Well trained soldiers, grew up riding, protecting their way of life
Fugitive Slave Act
Law that helped slave owners recapture runaway slaves
freedmens bereau
helped the freed slaves get food jobs clothing and transportation
what happened to the ironclad 'Virginia'
was sunk by confeds
Dorthea Dix
head of the nursing corps on the Union side. She cleaned up the nursing profession and made it respectable. Responsible for Union hospitals' survival rate.
Union's Plan to win
1.) Blockade Southern Ports 2.) Seize capital, Richmond Virginia 3.) Seize control of the Mississippi River
Booker T. Washington
vocational education is the way to get equality
possibilities for other battles mentioned
Seven Days' Battle - Confederate victory, McClellan's leadership and Union confidence dwindles
Second Bull Run- Confederate victory, won over Federal troops led by Geneal John Pope
Saylor's Creek - Union victory, 8000 Confederates surrender, may have been war's last battle
Alexander H. Stephens
VP of CSA, in defense of states' rights, urged the secession of GA in response to the "despotic" actions of the Confederacy
National Banking System
manage all added revenue moving in and out of Treasury
first unified banking network since BUS
Cherokee v. Georgia
- Worchester v. Georgia
-state rights
States needed more land and expanded to the west; States were told it was unconstitutional to file cases with "countries"; Jefferson sent troops in anyways
Who was George McCellan?
commander of the union army ealy in the war who argued with president lincoln and was dismissed; ran for president in 1864 and lost
Who Was George McClellan?
A young General ( 36 years old) that replaces McDowell after the First Battle of Bull Run
what was the bonnie blue flag about?
confederates seceding from the USA- marching song
had a perscription act and tax in kind
what life was like on homefront
What was so unique about the so-called border states including Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland and Delaware?
They still used slavery but remained loyal to the Union.
What were some of teh results of the Mexican War?
13,000 Americans die, U.S. Gains new territory, North and South grow father apart.
Fugitive
runaway
artillery
heavy weapons
Chancellorsville
April 30, 1863
Flanks
By a armys side
Called "Johnny Rebs"
Confederate soldiers
Anti-Fedralists
people who opposed the constituion
Seven Day's Battle
Seven Day's Battle
Peninsula Campaign
"Tardy" George McClellan: Lincoln orders advance toward Richmond, Union takes water route around and then into VA and captures Yorktown but wait when in sight of Richmond (Lincoln was sending in foot soldiers and McClellan and his water-borne troops had to wait for them). Attacked by Lee (7 Days battles) and causes McC. to retreat back to the sea. Lincoln abandons plan & McClellan.
robert anderson
union, surrendered at fort sumter
Atlanta
captured by Sherman by total war
Wilmot Proviso
senator David Wilmot, said that California "should be and will be forever free."
This compromised the Missouri Compromise
- South of 36-30 - slave
- North of 36-30 - free
slavery
practice of holding a person in bondage for labor
Define Imperialism
When expansion of power through acquisition of territories or political and economic influence in other countries.
Southern Advantages
defensive war and good military leadership
john b hood
confederate lost at battle of nashville
location of Hampton Roads
James River, Hampton Roads, Virgina
Ku Klux Klan
promotes white supremacy, and hatred, discrimination and violence
South Carolina
first state to secede from union, lower south in february, upper south after ft. sumter
"Lost Cause"
romantic name given to the Southern fight for independence, indicating nobility despite defeat
April 12, 1861
date when the civil war began
compromise
agreement between 2 or more sides in a conflict
cotton gin
made to separate and clean cotton; Eli Whitney; huge achievement with huge effect on the South
Dredd Scott
The slave who fought for his freedom but lost in court
where did the final union campaign head twords?
Shreveport and Texas
Henry Clay presented a series of resolutions, later called the ____________, which he hoped would settle the controversy over slavery. They did not and war followed in a decade.
compromise of 1850
What were the South's advantages
fighting a defensive war, soldiers willing to fight to prtect land, soldiers skilled at using guns, many soldiers were graduates of Westpoints
Commander of the Union troops
General Ulysses Grant. Union President was Abraham Lincoln.
Re-supply and re-enforce Ft Sumter
1st battle of civil war, confederates fire on ft sumter
under ground railroads
a way for a african slave to run away and to stay hidden
Internal Revenue Act of 1862
the first income tax, at this point it is not constitutional but Lincoln uses the war time powers for this, it is to raise money for the civil war
What was the North like before the Civil War?
The North was mainly an urban society in which people held jobs.
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