GRE Words 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
buccaneer
pirate
piety
devoutness
despotic
dictatorial
gullible
innocent/inexperienced
esurient
poor
hungering
Enigmatic
Mysterious
penurious
poor/stingy
Avarice
Greed
voluble
fluent
libation
drink
VIABLE
Feasible
cogent
convincing
INDETERMINATE
uncertain
ambience
environment, atmosphere
befuddle
confuse thoroughly
cathartic
emotionally purging
Squalid
Sordid; Filthy
renowned
celebrated famous
cursory
quick hurried
attenuate
to weaken
belabor
beat hard
lithe
bending twisting
extemporaneous
unrehearsed (adj)
ameliorate
v. improve
Limpid
clear, transparent
BANAL
Boring/ predictable
cite
quote; commend
OPPROBRIUM
Public disgrace
brittle
easily broken; difficult
calumny
malicious misrepresentation; slander
Root - POT
drink
obdurate (adj)
unyielding; hardhearted
Satiate
To satisfy fully
dupe
someone easily fooled
effrontery
boldness impudence arrogance
flaunting
show off complacently
impede (v)
hinder; block
empirical
relying on experiment
astringent
substance that shrinks
hirstute
covered with hair
JOCOSE
ability to joke
caustic
burning; sarcastically biting
RAPACIOUS
Greedily plundering [avaricious]
MALAPROPISM
Mistake in speech
trenchant
incisive/witty; vigorous/effective; clear or sharply defined
Singular (adj)
exceptional, unusual, odd
urbane
adj: sophisticated; refined; elegant
Root - SED, SID
SIT
untenable (adj)
indefensible; not viable
Ascetic
Adj. Practicing self-denial; austere.The wealthy, self-indulgent young man felt oddly drawn to the strict, ascetic life led by members of some monastic orders.Also N. Asceticism, N.
insipid
without taste or flavor
vilify
slander say evil things
hallow
to make holy consecrate
heterodox (adj)
unorthodox, heretical, iconoclastic
stray
wander lose one's way
exigency
emergency an urgent situation
Ardor
intense and passionate feeling
BIFURCATE
divide into two parts
acrid
adj. sharp; bitterly pungent.
Sentence: The acrid odor of burnt gunpowder filled the room after the pistol had been fired. 
Larrikin
a rowdy person; hoodlum
PELLUCID
Transparent/ easy to understand
Pejorative
having bad connotations; disparaging
ennui
dissatisfaction and reslessness resulting from boredom/apathy
truculent
adj. fierce, savage, cruel
anneal
reduce bitterness and improve toughness by heating and cooling
Chauvinist (noun)
a blindly devoted patriot
exigent
adj: urgent, pressing; requiring immediate action or attention
quibble
to argue over insignificant details
recalcitrant (adj)
obstinately defiant of authority
subliminal
below the threshold of consciousness
Arduous
Adj. Hard, strenuous.Her arduous efforts had sapped her energy.
countenance
to favor or approve of
espouse
marry give one's support to
morbid
diseased unhealthy (e.g.. about ideas)
Bombastic
pompous in speech and manner
prodigy (n)
marval; highly gifted child
foil
prevent from carrying out contrast
falter
waver/move in an uncertain manner
Apathy
Lack of interest or emotion
intractable
stubborn; obstinate; not easily taught
brook
v. tolerate; endure.
Sentence: The dean would brook no interference with ihs disciplinary actions. 
(secondary meaning) 
baleful
adj. threatening; menacing; sinister; foreshowing evil.
Sentence: The bully's baleful glare across the classroom warned Tim to expect trouble after school. Blood-red in color, the planet Mars has long been associated with warfare and slaughter because of its ominous, baleful appearance. 
Insurrection
rebellion; mutiny; revolt; revolution; uprising
audacious
daring & fearlessly, recklessly bold
cogitate
Consider carefully and deeply; ponder
surfeit
excess or overindulgence; general disgust caused by excess; to suffer from the effects of overindulgence (v)
welter
n. a confused mass; turmoil
dulcet
pleasant to the ear; melodious:
Variegated (adj)
Multicolored; characterized by a variety of patches of different color
bungle
mismanage; blunder; botch; blow; spoil byclumsy behavior
archaic
adj: outdated; associated with an earlier, perhaps more primitive time
simper
funny
to smile in a silly, self-conscious way
(adj) stubborn; determined to resist :: which animal do you this is more ____, a pig or a mule?
recalcitrant
Fledgling
adj. Inexperienced. The folk dance club set up an apprentice program to allow fledgling dance callers a chance to polish their skills.Also, N.
gregarious
living in societies liking the company
torque (n)
a force that causes rotation
discern
see with an effort but clearly
extirpate
to root up; to destory (v)
vituperate
adj. to use harsh, condemnatory language; to abuse or censure severely or abusively; berate
authenticate
v. prove genuine.
Sentence: An expert was needed to authenticate the original Van Gogh painting, distinguishing it from its imitation. 
celestial
adj. heavenly.
Sentence: She spoke of the celestial joys that awaited virtuous souls in the hereafter. 
agglomeration
n. collection; heap.
Sentence: It took weeks to assort the agglomeration of miscellaneous items she had collected on her trip.
Monastic
pertaining to a secluded, dedicated, or austere manner of living
PALLIATE
To make less severe [alleviate/ assuage]
anachronism
something/someone not in its correct historical time
plummet
to plunge or drop straight down
dissonant
adj. not in harmony, in disagreement
imperious
domineering in a haughty manner; dictatorial or overbearing
ancillary
serving as an aid or accessory, auxiliary
concerted
mutually agreed on; done together by agreement;Ex. concerted effort; CF. in concert: working together
rescind
verb: to invalidate; to repeal; to retract
abet (v)
to actively encourage, usually in wrongdoing ("to abet a crime")
(n) supporting bar :: the engineer calculated that the ___ supporting the rafter needed to be reinforced.
strut
Porous
Adj. Full of pores; like a sieve.
latent
present but not yet active developed or visible
homogenous
"similar in nature or kind; uniform: ""a homogeneous society."""
craven (adj, n)
cowardly (adj); a coward (n)
rabble
mob crowd the lower classes of populace
iconoclast
n. one who attacks or undermines traditional conventions or institutions
appropriate
v. acquire; take possession of for one's own use.
Sentence: The ranch owners appropriated the lands that had originally been set aside for the Indians' use. 
aesthetic
adj. artistic; dealing with or capable of appreciating the beautiful; n. aesthete
wary
watchful, being on one's guard against danger
abscond
to depart clandestinely; to steal off and hide
peremptory
leaving no opportunity for denial or refusal; imperative, decisive or final
fulminate
to explode with a loud noise; detonate.
Canon (noun)
an established set of principles or code of laws, often religious in nature
ostentatious (adj)
char by or given to pretentious display; showy
(n) shameless boldness :: she had the __- to insult the guest
effrontery
impute
to attribute to a cause or source ascribe
martial (adj)
associated with war and the armed forces
beatify
to bless make happy or ascribe a virtue to
dint
means, effort "It was finished by dint of his hard work."
Jettison
to discard, to get rid of as unnecessary or encumbering; dump; eject
Loquacious
talking or tending to talk much or freely; talkative; chattering; babbling; garrulous
characterized by excessive talk; wordy
insular
of or pertaining to an island or islands, or detached and isolated
acerbic
adj: having a sour or bitter taste or character; sharp; biting
static (adj)
not moving, active, or in motion; at rest
ASSAY (V)
1. To evaluate by experiment; 2. To analyze a substance chemically
accede
v. agree. If I accede to this demand for blackmail, I am afriad that I will be the victim of future demands.
divestiture
taking off getting rid of giving up
guile
skillful deceit: "He was well known for his guile." (v. bequile; adj: beguiling. Note, however, that these two words have an additional meaning: to charm (v.) or charming (adj:), while the word guile does not generally have any such positive connotations)
Didactic
1. Intended to teach or instruct
Propriety
1. The state or quality of conforming to conventionally accepted standards of behavior or morals
 
2. The details or rules of behavior conventionally considered to be correct
 
3. The condition of being right, appropriate, or fitting 
Mysticism
 
"Special purpose payments (SPP) are part of the deep structure, folklore and mysticism of Commonwealth-State relations," Mr Rudd said. 
1. Belief that union with or absorption into the Deity or the absolute, or the spiritual apprehension of knowledge inaccessible to the intellect, may be attained through contemplation and self-surrender
 
2. Belief characterized by self-delusion or dreamy confusion of thought, esp. when based on the assumption of occult qualities or mysterious agencies 
Talisman
 
"I see this medal as a talisman, an amulet with magical powers that makes it a shield against punishment, punishment for the committing of the crime of art," said Cronenberg, who served as president of the Cannes jury in 1999. 
1. An object, typically an inscribed ring or stone, that is thought to have magic powers and to bring good luck
acme
summit
splenetic
peevish
EFFICACY
effectiveness
bacchanalian
carousal
Withdrawal/Retreat
Abnegation
enervate
weaken
Discriminate
to differentiate
disparage
to belittle
ephemeral
short-lived; fleeting
PAN
ALL, EVERYONE
Garrulous
wordy; talkitive
Deference
respect, honor
grimalkin
a cat.
disapprobation
disapproval; condemnation.
pariah (n)
an outcast
chicanery
trickery or subterfuge
forestall
to prevent; delay
dispassionate
unbiased or objective
PENCHANT
strong inclination; liking
mettlesome
brave; display courage
circuitous
roundabout; not direct:
laud
to praise, extol
Paradox
a contradiction or dilemma
convoke
to call together, summon
deviate
to stray, wander, diverge
prudence
wisdom, caution, or restraint
axiomatic
means self evidently true
balm
something that relieves pain
impassive
without emotion; apathetic; unmoved.
fey
doomed; fated to die.
animus
hostile feeling, hostility, animosity
disperse
scatter; Ex. disperse the cloud/crowd
relish
enjoy; savor; N: enjoyment; zest
n touchy
oversensitive; easily offended; irasible; delicate; needing delicate handling; Ex. touchy situation
paragon*
model of excellence or perfection
oratorio
dramatic poem set to music
exploit
brilliant achievement; develop use selfishly
categorical
without exceptions or conditions; absolute; unqualified and unconditional:
headlong
with the head foremost; headfirst:
sordid
meanly selfish, self-seeking, or mercenary.
corroborate
to make more certain; confirm
prodigal
wastefully or recklessly extravagant or lavish
alacrity
cheerful readiness, promptness, or willingness
reverent
feeling, exhibiting, or characterized by reverence; deeply respectful
quotidian
daily, usual or customary; everyday
rancorous
full of resentment or spite
sanction
authoritative permission that serves to support an action or condition
paucity
smallness of quantity, scarcity, insufficiency of number
propensity
a natural inclination or tendency:
hegemony
leadership or predominant influence exercised by one nation over others; predominance
acarpous
adj. Botany. Producing no fruit, sterile, having no fruit
mannered
affected; not natural; Ex. mannered way of speech
legerdemain
sleight(dexterity) of hand; CF. light of hand
graduated
arranged by degrees (of height, difficulty, etc.)
subside
become less intense, violent, or severe
Effervesence
(n.) 1. Bubbling (literal or figurative); sparkling high spirits; vivacity.
subpoena
a court order requiring appearance and/or testimony
aleck
one who considers him/herself smarter than others
ribald
vulgar or indecent in speech, language, etc.; coarsely mocking, abusive, or irreverent; scurrilous.
congenial
agreeable, suitable, or pleasing in nature or character:
guileless
free from guile; sincere, honest, straightforward, frank
banality
devoid of freshness or originality; hackneyed; trite:
odious
deserving or causing hatred; highly offensive
bunkum
insincere speechmaking by a politician intended merely to please local constituents.
ratify
to confirm by expressing consent, approval, or formal sanction:
salutary
promoting or conducive to health; wholesome
pique
affect with sharp irritation and resentment, esp. by some wound to pride
fervid
heated or vehement in spirit, enthusiasm, etc.:
Static
characterized by little movement or change
fustian
pompous or bombastic; worthless or cheap
voracious
craving or consuming large quantities of food; exceedingly eager or avid
dearth
an inadequate supply; scarcity; lack as during famine
insensible
incapable of feeling or perceiving; deprived of sensation; unconscious
extant
still existing, not destroyed or lost
recalcitrant
resisting authority or control, not obedient or compliant
halcyon
calm and tranquil; rich and prosperous; happy and carefree
inured
To accustom to hardship, difficulty, pain, etc.; toughen or harden; habituate usually fol. by to:
intimate
marked by close acquaintance; Imply as a possibility; insinuate ...
potentate
a ruler who is unconstrained by law;
It is not surprising for the eastern ____ is the model for God
Salacious
Appealing to or causing sexual desire, bawdy
s blues
state of depression or melancholy; style of slow, mournful music (evolved from southern Black American songs)
churlishness
(n) crude or surly behavior, behavior of a peasant
DESULTORY
JUMPING FROM ONE THING TO ANOTHER; DISCONNECTEDDiane had a DESULTORY academic record; she had changed majors 12 times in three years.
prototype
the original or model on which something is based or formed.
alleviate
to make easier to endure; lessen; mitigate:
obstinate
firmly or stubbornly adhering to one's purpose, opinion, etc.; not yielding to argument, persuasion, or entreaty.
stipulate
to make an express demand or arrangement as a condition of agreement (often fol. by for).
invective
an insulting or abusive word or expression.
placate
to appease or pacify, especially by concessions or conciliatory gestures
florid
reddish, ruddy or rosy; flowery or excessively ornate
maverick
an unbranded calf that is separated from its mother, or a lone dissenter who takes an independent stand apart from his or her associates
penchant
a strong inclination, taste, or liking for something
obviate
to anticipate and prevent or eliminate (difficulties, disadvantages, etc.) by effective measures; render unnecessary:
naive
having or showing a lack of experience, judgment, or information; credulous:
denigrate
to speak damagingly in a derogatory manner; to treat or represent as lacking in value or importance
scuttle
To sink a vessel deliberately by opening seacocks or making openings in the bottom.
impudence
The quality or state of being impudent; effrontery; insolence; not wise or discrete
noisome
offensive or disgusting, such as an odor; harmful or injurious to health
morose
gloomily or sullenly ill-humored, as a person or mood; characterized by or expressing gloom
boisterous
rough and noisy, jolly or rowdy; clamorous and unrestrained
felicitous
well-suited for the occasion, as an action, manner, or expression; apt or appropriate
eclectic
selecting from various sources or made up of what is selected from different sources
encomium
a formal expression of high praise; eulogy
mendacity
the quality of being untruthful, an instance of lying
pungent
sharply affecting the organs of taste or smell, as if by a penetrating power; biting or acrid
vindicate
to clear, as from an accusation, imputation or suspicion; to uphold or justify by argument or evidence
discrepancy
the state or quality of being discrepant; difference; inconsistency.
impecunious
having little or no money; penniless, poor
expurgate
to amend by removing words, passages, etc., deemed offensive or objectionable:
matriarch
woman who rules a family or larger social group
apogee
the point in an orbit most distant from the body being orbited
Venal
corrupt or to be able to be bought
antecede
to go before, in time, order, rank, etc.; precede:
sartorial
of or pertaining to tailors or their trade:
dilettante
a person who takes up an art, activity, or subject merely for amusement, esp. in a desultory or superficial way; dabbler.
demotic
of or pertaining to the common people; popular.
esoteric
understood by or meant for only the select few who have special knowledge or interest; recondite:
neophyte
a beginner or novice, a person newly converted to a belief, as a heathen, heretic, or nonbeliever
humidor
a container or storage room for cigars or other preparations of tobacco, fitted with means for keeping the tobacco suitably moist.
platitude
a flat, dull, or trite remark uttered as if it were fresh or profound
fawn
to seek notice or favor by servile demeanor or to behave affectionately
amenable
ready or willing to answer, open to influence, persuasion, or advice; agreeable
verbose
characterized by the use of many or too many words
forensic
used in courts of law or public discussion and debate; adapted to argumentation; rhetorical
n ogle
look at amorously; make eyes at; Ex. old men ogling young girls
decamp
to depart from a camp; to pack up equipment and leave a camping ground:
buttress
any prop or support built to steady a structure by opposing its outward thrusts
gossamer
a fine, filmy cobweb seen on grass or bushes or floating in the air in calm weather; any thin, light fabric with this quality
augury
the art or practice of divination or a related omen, token, or indication
Renege v.
to fail to honor a commitment; to go back on a promise.
teeter
hesitate
promethean
inspirational
plaudit
applause
acumen
shrewdness
compendium
"brief
Coerce
force
sphinx-like
enigmatic; mysterious
minatory
menacing (Minotaur)
s quicksilver
mercury
Castigate
Scold strongly
cogent
adj; convincing
MANGY
shabby; wretched
thrift
economical management
immutable
unchangeable, changeless
righteous
morally upright; just
Equable
not easily irritated
herbivorous
grain-eating; CF. herbivore
Demur
to express doubt
kudo
honor; glory; acclaim:
deleterious
injurious to health
tightwad
miser; excessively frugal person
Impugn
to cast doubt upon
REQUITE
to return or repay
Panegyric 
formal expression of praise 
Literati
scholarly or learned persons
refulgent
shining brightly; radiant; gleaming:
arrant
downright, thorough, unmitigated, notorious
poignant
touching, deeply moving, painful
penury
extreme poverty or destitution
LASSITUDE
a state of diminished energy
1104. etiology
n: causes or origins
PROLIFERATE
to grow or increase rapidly
abstruse
difficult to understand; obscure
e.g. The abstruse goose makes great math, science, and computer programming cartoons.
sentient
aware, conscious, able to perceive
Assiduous
Marked by consistent, unremitting attention to or persistence.
Apocryphal
of dubious authenticity or origin
castigation
to criticize or reprimand severely.
homely
lacking in physical attractiveness; not beautiful; unattractive:
arrogate
to claim unwarrantably or presumptuously; assume or appropriate to oneself without right:
opaque
not transparent or translucent; impenetrable to light; dark or dull
nascent
beginning to exist or develop
imprecation
the act of imprecating; cursing.
pare
to trim off excess, reduce
approbation
approval; commendation or official sanction
exigence
exigent state or character; urgency.
unctuous
unpleasantly and excessively suave or ingratiating in manner or speech
quench
assuage or satisfy (thrust); slake; douse or extinguish; put out; suppress
desperate
having lost all hope; despairing; reckless and violent because of loss of hope or despair; undertaken as a last resort
n lurid
wild; sensational; graphic; gruesome; horrible; Ex. lurid details of the murder
predilection
a predisposition in favor of something
juggernaut
huge force destroying everything in its path
Livid
discolored from a bruise; reddened with anger; pallid; ashen
IMPERTURBABLE
NOT CAPABLE OF BEING DISTURBEDThe counselor had so much experience dealing with distraught children that she seemed IMPERTURBABLE, even when faced with the wildest traumas.
canard
a false or baseless, usually derogatory story, report, or rumor.
expostulate
to reason earnestly with someone against something that person intends to do or has done; remonstrate:
insolvent
not solvent; unable to satisfy creditors or discharge liabilities, either because liabilities exceed assets or because of inability to pay debts as they mature.
protagonist
the leading character, hero, or heroine of a drama or other literary work.
mahatma gandhi
Indian political leader: prime minister 1966–77 and 1980–84 (daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru).
salubrious
favorable to or promoting health; healthful:
propitiate
to make favorably inclined; appease; conciliate.
diffident
lacking confidence in one's own ability, worth, or fitness; timid; shy.
reprobate
morally depraved, unprincipled or bad; rejected by God and beyond hope of salvation
waver
an act of fluttering or vacillating
ambivalence
uncertainty, especially when caused by inability to make a choice or by a simultaneous desire to say or do two opposite or conflicting things
pedantic
ostentatious in one's learning, overly concerned with minute details or formalisms, especially in teaching
elegy
a mournful, melancholy, or plaintive poem, esp. a funeral song or a lament for the dead.
burnished
To polish a surface by friction.
dissonance
inharmonious or harsh sound; a simultaneous combination of tones conventionally accepted as being in a state of needing completion
ostentatious
characterized by or given to pretentious or conspicuous show in an attempt to impress others or attract notice
revile
to assail with contemptuous or opprobrious language; address or speak of abusively.
accolade
award, honor, or laudatory notice; originally a light touch on the shoulder with the flat side of the sword in the ceremony of conferring knighthood
ambiguity
doubtfulness or uncertainty of meaning or intention
arabesque
a sinuous, spiraling, undulating, or serpentine line or linear motif, often used in the Fine Arts
implacable
not capable of being appeased or changed
physiological
pertaining to the science of the function of living organisms; N. physiology
n striated
marked with parallel bands; striped; grooved; Ex. striated rocks; V. striate; N. stria: thin groove or line
DEPOSE
1. remove from office or power forcefully
2. to swear or testify on oath
Pervade
to be present throughout; to permeate; imbune; suffuse
rescind (verb)
to invalidates; to repeal; to retract
insouciant
free from concern, worry, or anxiety; carefree; nonchalant.
dissemble
to give a false or misleading appearance to; conceal the truth or real nature of:
indolent
having or showing a disposition to avoid exertion; slothful
ostentation
pretentious or conspicuous show, as of wealth or importance; display intended to impress others.
expiate
to atone for; make amends or reparation for:
arcane
known or understood by very few; mysterious, secret or obscure
epicene
having the characteristics of both the male and the female
asperity
harshness or sharpness of tone or manner; roughness and unevenness
perennial
lasting for an indefinitely long time; enduring
engender
to produce, cause, or give rise to
petulant
moved to or showing sudden, impatient irritation, especially over some trifling annoyance
fervent
having or showing great warmth or intensity of spirit, feeling, enthusiasm; ardent
assuage
to make milder or less severe; relieve, ease or mitigate
emulate
imitate with effort to equal or surpass or to rival with some degree of success
eloquent
having or exercising the power of fluent, forceful, and appropriate speech, characterized by forceful and appropriate expression
flag
to fall off in vigor, energy, activity, interest; to hang loosely or droop
abate
to reduce in amount, degree, or intensity
ambulatory
of, pertaining to, or capable of walking:
laconic
using few words; expressing much in few words; concise:
noxious
harmful or injurious to health or physical well-being; morally harmful, corrupting or pernicious
bedizen
v. to dress in a vulgar, showy manner
resign
give up (a position, right, or claim); submit (oneself) passively
arbitrate
judge a dispute b/t at least 2 parties
abysmal
of or like an abyss; immeasurably deep or great.
pugilism
the art or practice of fighting with the fists; boxing.
fluster
to put into a state of agitated confusion:
conundrum
a riddle, the answer to which involves a pun or play on words, as What is black and white and read all over? A newspaper.
relegate
to send or consign to an inferior position, place, or condition
fawning
a young deer, esp. an unweaned one.To seek notice or favor by servile demeanor: A light yellowish-brown color.
fell
an upland pasture, moor, or thicket; a highland plateau
rent
an opening made by rending or tearing; a breach of relations or union between individuals or groups
impede
to retard in movement or progress by means of obstacles or hindrances
recant
to withdraw or disavow a statement or opinion; to formally retract
repudiate
to reject as having no authority or binding force, to cast off or disown
Meretricious
alluring by a show of flashy or vulgar attractions; tawdry
reticent
disposed to be silent or not to speak freely; reserved.
eulogy
a speech or writing in praise and in honor of a deceased person
discretion
the power or right to decide or act according to one's own judgment; freedom of judgment or choice
multifaceted
having many facets, such as a gem, or having many aspects or phases
atrophy
a wasting away of the body or of an organ or part, as from defective nutrition or nerve damage.
T score distribution
Mean=50StDev=10
EXONERATE
TO REMOVE BLAME
visible spectrum
(light) ~360(violet)-750(red)nm
Iconic memory
Visual memory.
Wundt
Founder of psychologyBelieved experimental psych was limited--needed cultural psych to study memory, thinkin and language
William McGuire
analogy of innoculation
Eidetic memory
Memory, for images.
Wertheimer's
Founder of Gestalt psychologyPhi Phenomenon
Dementia Praecox
Old name for Schizophrenia
Daryl Bem
Created the self-perception theory
Leon Festinger
cognitive dissonance theory
minimal justification effect experiment
social comparison and tendency to conform
rhodopsin
the visual pigment inside rods
Norm-referenced testing
Comparing the test-taker's performance to that test's norms that are derived from standardized samples.
Scatterplot
A graphical representation of correlational data.
Delusions
False beliefs, discordant with reality, that are maintained in spite of strong evidence to the contrary.
Iris
Colored, has involuntary muscles and autonomic nerve fibersControls size of pupil
Weber's Law
Formulated by FechnerThe mathematical expression of Weber's JND's
perspicacious (no)
acutely perceptive; having keen discernment
Descriptive statistics
Concerned with organizing, describing, quantifying ad summarizing a collection of actual observations
Emil Kraepelin
1883 Textbook--Some symptoms occur together enough that they might be considered specific types of disordersUsed clinical data to classify
DISINTERESTED
FREE OF BIAS OR SELF-INTEREST; IMPARTIAL
Verplank
Stated that social approval influences behavior.
anomia
slight difficulty in finding words that may persist after most of the effects of a stroke have faded away (i.e.)
Anne Treisman
researched perception of primitive features, illusory conjunctions, etc.
eardrum
the taut membrane that transmits vibrations caused by soundwaves across the middle ear to the inner ear
Adrenaline
A hormone that increases energy available for "fight or flight" reactions (also known as epinephrine).
Autism
A disorder whose essential features are lack of responsiveness to other people, gross impairment in communication skills, and behaviors and interests that are repetitive, inflexibly routined, and stereotyped.
Idiographic
An approach to studying personality that focuses on individual case studies.
Compensation
A defense mechanism whereby something is done to make up for something that is lacking.
Classical conditioning
Also known as respondent conditioning, it is a result of learning connections between different events;''
Retrieval
Process of recovering stored material in memory.
REM
Rapid Eye Movement sleep characterized by the presence of theta waves and the absence of delta waves. Dreams occur during REM sleep.
Phenothiazine
Anti-psychotic drugs thought to block receptor sites for dopamine, making it effective in treating the delusional thinking, hallucinations and agitation commonly associated with schizophrenia.
Claustrophobia
An irrational fear of closed places.
Luteinizing hormone
A hormone associated with ovulation.
learning
the modification of behavior through practice, training, or experience
Oval window
The entrance to the inner ear
Steven's power law
Performed experiments showing Fechner could be incorrectResults best fit by Steven's new equation, called his power law
Ebbinghaus' Experimentation
Used himself as a subject.Memorized nonsense syllables, then distracted himself with other lists, then measured how much he remembered with his method of savings--How many times he had to read it to rememorize it.
ingenuous
artless; frank and candid; lacking in sophistication
Catecholamine theory of depression
Also called monoamine theoryNorepinephrine and serotonin levels fall, get depressed. Too much, mania
UBIQUITOUS
EXISTING EVERYWHERE AT THE SAME TIME; CONSTANTLY ENCOUNTERED; WIDE-SPREAD
Kurt Lewin
Conducted research to determine the effects of different leadership styles.
generalization gradient
in classical conditioning, the pattern that shows how, in general, the greater the difference between a new stimulus and the original CS, the weaker the CR
recoding
changing the form in which information is stored.
brightness contrast
the perceiver's tendency to exaggerate the physical difference in the light intensities of two adjacent regions. As a result, a gray patch looks brighter on a black background, darker on a a white background
avoidance learning
instrumental learning in which the response averts an aversive stimulus before it occurs
lateral fissure
groove separating temporal lobe from both the frontal and parietal lobes
Countertransference
used by Freud to mean emotional reactions to a patient that are determined not by the patient's own personality traits and disorders, but rather the psychoanalyst's own unconscious conflict.
 
 
 
Implosive Therapy
 
In ________, the person experiences the most traumatic events that were a part of the original setting that triggered the emotional disturbance.  The theory is that when the person has gone through the "worst imaginable," there will be a release and the critical beginnings of problem resolution.
Conception
Takes place in the fallopian tubes where the ovum or egg cell is fertilized by the male sperm cell.
Double-blinding
A research design that controls for the influence of the researcher and research participants since neither group knows which participants are in the control group and which participants are in the experimental group.
Displacement
A defense mechanism that refers to the pent-up feelings (often hostility) discharged on objects and people less dangerous than those objects or people causing the feelings.
Bulimia nervosa
An eating disorder that involves binge eating and excessive attempts to compensate for it by purging, fasting, or excessive, exercising.
Anterograde amnesia
Memory loss for new information following brain injury.
Extirpation
A process of removing various parts of the brain, and then observing the behavioral consequences.
Operational definitions
Measurable definitions of variables in research.
Prisoner's dilemma
A classic method of investigating people's choices to compete or cooperate using a hypothetical case where two men have been taken into custody, separated, and can choose either to confess or not to confess.
Perceptual sets
Expectations we have about perception due to past experiences.
True experiments
Research designs that use random assignment and manipulate the independent variable.
Imprinting
An attachment bond between a organism and an object in the environment.
Balance theory
Fritz Heider's consistency theory that is concerned with balance and imbalance in the ways in which three elements are related
Aversion therapy
A behavioral therapy of pairing unpleasant stimuli with undesirable behavior.
Chlorpromazine
An antipsychotic drug thought to block receptor sites for dopamine, making it effective in treating the delusional thinking, hallucinations and agitation commonly associated with schizophrenia.
Eros
In Freud's structural dynamic model of personality, it refers to the life instincts that serve the purpose of individual survival (hunger, thirst, and sex).
Punishment
The probability that a response will be made is decreased by giving the organism something undesirable whenever the response is made.
Reliability
The consistency and stability of a test measure.
introversion
the state of being concerned primarily with one's own thoughts and feelings rather than with the external environment
Apparent motion
illusion occuring when 2 dots flashed in different locations seconds apart are perceived as one moving dot
Law of Effect
Formed the basis for operant conditioning
relegate (no)
to forcibly assign, especially to a lower place or position
George Kelly
An individual is a scientist, devising and testing predictions about behavior of significant people in their life
PREEN
TO DRESS UP; TO PRIMP; TO GROOM ONESELF WITH ELABORATE CARE
Norman Triplett
First study of social psychology. He investigated the effects of competition on performance.
auditory ossicles
the three small bones in the structures of the ear that includes the earflap, the auditory canal, and the outer surface of the eardrum
limbic system
a set of brain structures including the amygdala, hippocampus, cortex, and parts of the thalamus and hypothalamus. believed to be involved in the control of emotional behavior and motivation
intracranial recording
the recording of brain activity by monitoring chemical or electrical activity from inside the skull
symbolic representation
a type of mental representation that does not correspond to the physical characteristics of that which it represents. Thus, the would "mouse" does not resemble the small rodent it represents
analogical representation
a representation that shares some of the physical characteristics of an object; for example, a picture of a mouse is an analogical representation because it looks like the small rodent it represents
depth-of-processing approach
an approach to memory that stresses the nature of encoding at the time of acquisition. It argues that deeper levels of processing (for example tending to a word's meaning) lead to better retention and retrieval than shallower levels of processing (for example, attending to the word's sound). Thus, maintenance rehearsal lead's to poorer retrieval than elaborative rehearsal.
binocular disparity
an important cue for depth perception. Each eye obtains a diferent view of an object, the disparity becoming less pronounced the farther the object is from the observer
Linguistic relativity hypothesis
The theory proposing that our perception of reality is determined by the content of language. Also called the Whorfian hypothesis.
Halo effect
In social psychology, it is the tendency to generalize from one attribute or characteristic to a person's entire personality.
Behavioral contracts
A therapeutic technique that is a negotiated agreement between two parties that explicitly stipulates the behavioral change that is desired and indicates consequences of certain acts.
Reaction formation
A defense mechanism that refers to when a repressed wish is warded off by its diametrical opposite.
Cannon-Bard theory
A 'theory of emotions. stating that awareness of emotions reflects our physiological arousal and our cognitive experience of emotion.
Repression
A defense mechanism that refers to the unconscious forgetting bf anxiety-producing memories.
Conditioned response
In classical conditioning, it is the learned response to a conditioned stimulus.
Theory of motivation
A drive-reduction theory proposed by Clark Hull suggesting that the goal of behavior is to reduce biological drives—that is, behavioral reinforcement occurs whenever a biological drive is reduced.
Suppression
A defense mechanism that refers to a deliberate, conscious form of forgetting.
Projection area
Areas in the brain receiving incoming sensory information or sending out motor-impulse commands.
Mere-exposure hypothesis
The tendency for people to prefer things with which they are familiar.
Lateral inhibition
In visual perception, it is the process of inhibiting the response of adjacent retinal cells resulting in the sharpening and highlighting of the borders between dark and light areas.
Garcia effect
Named after researcher John Garcia, it is basically food aversion that occurs when people attribute illness to a particular food.
Weber's law formula
? I/I=K? I= change in intensityI= stimulus intensityK=weber's fraction/constantSometimes ? S/S=KSmaller K = better sensitivity
Hubel and Weisel
Work on visual cortex earned Nobel Prize in 1981 Feature detection theory
Semantic verification task
Is simple statement true or false? Time it takes to respond is response latency.Pattern of response latencies should give info on how semantic knowledge is stored.
Hawthorne effect
Refers to the tendency of people to behave differently if they know they're being observed
Residual schizophrenia
A subtype: When there has been a previous episode but positive symptoms aren't currently displayed. Some negative or disturbance might still exist.
Equity theory
Proposes that we consider not only our own cost and rewards, but the costs and rewards of the other person. we prefer our costs and rewards to be equal with that of the other person.
Robert Sternberg's triarchic theory
3 types of intelligence
componential - test-taking
experiential - creativity
contextual - street smarts, business sense
proximity (in perception)
the closeness of two figures. the closer they are, the more they will tend to be grouped together perceptually.
Fechner's Law
the assertion that the strength of a sensation (subjectively experienced) is proportional to the logarithm of physical stimulus intensity
feature detectors
neurons in the retina or brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as movement, orientation, and so on
extrapyramidal system
one of the two cerebral motor control systems; it is older in evolutionary terms, and it controls relatively gross movements of the hear, limbs, and trunk
Law of similarity
From Gestalt psychology, it is the tendency for similar objects to be grouped together.
Deviation quotients
A deviation IQ score that tells us how far away a person's score is from the average score for that person's particular age group.
Social influence
The notion that the presence of other people affects an individual's judgment about an event.
Social learning theory
According to the theory, behavior is learned through modeling (direct observation), or through reinforcement.
Rational emotive behavioral therapy
A therapeutic –Approach that focuses on changing irrational belief systems.
Law of proximity
From Gestalt psychology, it is the tendency for elements close to each other to be perceived as a unit.
Motion aftereffect
An illusion that occurs when you first view moving pattern, such as stripes moving off to the right (or a waterfall), and then you view a spot of light—the spot of light will appear to move in the opposite direction.
Parallel Distributed Processs (PDP)
This theory holds that information processing is distributed across the brain (across nodes in a network) and is done in a parallel fashion.
Variable interval (VI)
In operant conditioning, it is when behavior is reinforced at the first response made after a variable amount of time has elapsed since the last reinforcement.
Centration
A term from Piaget's theory, it is the tendency for preoperational children to be able to focus on only one aspect of a phenomenon.
Wolfgang Kohler's theory os isomorphism
There is a one-to-one correspondence between the object in the percetual field and the pattern of stimulation in the brain.Not so happy empiracally wise
Psychoanalysts vs Behaviorists mental disorders
Psycho's think symptoms are a manifestation of a disorderBehaviors think symptoms are the disorderPsychos think that symptom relief isn't enough because the cause is still there
act-outcome representation (and who)
a type of association hypothesized by Edward Tolman to be the prodcut of instrumental learning; an organism that has acquired this sort of associatin has acquired the knowledge that a certain type of act leads to a particular consequence
Content validity
A type of validity that refers to how well the content items of a test measure the particular skill or knowledge area that it is supposed to measure.
Absolute refractory period
The period that follows the onset of an action potential. During this period, a nerve impulse cannot be initiated.
Long term vs Short term encoding
Short term encoded with phonological or acoustic.Long term encoded on basis of meaning
Monoamine theory of depression
A theory that holds that too much norepinephrine and serotonin leads to mania, while too little leads to depression. It is also sometimes called the catecholamine theory of depression.
Nasal fibers vs temporal fibers
The nasal fibers go to opposite side of the brain, while temporal fibers stay on the same side
ACT model (Adaptive Control of Thought)
A model that :describes memory in terms of procedural .and declarative memory.
Horney and basic anxiety and 3 strategies
A child's early perception of life is important. When a child has a sense of helplessness, they develop basic anxiety.To over come anxiety they use 3 strategies:1) Move toward people for security2) Fight people for control3) Withdraw from people
premonition
forewarning
caveat
warning
fissure
opening
détente
truce
Argot
Slang
pragmatic
practical
CONTUMACIOUS
rebellious
gibber
gibberish
sobriety
seriousness
viscous
thick
hoodwinked
tricked
vitriolic
corrosive; sarcastic
lugubrious
sorrowful, mournful
mutinous
unruly; rebellious
cantankerous
uncooperative; grouchy
Motley
Multicolored, mixed
oracular
obscurely prophetic
Wily
Clever; deceptive
n credo
creed
vituperative
bitterly abusive
gingerly
very carefully
concomitant
existing concurrently
permeate
to penetrate
Precept
principle; law
animadversion
critical remark
Plethora
Excess; overabundance.
presage
warning sign
fetid
stinking, foul
spatial
relating to space
magnanimity
generosity and nobility
Mordacious
capable of wounding
impetuous
hasty, rash, impulsive
erubescent
growing red; blushing
obsidian
black volcanic rock
abeyance
temporary suspension; delay
distill
purify; refine; concentrate
VOUCHSAFE
TO GUARANTEE CONDESCENDINGLY
SARDONIC
cynical; scornfully mocking
Jurisprudence
philosophy of law
foreordain
Synonyms:
verb: predestine, predetermine, destine
his place in history was ...................ed
recreant
an abject coward
luminary
star light-giving body
euphonious
Agreeableness of sound
subsume
V. include; encompass.
tantalize
tease; torture with disappointment
Heinous
Grossly wicked reprehensible; abominable.
contemn
to scorn or despise
excoriate
express strong disapproval of
Proclamation
Official announcement, public declaration
rapt
deeply engrossed or absorbed
pithy
(adj.) precise and brief
Pristine
fresh and clean; uncorrupted
gustatory
associated with taste -adj
Pivotal
being of crucial importance
capricious
change ones mind, unfixed
apotheosis
nonpareil, model of excellence
auspice
n. protection or support, patronage
Blithe
joyful, cheerful, or without appropriate thought
Obdurate/Obstinate
unyielding, hardhearted, inflexible. I am quite BLANK on certain issues. For example I refuse to admit that the end always justifies the means.
exponent
one who champions or advocates
Probity
adherence to highest principles, uprightness. Knights of old were masters of BLANK; they were so proper and righteous.
n bowdlerize
expurgate; CF. Thomas Bowdler
equivocal
of doubtful/uncertain nature or significance
SYN: ambiguous, dubious, oblique, tenebrous
mollycoddle
pamper; coddle; baby; indulge excessively
recapitulate
to summarize, to repeat concisely
maudlin
Tearfully or weakly emotional; foolishly sentimental
the drink made her .......
sentymentalny; rzewny; ckliwy; płaczliwy; łzawy
abject
adj. wretched lacking in pride
aver
assert confidentially, declared, he ... that he has not any involvement for this crime.
nebulous
adjective. vague; cloudy; lacking clearly defined form
stickler
perfectionist; person who insists thing to be exactly right
impunity
n. immunity from punishment, penalty or harm
propellant(propellent)
substance which propels or drives forward (such as an explosive charge or a rocket fuel)
ben-/bon-
good (benevolent) (Bon voyage- good voyage)
Barren
not producing or incapable of producing offspring
pallid
lacking in intensity or interest; abnormally deficient in color as suggesting physical or emotional distress
n rife
(of something bad) widespread; abundant; current
Indemnity
Security against damage, loss, or injury; a legal exemption from liability for damages; compensation for damage, loss, or injury suffered
bluff
pretense (of strength), rough but good-natured
stupefy
(v) to stun, baffle, or amaze
n aplomb
poise; composure in difficult situations; assurance; self-confidence
agrarian
pertaining to land or its cultivation
detractor
something that subtracts from the quality of something else.
cadge
to beg to get by begging
inimitable
defying imitation on account of excellence, singularity
subdued
less intense; quieter; lacking in vitality, intensity or strength
supine
adj. inactive, lying on one's back, apathetic
Pluck
Resourceful, courage and daring in the face of difficulties.
Assert
To demonstrate power; to defend a statement as true
cavalcade
procession (esp. of vehicles or people on horseback); parade
responsiveness
state of reacting readily to appeals, orders, etc.; ADJ. responsive: readily reacting; Ex. responsive to treatment
magnate
a wealthy and influential person, esp. in business
Incendiary
(adj) tending to excite or inflame factions, sedition, or quarrel; inflammatory; seditious
slake
quench; satisfy; make less active or intense
n miasma
swamp gas; heavy vaporous atmosphere often emanating from decaying matter; pervasive corrupting influence; noxious atmosphere or influence
ossified
turned to bone; hardened like bone; Inflexible
maliable
capable of being shaped by pounding; soft and pliable; impressionable
fetter
a shackle for the ankles or feet
BLANDISH
to coax with flattery, toady or fawn
obfuscate
(v) to deliberately obscure; to make confusing
invocation
prayer for help; calling upon as a reference or support
amulet
ornament worn as a charm against evil spirits
n proselytize
(induce someone to) convert to a religion or belief; N. proselyte: new convert to a doctrine or religion
bedaub
to smear over, as with something oily or sticky
sycophant
someone who tries to get ahead through flattery and fawning
n mayhem
injury to body; crime of willfully maiming or crippling a person; violent disorder; Ex. mayhem in the zoo; CF. maim
bog
soft wet land; V: hinder or be hindered
idiosyncracy
a quirk particular to a group or individual
matriculate
to (intrans) enroll at a university as a student; to (trans) accept a student for enrollment
n fleck
spot; mark with flecks; N: small mark or spot
Regent
a person who governs in place of a ruler who is ill, absent, or still a child; ADJ. Ex. the Prince regent
lope
verb [ intrans. ]
run or move with a long bounding stride : the dog was -ing along by his side | [as adj. ] ( -ing) a -ing stride.
noun [in sing. ]
a long bounding stride : they set off at a fast -.
Prodigious
so great in size or force or extent as to elicit awe
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Term:
Definition:
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