Classical Music in the 1930s Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Aida
Giuseppe Verdi
Appalachian Spring
Aaron Copland
Don Giovanni "Madamina"
Mozart
Don Giovanni
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Serialism
Total Control (Babbitt, Schoenburg
postlude
concluding piece or movement
what year was string quartet
1931
Florestein
Schummann's feisty temperamental side of his criticisms, the song is faster and more edgy
rubato
having certain notes arbitrarily lengthened while others are correspondingly shortened, vice versa
the most famous experimentalist composer
john cage
Compositions use ...
dynamics and tone colors
What year did Beethoven meet Mozart?
1784
Pleyel, Ignaz
1757-1831.  Austrian composer, music publisher ("Maison Pleyel") and piano maker.
 
Student of Vanhal in Vienna and Haydn in Eisenstadt.
 
His brilliant, and virtuosic sinfonia concertante in F was first performed in London for the Professional Concert, which resulted in a rivalry between him and Haydn.
 
Today he is mostly remembered for his violin duets.  He also wrote ca. 45 symphonies, chamber music fro strings, and a number of concertos
cantus firmus
the ancient traditional unisonal plainchant of the Christian Church, having its form set and its use prescribed by ecclesiastical tradition.
vibrato
a pulsating effect, produced in singing by the rapid reiteration of emphasis on a tone, and on bowed instruments by a rapid change of pitch corresponding to the vocal tremolo.
The Mikado
Arthur Sullivan (music)
William S. Gilbert (words)
how does "the plow...." begin
a 4-min. prelude
Program Music
Music that describes a nonmusical subject, like a story, object, or scene, through the use of musical effects
Ludwig Van Beethoven 1770-1827
German composer; Genre- classical/romantic time period; famous pieces- Fur Elise, Moonlight Sonata, Symphony #9 (was deaf when composed Ode to Joy or Symphony #9 and was the 1st symphony with singers), Symphony #5
classical concertos
Even while symphonic form gained increasing attention throughout the 18th Century, the solo concerto remained popular as a vehicle for virtuosos who often wrote concertos to play themselves. Among the first was Johann Christian Bach, J. S. Bach's youngest son.
It was in a Three movement plan with two fast movements around a slow middle movement. The slow moevement and finale often used forms like those of other genres but first movements followed a form unique to concertos.
The first movement of a typical concerto retained elements of the ritornello form of Baroque concertos, which alternates orchestral ritornellos with episodes that feature the soloist, in combination with the contrast of key and thematic material characteristic of sonata form. As Koch discribes the form there are three solo sections, strutured in a way that is equivalent to the three main period of sonata form. These sections are enclosed between four orchestral ritornellos; the first presents all or most of the main ideas while the others are relatively short. In essence the first movement is a sonata form framed by a retornello form.
Gossec, Francois-Joseph

1734-1824.  A French composer who studied under Stamitz when the latter was in Paris (1754-55).

 
His music often features large wind sections.

 
He composed a number of Patriotic songs after the Revolution, including the Marseillaise.

 
He became directeur de la musique des fetes nationales.

 
His music is often noisy and constructed for the enjoyment of the masses, rather than the elite upper classes.

 
His ideal of musical expression (patriotism or despair in the Funeral March) was a precursor to the emerging Romantic style 
lorenzo da ponte
Italian librettist most significant of generation. involvement in flowering of opera buffa in Vienna, his three librettos for Mozart (Le nozze di Figaro, Don Giovanni and Così fan tutte) peaks of the genre.
lute
a stringed musical instrument having a long, fretted neck and a hollow, typically pear-shaped body with a vaulted back.
prelude
piece that precedes a more important movement
what interval inifies the four melodic ideas in ruth seeger's "string quartet"?
major 7th
which orchestra did leopold stowski conduct in the1930s
The Philadelphia Orchestra
Multimovement Cycle
a three or four movement structure used in classical era instrumental-symphony, sonata, concerto-and in chamber music, each movement is prescribed tempo and form(sonata cycle)
Scherzo
Compositional form in three parts (A B A) sometimes used as the third movement in classical and romantic symphonies, string quartets, and other works is usually in triple meter with a faster tempo than a minuet
periodicity
The newer styles of classical music in which frequent resting points break the melodic flow into segments that relate to each other as parts of a larger whole. Musical ideas, rather than being persistently spun out, were articulated through distinct phrases, typically two or four measures in length (but also three, five or six measures).
jannisary band
The Turkish military band which became in vogue in Europe during the last part of the 18th century.
 
The janissary band often featured wind instruments along with cymbals, the piccolo, triangle, drums.

 
the music was heavily accented, shifted quickly between major and minor, and often featured jarring, accented dissonances which found their way stylistically into the Turkish music of the later 18th and early 19th century.

 

Mozart Rondo Alla Turka and Beethoven 9, fourth movement Turkish march, for example 
Rondo
Used in a symphony as the final movement. Light and airy.
double exposition form
found in first movements of concertosimilar to sonata formdevelopment and recapitulation are identical to sonata form except for solo cadenzaorchestra exposition same as sonata formsolo exposition: solo and orchestra, first theme in tonic key, bridge, second them in second keyorchestra plays second exposition by themselves, then it is repeated when soloist takes the spotlight and orchestra accompanies
major
of an interval being between the tonic and the second, third, sixth, or seventh degrees of a major scale:
function of the low register of the sixth variation of "piano variations"
evoke thunder
Baroque music is associated with what composers?
Vivaldi, Handel, Bach
Johann Christian Bach
Developed the concerto in works for the piano and orchestra
Who tried to block Mozart's works from being performed? Was he/she successful?
Sallieri, no
Pergolesi, Giovanni Battista
1710-1736.  One of the most important composers of opera buffa.
 
His important work was La serva Padrona.
 
It was written to be performed with Il prigioner superbo, which set off the guerre des bouffons, between serious Fr. opera composers like Lully and Rameau, and supporters of new It. Opera
 
It represents comic opera and the new galant style, characterized by short regular phrases (antecedent/ consequent), simple melodies, with a clear distinction from the accomp.
minuet form
a minuet is a baroque danceA B A'minuet- Atrio- B
augmented
To raise the upper note of an interval or chord by a half step.
stringed and woodwind instruments
What TWO instrument families are used in the section "Drought" in the score of "The Plow that Broke the Plains"
Difference between Baroque and Classical eras
During the classical era, the polyphonic music of the Baroque era mostly disappeared, replaced by strong melodies.
Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach
One of the most influential coposers of his generation. Trained in msuci by his father JS Bach he served at the court of Frederick the Great in Berlin from 1740 to 1768. Then becam music director of the five principal churches in Hamburgh. He composed oratorios, songs, symphonies, concertos and chamber music but most numerous and important are his works for keyboard.
Wrote "Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments" and is an important souce of information on the musical thought and practice of the period. His favorite keyboard was the clavichord.
Important during Roccoco reforming music to the Empfindsam syle.
scherzo and trio
All of the following are TRUE of Beethoven's music except
a cowboy song borrowed by 1930's populist composer
"I Ride an Old Paint"
What are the 4 contrasing movements of a symphony?
Allegro, Adagio, Menuetto, Vivace
Multiplicity and contrast with movements
Use of many different melodies within a single movement or even section.
with which 2 teams of folk music collectos did henry cowell and his wife collaborate
the lomaxes and the seegers
what message did audiences draw from "the plow..."?
that the struggles of rural americans were respected and understood
Was Haydn in good grace with the Esterhazy family? How appreciative of his music were they?
yes, not as appreciative as Paul
his music shows a lack of sudden mood changes, to the point of being static.
__________, a transitional figure who composed in both the Classical and Romantic styles, was the only "Viennese" composer who was actually from Vienna.
Finlandia
Jean Sibelius
Boris Godunov
Modest Mussorgsky
Aleatory
Chance (Cage, Penderescky
The Nutcracker
Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky
Radical Composers
Liszt, Wagner, Berioz
largo
slow, broad, dignified style
edgard varese's forst major composition?
"Ionisation"
Scarlatti, Domenico
1685-1757.  Italian Pre-classical composer and son of Alessandro Scarlatti.
 
He is mostly remembered for his 555 harpsichord sonatas.  These sonatas are short, one movement works, mostly binary in form, with two repeated parts (tonal scheme: 1-V, V-I). 
 
Thus, they are similar to the Baroque suite movement; however, unlike a Baroque suite movement, Scarlatti's sonatas often employ more than one "theme," a kind of predecessor to the thematic dualism in the Classical sonata form
lento
movement or passage performed slowly
which composer converted mark blitzstein to writing music for the general public
hanns eisler
The Classical Music Period
1750 - 1825
How many symphonies did Mozart write?
4
Boccherini, Luigi

1743-1805.  A distinguished virtuoso cellist and composer of chamber music, who worked chiefly at Madrid.
 
His output includes about 140 string quintets, 100 string quartets, 65 trios, about 30 symphonies and some sonatas, besides other chamber and orchestral music.
 
His style displays graceful melodies and variety in the formal design.

 
His cello parts are often rhythmically complex and highly ornamented 
conjunct
bound in close association; conjoined; combined; united:
partita
an instrumental suite common chiefly in the 18th century.
with what linguistic device does ruth seeger compare repeating a given interval?
rhyme
what kind of compositions did leopold stokowsky pefer
contemporary
Classical Music Ideas
Clear distinct homophonic melodies, anti embellishment, clear cadences, 4 bar phrases, lyrical melodies, predictable
The basis of musical forms
Balance and Reason
Anleitung zur Composition
Introductory Essay on Composition, 1787) by Heinrich Christoph Koch. One of several treatises written for amateurs who wished to learn how to compose. The most thorough guide to melodic composition based on rhetorical principles.
galant style
An elegan, courtly style associated with pre-Classical and Classic Era music.
 
It is characterized by an emphasis on melody made up of short-breathed, often repeated motives organized in 2, 3, and 4-measures phrases combining into larger periods, lightly accompanied with simple harmony that stops for frequent cadences but freely admits seventh and dimished seventh chords 
recapitulation
replays first theme in tonic key, bridge in first tonic key, second theme in first tonic key, cadence theme in first tonic key
melismatic
an ornamental phrase of several notes sung to one syllable of text, as in plainsong or blues singing.
grave
musical piece performed at a slow temp
interval indicating a cadence in ruth seegers "string quartet"
major seventh
why was hanry cowell unable to work for most of the 1930s
incarceration
Chance music
Music composed by the random selection of pitches, tone colors, and rhythms; developed in the 1950s by John Cage and others
Exposition
sets up a strong conflict between the tonic key and the new key and between the first theme and the second theme
it begins with the first theme in the tonic or home key
Exposition:
-First theme in tonic (home) key
-bridge containing modulation from home key to new key
-second theme in new key
-closing section in key of second theme
intermezzo
Italian comic opera perfored in two or three segments between the acts of a serious opera or play. The enre originated in the early eighteenth centruy when comic scenes were purged from serious operas and the comic characters were given their own separate story. These contrasted sharply with the grand and heroic manners of the principal drama, sometimes even parodying its excesses. The plots usually presented two or three people in comic situations and the action proceeded in alternating recitatives and arias as in serious operas.
Transition (or Bridge)
-In sonata-form, the section that comes between the first theme and the second group and makes the modulation; also called transition.
action
The effort to increase the capacity of the various brass instruments to produce rapid changes in pitch led to the addition of __________, which greatly enhanced their melodic capabilities.
opus
one of the compositions of a composer, usually numbered according to the order of publication.
subject of edgard varese's "ecuatorial"
a south american indigenous prayer
The Four Seasons, by Vivaldi, is a series of ..
violin concerti.
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Wrote 41 symphonies in his lifetime.
Wrote:
- "The Marriage of Figaro"
- "Don Giovanni"
- "The Magic Flute"
What did Beethoven become?
the archetype of the romantic composer/artist.
Versuch einer Grundlichen Violinschule
Leopold Mozart's treatise on violin playing and technique of 1756, one of a number of such treatises published around this time.
Classical vs. classical
Classical is music of this era/time periodclassical: all music in general, artful music
terrace dynamics
volume levels shift from soft to loud without crescendos and decrescendos
the "Americana" sound
What style of music did Virgil Thomson take credit for creating?
Symphony
a long piece of music to be played by an orchestra
Five Orchestral Pieces
Written by Webern, it is very short, compact, high intensity started minimalism
churches, which often symbolized a kind of rational faith during this period, were simple and Classical in style.
Romantic composers generally preferred long, lyrical melody lines to the motivic melodies associated with the Classical composers.
powerful images and music
What TWO elements did "The Plow that Broke the Plains" use to elicit an emotional response?
What is a theme?
the main melody of a piece of music
Varied surface rhythms within movements
The music usually speeds up, slows down, speeds up again, etc. never keeping the same pace.
what 3 traits made henry cowell welcome in the modernist community
his talent, dedication, and fresh perspective
how does aaron copland alter the melody in the seventh variation of "piano variations"?
using octave displacement to create an ascending contour
What book did Adam Smith write? What year was it published?
The Wealth of the Nations, 1776
what kind of person usually sings a worker's chorus (don't over think this)
a worker who has some musical ability and signed up to be part of the chorus
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