Gross Anatomy 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
femoral nerve
Supraspinatus Innervation
Suprascapular nerve
Brachialis Innervation
Musculocutaneous nerve
supination of forearm
adductor longus
obturator nerve
Shoulder Joint socket
Glenoid Fossa
Internal Intercostal Action
Depress Ribs
Teres Minor Innervation
Axillary N.
Transversus Thoracis action
Depresses ribs
proximal: subscapular fossadistal: lesser tubercul of humerusactions: medially rotates and adducts humerusinnervation: upper and lower subscapular nerves
tibialis posterior
supinate footplantarflex foot
obturator internus
externally rotate thigh
quadratus femoris
sacral plexus (L4-S4)
tibialis anterior
deep fibular nerve
Proximal Attachment: Anterior, distal half of humerus
Distal Attachment: Coronoid process and tuberosity of ulna
Nerve to muscle: Musculotaneous nerve to C5, C6
Actions on forearm: Flexes forarm at elbow
Subscapularis Insertion
Lesser tubercle of humerus
Rotatores Origin
Arises from transverse processes
Flexor carpi ulnaris innervation
ulnar nerve
Coracoid Process: attachment for coracobrachialis & biceps short head
Supraglenoid tubercle: attachment for biceps brachii (long heads)
Infrglenoid tubercle: attachment for triceps brachii (long heads)
Pectoralis major-attachments-actions-innervation
proximal: clavicle, sternum, aponeurosis of oblique, costal cartilagedistal:lateral lip of intertubercular sulcus of humerusaction: humoral adduction, flexion, medial rotationinnervation: medial and lateral pectoral nerves
Vertebrae landmark for thyroid gland
adduct thighflex/internally rotate leg @ knee joint
tensor fascia latae
superior gluteal nerve
extensor pollicis brevis
posterior interosseous nerve
1. composed anterolaterally of C-shaped cartilage rings2. posteriorly comprised of longitudinal smooth muscle (trachealis muscle)3. begins at neck below larynx (C6 vertebra level)4. anterior to esophagus5. bifurcates at sternal angle into bronchi (carina)
any motion away from full extension
Levatores Costarum Origin
Transverse processes of T7-11
Obturator Internus Insertion
Greater trochanter of femur
Rotatores Innervation
Dorsal Rami of Spinal Nerves
Boundaries of Posterior Cervical Triangle
-from investing layer of deep fascia to fascial carpet
considered with both anterior and posterior compartments
attachments: lateral supracondylar ridge of humerus to styloid process of radius
actions: flexion of forearm at elbow
innervation: radial nerve C5-C7
Sacrospinalis (erector spinae)
-iliocostalis: lateral column (prominent in lumbar region)-longissimus: intermediate column (extends to skull)-spinalis: medial column
articulates with radius in radiocarpal joint
anterior tubercle provides attachment for flexor retinaculum
forms floor of anatomical snuffbox
most commonly fractured with fall on outstretched hand
Teres major-attachments-action-innervation
proximal: inferior angle of scapuladistal: medial lip of the intertubercular sulcus of the humerusactions: humoral adduction and medial rotationinnervation: lower subscapular nerve
Latissimus dorsi-attachments-actions-innervation
proximal: spines of T7-T12, thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crestdistal: intertubercular sulcus on anterior humerusaction: humoral adduction, extension, medial rotationinnervation: thoracodorsal nerve
Contents of the vestibule/supraglottic region
aryepiglottic folds
vestibular folds
extensor carpi radialis brevis
extends/abducts the hand
serratus anterior
lateral rotation of scapula, protraction of shoulder
flexor digitorum profundus-lateral part
anterior interosseous nerve
Inguinal canal
1. oblique passageway connecting abdominal cavity and perineal region2. created during fetal development by descent of processus vaginalis3. transmits spermatic cord and round ligament of uterus
inferior lip
- labiomental groove found here
palatopharyngeal arch
- contains palatophayngeal muscle- posterior pillar of fauces
Serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity or the coelom — it covers most of the intra-abdominal (or coelomic) organs
XII. Hypoglossal nerve
Sensory :NONE
Motor: Innervation to the intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the tongue
Exits: hypoglossal foramen
Deltoid Action
Flexion, abduction, medial and lateral rotation of the arm.
Levator Ani Insertion
Perineal body, coccyx, anococcygeal ligament, walls of prostate or vagin, rectum, and anal canal
Intertransversii Origin
transverse processes of cervical and lumbar vertebrate
Multifidus Insertion
Fibers pass superomedially to spinous processes of vertebrae above, spanning 2-4 segments
Psoas Major Origin
transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae; sides of bodies of T12-L5 vertebrae and intervening intervetebral discs
Pronator Teres
attaches at midportion of lateral border of radius
actions: pronation
Levator Scapulae
-innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve-attaches superior angle of scapula and transverse processes of high cervical vertebrae-elevate and downwardly rotates scapula
Flexor tendons
flexor carpi radialis tendon occupies seperate compartment deep to flexor retinaculum
tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris passes medial to carpal tunnel, superficial to flexor retinaculum; contains sesamoid bone (pisiform)
tendon of palmaris longus passes superficial to flexor retinaculum to palmar aponeurosis
tendons of digital flexors & flexor pollicis longus pass through the carpal tunnel along with median nerve
tendons of flexor digitorum superficialis split near insertions on middle phalanges to permit tendons of flexor digitorum profundus to pass through; flexor tendons are attached to the phalanges by firbous digital sheaths and the tendons are contained within synovial sheaths in the flexor sheath
Serratus anterior-attachments-actions-innervation
proximal: upper 8-10 ribsdistal: deep medial border of scapulainnervation: long thoracic nerve
Going superior, the oblique arytenoid continues on as what muscle?
aryepiglottic muscle
Sensory structure of the semicircular ducts
crista ampullaris
Innervation of the mucus membrane lining of the walls and contents of the middle ear
tympanic plexus
biceps femoris-short head
flex and externally rotate leg
opponens digiti minimi
deep branch of ulnar nerve
Lateral leg muscles
1. fibularis longus2. fibularis brevis
1. largest serous membrane in human body2. divided into visceral and parietal peritoneum3. parts that exist between organs include: mesentary (sm. intestine), mesocolon, omentum, peritoneal ligaments
- muscular tube lines with muscles- runs from base of skull to lower end of neck- becomes continuous with esophagus
T/F: If the operator inject some anesthetic solution such that it enters the infraorbital foramen, the anesthetic will travel up the infraorbital canal far enough to reach the ASA before it branches from the nerve.
any protuberance on a bone for the attachment of a muscle or ligament
IV. Troclear Nerve
Sensory: NONE
Motor: one muscle which moves the eyeball
Exits: Superior Orbital fissure
Deltoid Origin
Lateral 1/3 of the clavicle, acromion, spine of scapula
Obturator Internus Origin
Pelvic surfaces and ischium; obturator membrane
Splenius Insertion (cervicis)
tubercles of transverse processes of C1-3 or 4
Flexor Carpi radialis action
flexes hand and abducts it
Quadratus Lumborum Insertion
Iliolumbar ligament and internal lip of iliac crest
Cephalic Vein
Ascends lateral aspect of upper limb from dorsal venous arch of hand
traverses deltopectoral triangle into axillary vein
Nerves of hand
Ulnar Nerve C8-T1
Median Nerve C8-T1 (in hand)
Radial Nerve C5-T1

Study and learn this image
pg 21-34 Gray's Atlas
pg 77 Clinical Anatomy
Genioglossus (origin, insertion, innervation, action)
origin- genial terblce of mandible
insertion- entire length of tongue
innervation- CN XII
action- protrude tongue
pharyngeal constrictor muscles (innervation, function)

sensory- CN IX
motor- CN X

action- act in unison to propel food toward the esophagus
What are the two branches of the frontal branch of CN V1
biceps femoris-long head
flex, externally rotate leg, extend thigh
Clinical Notes for Sternum
1. sternal fracture2. contusion3. median sternotomy4. sternal biopsy
Clinical Notes for peritoneum
1. surgical approaches2. laproscopic surgery3. internal hernias4. ascites5. paracentesis6. peritonitis7. guarding
What's a gubernaculum?
A fibrous ligament connecting the developing testes to the ant abd wall near the deep inguinal rings. Also involved in DESCENT OF TESTES.
foamen cecum
- shallow depression just posterior to apex of sulcus terminalis
accessory/minos salivary glands
- open into vestibule through microscopic openings- buccal and labial glands
glandular region
- posterior to fatty region extending onto to soft palate- about 350 palatine glands which produce thick mucous saliva
2nd premolar, apex
To anesthetize the premolars, the needle is directed on the long axis of the ____ premolar to approximately the level of the ____.
Arm Medial Rotation involves
1) anterior fibers of deltoid
2) latissimus dorsi
3) pectoralis major
4) subscapularis
5) teres major
Piriformis Origin
Pelvic surface of 2nd to 4th sacral segments; superior margin of greater sciatic notch and sacrotuberous ligament .
Subcostal Insertion
Superior borders of 2nd or 3rd ribs below
Pronator Quadratus insertion
distal fourth of anterior surface of radius
Accessory Phrenic Nerve C5
May lie lateral to phrenic nerve
Serratus Posterior Superior
-deep to rhomboid and fibers are oriented in same direction-supplied by branches of the intercostal nerves-weakly elevates the upper ribs
What is the name of the parasymp. ganglion associated with CN III?
ciliary ganglion
Openings INTO the middle meatus
middle ethmoid sinus
anterior ethmoid sinus
frontal sinus
maxillary sinus
Function of auditory tube
maintain similar pressure on inner surface of tympanic membrane as exists on its outer surface
extensor digitorum longus
extend phalanges of 2nd to 5th phalanges at MTP joints and ITP jointsdorsiflex foot
Sympathetic innervation of head
same as somatic innervation to head
Borders of Lung
1. anterior (inc. cardiac notch in left)2. posterior3. inferior
What nerves innervate the parietal pleura?
Intercostal nerves (costal-cervical pleura), phrenic nerves (mediastinal and central diaphragmatic pleura) and the lower five-six intercostal nerves (peripheral diaphragmatic pleura)
fatty region
- lateral to palatine raphe in hard palate
a blood vessel that drains blood from the large intestine. Terminates when reaching the splenic vein, which goes on to form the portal vein
Inferior Mesenteric Vein
Erector Spinae Insertion (Longissimus)thoracis, cervicis, and capitis
fibers run superiorly to ribs between tubercles and angles to transverse processes in thoracic and cervical regions and to mastoid process of temporal bone.
Flexor digitorum profundus insertion
bases of distal phalanges of medial four digits
Proximal & Distal Radioulnar Joints
radial head glides against radial notch of ulna in pivoting type joint
distal end of radius has ulnar notch which glides over head of ulna in pronation/supination
radius & ulna secured to each other along most of their lengths by the interosseous membrane
Lower subscapular nerve
branch of the posterior cord of the brachial plexussensory, postganglionic sympathetic, motor innervation of subscapularis and teres major
Describe the composition of the lateral and medial parts of the external auditory meatus.
lateral 1/3- cartilaginous
medial 2/3- bony
What are the portions that the temporal bone is divided into and their general locations?
petrous (inside skull)
squamous (lateral)
Name the foramina of the middle cranial fossa.
superior orbital fissure
foramen rotundum
foramen ovale
foramen spinosum
carotid canal
foramen lacerum
Single Innervation of Organ
1. only one nervous system regulates activity2. blood vasculature (arterioles) to skin and skeletal muscles
Nerves of thoracic cavity
1. intercostal nerve: anterior rami of T1 through T11, transverse space in costal groovea. sympathetic, muscular, cutaneous, sensory to mammaryb. 1-6 end cutaneously; 7-11 go to abdominal cavity2. subcostal nerve-anterior ramus of T123. posterior rami of T1-T12: sensory and muscular to mid back region
Lobes and Fissures of Lung
1. Right: horizontal and oblique fissures- upper, middle, and lower lobes2. left: oblique fissure--upper and lower lobes
Which arteries supply the diaphragm? Where the these arteries originate?
Musculophrenic arteries supply the diaphragm; they are branches of the internal thoracic arteries, which are in turn derived from the subclavian
To inject the IAN we will use ____ of the length of a long needle.
VII. Facial Nerve
Motor Functions?
Motor: innervation to the muscles of facial expression ex. buccinator and orbiculairs oculi
Exits: Internal Acoustic meatus
Tendons of all extensor & flexor mm. of forearm are prevented from "bowstringing" by?
Flexor and Extensor Retinacula
Describe the course of the oculomotor nerve.
leaves the brainstem
travels to lateral wall of cavernous sinus
enters orbit via superior orbital fissure
divides into superior and inferior divisions
Function of the cricopharyngeus
Act as a sphincter that must be relaxed in order to swallow
Somatic Distribution of Para and Sympath NS
1. body wall and extremities--> skeletal muscle, bone, and skin2. sympathetic to smooth muscle of vasculature, secretory glands, arrector pili3. NO parasympathetic distribution
dependent areas of peritoneal cavity (lowest)
1. supine: hepatorenal recess2. erect: pelvic portion
What pathological condition will lead to overdeveloped accessory respiration muscles? Which muscles will be overdeveloped?
COPD (also chronic asthma)....leads to big SCM, pec, scalene muscles
facial nerve, cranial nerve VII
___ nerve brings motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, including buccinator and orbicularis oris.
What do clinicians use jugular venous pulse to assess?
function of right side of heart
Selective Activation of Target Organs
1. activation of 1 organ is done independently of other organs innervated by the same system
How does oligohydramnios affect the lungs? At what stage do the lungs begin producing surfactant, and how many weeks into the pregnancy does this occur?
Can lead to insufficient surfactant in the lungs and eventually hypoplasia. @ Canalicular Stage; 16-26 weeks
dental plexus, maxillary teeth
ASA, MSA, and PSA all form a ____ ____, a mesh work of nerves, which innervates the pulps of the ____ teeth.
Name the cranial nerves that carry parpaympathetic innervation...
III. Oculomotor - eye
VII. facial - salivary glands, mucus glands, tears
IX. Glossopharyngeal - parotid gland
X. Vagus- viscera of thorax and abdomen
Course of lymphatic drainage in the neck
mastoid and occipital nodes drain into superficial cervical nodes
superficial cervical nodes drain into the deep cervical nodes
If you hear appendicitis or McBurney's point, what nerve should you think of?
ILIOHYPOGASTRIC. But be aware that numbness of the anterior pubic symphysis and the scrotum is the ILIOINGUINAL.
cranial nerve III, Oculomotor nerve, motor, 4 of 6 eye muscles and focusing, superior orbital fissure
Cranial nerve III, the ____ nerve, is motor and innervates 4 of the 6 muscles that move the eye also controls focus and light control through PNS. Exits the cranium though the superior orbital fissure.
Describe the floor of the tympanic cavity
Jugular wall, a thin layer of bone separating the tympanic cavity from the IJV (IMPORTANT CLINICAL RELATIONSHIP)
How do inguinal canals contribute to testicular development?
They form pathways for teh testes to descend from their intra-abdominal position THROUGH THE ANT ABD WALL.
What is the function of the inferior alveolar N.?
Sensory supply to teeth and gums of lower jaw
1. infiltrate, 2. block IAN, 3. block mental nerve at mental foramen
List 3 ways to numb the labial gingiva of the lower anterior and premolar teeth and adjacent lip.
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