Gross Anatomy 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
brachialis
musculocutaneous
anconeus
radial nerve
knee pit
Popliteal Fossa
Subclavius Innervation
Subclavian Nerve
subscapularis
internally rotate arm
tibialis posterior
tibial nerve
obturator externus
obturator nerve
Proximal Attachments: Coracoid Process
Distal attachments: mid-medial surface of humerus
Efferent Nerves: C6, C7
Actions on Humerus: Flexes and Adducts Arms at shoulder
Coracobrachialis
External Intercostal Innervation
Intercostal nerve
Pectoralis Minor Origin
Ribs 3-5
Palmaris Longus innervation
median nerve
Extrinsic muscles of tongue
genioglossus
styloglossus
hyoglossus
palatoglossus
tibialis anterior
dorsiflex footsupinate foot
flexor digitorum superficialis
median nerve
extensor digitorum
posterior interosseous nerve
cecum
- cul-de-sac- blind pouch
small triangular muscle, placed between the clavicle and the first rib. Along with the pectoralis major and pectoralis minor muscles, makes up the anterior wall of the axilla
subclavius
Piriformis Insertion
Greater trochanter of femur
Coracobrachialis Action
Flexes and adducts arm
carotid sheath
common carotid artery
internal jugular vein
vagus nerve
anconeous
attachments: lateral epicondyle of humerus to posterolateral surface of olecranon process of ulna
 
actions: extension of forearm at elbow
 
innervation: radial nerve C5-T1
Composition of glottis
vocal cords
rima glottis
pronator quadratus
chief pronator of forearm
latissimus dorsi
thoracodorsal nerve (medial subscapular nerve)
extensor digitorum longus
deep fibular nerve
laryngopharynx
- from epiglottis to larynx
Shoulder Flexion involves
1) biceps brachii
2) coracobrachialis
3) anterior fibers of deltoid
4) pectoralis major
In the parasympathetic nervous system, which is longer, the preganglionic or the postganglionic?
Preganglionic
Subscapularis Innervation
Upper and Lower subscapular nerves
Subclavius Origin
Anterior portion of 2nd rib
Multifidus Action
Stabilizes vertebrae during local movements of vertebral column.
Deep Nerves
Spinal Accessory Nerve C1-C5
Phrenic Nerve C3-C5
Brachial Plexus C5-T1
Suprascapular Nerve C4-C6
Dorsal Scapular Nerve C4-C5
Superficial veins
cephalic vein
basilic vein
veins of cubital fossa
Dermatones of hand
thumb C6
#2&3 C7
#4&5 C8
Lumbrical Muscles
attachments: tendons of flexor digitorum profundus to lateral sides of digital extensor expansion of digits II to V
 
innervation: median nerve C8-T1 (lumbricals 1&2), ulnar nerve (lumbricals 3&4)
 
actions: extension at PIPs & DIPs, flexion at MCP joints
What muscles depress the scapula?
Pectoralis minorTrapezius
Teres minor:-attachments-actions-innervation
proximal: lateral border of scapuladistal: inferior impression of greater tubercle of humerusinnervation: axillary nerve
tensor fascia latae
abduct thigh at hip
rectus femoris
extend leg at kneeflex thigh
teres minor
axillary nerve (C5 and C6)
Quadriceps muscles
1. vastus medialis2. vastus lateralis3. vastus intermedius4. rectus femoris
eminence
- raised area above surrounding surfaces- bump
soft palate
- posterior part of palate
1st
Easiest way to the infraorbital foramen is to follow the long axis of the ___ premolar.
Genital wart caused by epidermotropic human papillomavirus
Condyloma Acuminata
II. Optic Nerve
 
Sensory?
 
Motor?
 
Exits?
Sensory: Sense of Sight
 
Motor: NONE
 
Exits: Optic foramen & canal
Serratus Posterior Inferior Origin
Spinous processes of T11-L2
Teres Minor Origin
Lateral margin of infraspinatus fossa
Pectoralis Minor Insertion
Coracoid process of the scapula
Internal Intercostal Insertion
Superior border of ribs below
Anconeus Insertion
Lateral surface of olecranon and posterior ulna
superficial fascia
contains platysma muscle supplied by facial nerve
capitate
large, central, gets most of force directed to hand through wrist
Posterior Compartment Forearm-muscles-arteries-nerve
Extensors and Supinators of ForearmAbductor pollicis longus, Brachioradialis, Extensor carpi radialis brevis, Extensor carpi radialis longus, Extensor carpi ulnaris, Extensor digitorum, Extensor digiti minimi, Extensor indicis, Extensor pollicis brevis, Extensor pollicis longus, SupinatorCommon Artery: Radial Artery, Ulnar Artery, Posterior interosseousCommon Nerve: Radial
What muscles protract the scapula?
Pectoralis minorSerratus anterior
What muscle abducts the vocal cord?
posterior cricoarytenoids
The anterior clinoid processes serve as the attachment points for what structure?
Tentorium cerebelli
palmar interossi
adduct fingerflex finger @ MT jointextend finger @ IT joint
biceps femoris-long head
tibial portion of sciatic nerve
Anterior leg muscles
1. Tibialis anterior2. extensor hallucis longus3. extensor digitorum longus4. fibularis tertius
Clinical Notes on Bronchi
1. bronchoscopy2. bronchial obstruction3. inhaled foreign object (right bronchus--bigger)
gingival mucosa
- soft tissue surrounding teeth- firmly attached to teeth and alveolar bone
alveolar mucosa
- loose mucosa over alveolar processes
ASA, MSA
If the infraorbital nerve is anesthetized, its two main branches, ____ and ____, will also be anesthetized.
bony prominence on each side of the ankle
malleolus
Serratus Posterior Superior Origin
Ligamentum nuchae, spinous processes of C7-T3
Splenius Capitis Insertion
fibers run superolaterally to mastoid process of temporal bone and lateral third of superior nuchal line of occipital bone
Interspinales Action
Aid in extension and rotation of vertebral column.
Pronator Quadratus Origin
Distal fourth of anterior of ulna
Suprascapular Nerve C4-C6
From trunks of BP
 
Lateral to brachial plexus
Radial Nerve C5-T1
from posterior cord of brachial plexus
 
passes along radial groove (spiral groove) of posterior humerus
 
supplying mm. of posterior compartment
 
passes laterally at elbow and splits at the lateral epicondyle into superficial and deep branches of radial nerve at edge of cubital fossa
Interosseous Muscles
2 sets: palmar interosseous and dorsal interosseous
 
attachments: sides of metacarpals to axial surfaces of 2, 4, 5th proximal phalanges (palmars); external surfaces of digits II, III (2), & IV (dorsals)
 
actions:
ADDuction of digits II, IV & V (PAD = Palmars adduct)
ABduction of digits II, III (bilateral) & IV (DAB = Dorsals abduct)
Note: Collateral ligaments of MCP joints restrict ABduction with a tight fist
Lymphatics-Infraclavicular nodes
drain lymph from lateral arm and shoulder following cephalic veinlocated near coracoid process along superior aspect of cephalic vein
location of subglottic region
area below true vocal cords
flexor digitorum longus
flexion of phalanges of big toeplantarflexion of foot
Medial thigh muscles
1. adductor magnus2. adductor longus3. adductor brevis4. gracilis5. obturator externus
Clinical Notes for Hiatuses of Diaphragm
1. hiatal hernia
Clinical Notes on Mediastinum
1. mediastinal subdivisions2. widened mediastinum (bleeding)
What structure runs vertically between the esophagus and the vertebral bodies?
The thoracic duct
submandibular gland
- lies under floor of mouth- superficial to mylohyoid muscle- located more posteriorly and inferiorly than the sublingual glands- produce about 2/3s of total saliva- primarily serous saliva
AMSA
The ____ injection is made palatal to the maxillary 1st premolar where the roof meets the wall, anesthetizing palatal soft tissue and pulpal of premolars and anteriors.
a long bone in the arm or forelimb that runs from the shoulder to the elbow
humerus
Subcostal Insertion
Superior borders of 2nd or 3rd ribs below
Pectoralis Major Origin
medial 1/2 of clavicle and anterior part and body of sternum
Triceps Brachii Action
Extends forearm and the long head steadies head of abducted humerus
Quadratus Lumborum Innervation
ventral branches of T12 and L1-4 nerves
Ulna: medial bone of forearm
olecranon: prominence of elbow, attachment for triceps brachii
 
semilunar (trochlear) notch: articulates with trochlea of humerus
 
coranoid process: anterior lip of above notch, brachialis m. attaches
 
radial notch: receives head of radius
 
head: rounded distal end articulates with wrist: articular disc permitting greater ulnar than radial deviation
 
styloid process: attachment for ulnar collateral ligament of wrist
What muscles make up the intermediate layer of the anterior compartment of the forearm?
Flexor digitorum superficialis
Name all the extraocular muscles innervated by CN III.
medial rectus
superior rectus
inferior rectus
inferior oblique
What mucles act to relax the vocal cord?
thyroarytenoid
vocalis muscle
What is the name for the space superior to the main tympanic cavity?
epitympanic recess
Describe the innervation of the parotid gland
Parasympathetic preganglionic fibers arise from CN IX
synapse in the otic ganglion, giving rise to postganglionic fibers
Reach the gland via auriculotemporal N(branch of CN V3)
Medial pterygoid (origin, insertion, innervation, action)
origin- maxilla and spenoid
insertion- angle and ramus of mandible
innervation- CN V3
action- elevate mandible and side to side movements in chewing
Characteristics of Physiologic Receptors
1. respond to innocuous stimuli2. monitor visceral functions and elicit visceral reflexes for homeostasis3. carried by afferent nerve fibers of parasympathetic portion of ANS
Anterior articulations of ribs
1. true ribs--1 thru 7-->sternocostal joints2. false ribs--8-10-->interchondral joints3. ribs 11 and 12 have no anterior artic. (floating)
What's the Morrison's Pouch?
aka Hepatorenal recess, it's a peritoneal fold b/w posterior peritoneal fold of kidney. It's the most gravity-dependent area (for fluid) in the supine position.
nasopharynx
- from roof of nose to soft palate- contains auditory tube and phayngeal tonsils
lingual tonsil
- located on the surface of posterior 1/3 tongue
long buccal nerve
The buccal gingiva is innervated by the ___ ___ nerve which originates from the mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve in the infratemporal space.
What are the 3 differences between sympathetic and parasympathetic?
Sympathetic has
 
1. More branching
2. Longer postganglionic
3. norephephrine is a chemical mediator
Serratus Posterior Inferior Innervation
Anterior rami of T9-12 thoracic spinal nerves
Superficial nerves (cutaneous sesory anterior primary rami of cervicle plexus)
 
Three Go Up
1. Lesser Occiptal Nerve C2
 
2. Great Auricular Nerve C2 &C3
 
3. Transverse Cervicle Nerve C2 &C3
Medial brachial and antebrachial cutaneous C8-T1
from medial cord of brachial plexus
 
supply medial skin of upper limb
Lateral Pectoral nerve
Branch of the lateral cord of the brachial plexussensory, postganglionic sympathetic, motor innervation of pectoralis major and minor
What makes up the lateral wall of the nasopharynx?
auditory tube
Structural contents of the anterior cranial fossa
Crista galli
Cribiform plate
Anterior clinoid processes
extensory digitorum
extend all 4 fingers at MT and IT joints
Sympathetic Innervation of somatic structures: postganglionic (except head)
1. preganglionic leave as anterior roots of T1-L3 spinal nerves2 enter sympathetic trunks (white rami communicates)3. postganlionic acons send axons back to T1-L3 spinal nerves and distribute to body (gray rami communicantes)
Clinical Notes for Thoracic Cage
1. thoracic wall plasticity2. slipping ribs3. extra ribs(lumbar and cervical)4. thoracic outlet syndrome
What's a femoral hernia?
A hernia that passes under the inguinal ligament
Doing an appendectomy, which nerve should you be careful not to cut?
The iliohypogastric. NOT ilioinguinal--is lower towards iliac spine
hamular notch
- can be palpated just distal to third molar on soft palate- pterygoid mamulus is under mucosa- tensor veli palatini muscle slides around hamulus, extends to soft palate
incisive and mental nerves
The inferior alveolar nerve enters the mandibular foramen and runs within the mandible. It ends by dividing into the ___ and ___ nerves.
Erector Spinae Action (acting bilaterally)
extend vertebral column and head; as back is flexed they control movement by gradually lengthening their fibers
Flexor Retinaculum (anterior, palmar surface)
overlies groove in carpus to form carpal tunnel (conveys various flexor tendons & median nerve to palm)
What nerve forms the tympanic plexus? What is the origin of this N.
tympanic plexus formed by tympanic N.
bracnh of CN IX b4 it transverses the jugular foramen
Visceral Distribution of Para and Sympa
1. viscera of thoracic, abdominal cavities, perineum, and pelvic cavity receive both symp and para
What pathological condition will lead to overdeveloped accessory respiration muscles? Which muscles will be overdeveloped?
COPD (also chronic asthma)....leads to big SCM, pec, scalene muscles
upward, inward, and backward, laterally
In PSA nerve block, the anesthetic needle is inserted ____, _____ and ____ allowing the needle tip to approach the posterior surface of the maxillary tuberosity, then swing the barrel of the syringe _____ at the corner of the roof and wall of the vestibule meet.
Great Auricular Nerve C2 & C3
Vertically across SCM to supply skin around external ear
What muscles are found within the soft palate?
tensor veli palatini
levator veli palatini
musculus uvuli
Lymphatic drainage of abdominal wall
1. skin and fascia above umbilicus to axillary2. skin and fascia belove umbilicus to superficial inguinal3. lymph vessels from muscle and fascia to lymph nodes near origin of blood vessels supplying area
What level is the appendix innervated at? What type of nerve fibers carry pain sensation during periumbilical pain? When the appendix touches the body wall, what type of nerve is carrying the pain?
T10. Visceral afferents to the DRGSomatic afferents from parietal peritoneum (body wall) to DRG.
autonomic nervous system = entirely motor
The ____ nervous system is entirely motor.
Describe the couse of the dural venous sinuses
Superior and inferior saggital sinuses course along falx cerebri
Inferior sinuses joined by greater cerebral vein to form straight sinus
All three enter at the confluence of sinuses
Confluence of sinuses become the right and left transverse sinuses
Drain into the sigmoid sinuses
they will drain into the internal jugular vein
What causes a hydrocele? What's the difference between "encysted hydrocele of the cord" and "congenital hydrocele"?
In an encysted, the hydrocele is relatively cut off from both the tunica vaginalis and the peritoneum--ie, both sides have obliterated. A congeital hydrocele is due to an unclosed processus vaginalis.
sympathetic has longer post ganglion than parasympathetic and used NE and ACh
The ___ nervous system has a longer post ganglion than the ____ nervous system and uses norepinephrine and ACh as chemical mediators.
Where do the gonads develop? What germ layer do they come from? What are the interstitial (Leydig) cells?
Posterior abdominal wall high up in the lumbar region. Testes descend to scrotum, ovaries to pelvis. Intermediate Mesoderm. Leydig cells arise from intermediate mesoderm between the seminiferous cords.
III (eye), VII (salivary glands), IX (parotid gland) and X (viscera of thorax and abdomen)
Name the 4 cranial nerves that carry sympathetic innervation and what they innervate.
What is the function of the lingual N.?
Sensory supply to the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
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