Gross Anatomy 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
lower shoulder
tibial nerve
Infraspinatus Innervation
Suprascapular Nerve
Brachialis Action
Flexes forearm
flexion of forearm
rectus femoris
femoral nerve
vastus lateralis
femoral nerve
Autonomic is entirely (motor/sensory)?
Levatores Costarum Action
Elevate ribs
Internal Intercostal Action
Depresses ribs
attachments: lateral olecranon, lateral epicondyle & ligaments of elbow joint to posterior & lateral surface of proximal third of radius
actions: supination
innervations: deep branch of radial nerve C7-C8
external rotation of arm
adduct and flex thigh
pronator quadratus
anterior interosseous nerve
gluteus minimus
superior gluteal nerve
- any long groove/fissure
Deltoid Insertion
Deltoid tuberosity of humerus
Pectoralis Minor Innervation
Medial Pectoral Nerve
Anconeus Origin
lateral epicondyle of humerus
investing layer of deep fascia
Palmar Arches
branch of digits (digitals)
The structure inferior and lateral to the middle concha
middle meatus
vastus intermedius
extend leg at knee
unlocks rotation movement between femur and tivia during first few degrees of leg flexion from anatomical position
tibial portion of sciatic nerve
the vagus nerve is (sensory/motor/both) and exits the cranium through the jugular foramen.
Hand supination involves
1) biceps brachii
2) supinator
External Intercostal Origin
Inferior border of ribs
Levator Scapulae Action
Elevation of the scapula
Internal Intercostal Origin
Inferior border of ribs
Flexor Pollicis Longus Innervation
anterior interosseous nerve
Radial Collateral Ligament
prevents "varus" deviation (ADDuction)
"Thenar Outcrop" muscles
ABductor Pollicis Longus
Extensor Pollicis Brevis
Extensor Pollicis Longus
innervation: deep branch of radial nerve C7-C8
These tendons bound to anatomical snuffbox.

Within the snuffbox are the superficial branch of the radial nerve & radial artery, the scaphoid bone forms the floor
Radial Artery
traverses "anatomical snuffbox" to dorsum of hand, pierves first dorsal interosseous m. to form deep palmar arch
superficial branch feeds to superficial palmar arch
proximal: clavicle, acromion, spine of scapuladistal: deltoid tuberosity of humerusactions: humoral flexion, medial rotation, abduction, extension, lateral rotationinnervation: axillary nerve
Lymphatics-Anterior nodes
aka pectoral nodesdrain pectoral muscles and breastlymph from anterior nodes drains into central and apical nodeslocated on inferior border of pectoralis minor
Name the parasympathetic ganglion of the facial N.
plantarflex footflex leg at knee joint
tensor fascia latae
abduct thigh at hip
dorsal interossi
deep branch of ulnar nerve
Posterior forearm muscles
1. anconeus2. brachioradialis3. extensor carpi radialis longus4. extensor carpi radialis brevis5. extensor carpi ulnaris6. supinator7. abductor pollicis longus8. extensor pollicis brevis9. extensor pollicis longus10. extensor digiti minimi11. extensor digitorum12. extensor indicis
palatophayngeal fold
- covers palatophayngeal muscle- posterior pillar
movement which brings a body part closer to the sagittal plane
Proximal Attachment: Middle part of axillary border of scapula
Distal Attachment: Inferior aspect of greater tubercle of humerus
Action on humerus:
1) laterally rotates and weakly adducts arms at shoulder
2) draws humerus toward glenoid fossa of scapula t
Teres Minor
VIII. Vestibulocochlear nerve
Sensory: Concerned with equilibrium and balance (vestibulo) and hearing (cochlear)
Motor: NONE
Exits: Internal Acoustic meatus
Rhomboid Minor Origin
Ligamentum nuchae and spinous processes of C7 and T1 vertebrae
Splenius Action (acting together)
Extend head and neck
Biceps Brachii Origin
Long Head-supraglenoid tubercle of humerusShort Head-coracoid process
Brachial artery
continuation of axillary artery at inferior border of teres major
follows medial surface of arm to cubital fossa
ends in radial and ulnar artery
Other branches include:
deep brachial (profunda brachii)
superior and inferior ulnar collateral aa.
muscular branches to anterior arm
Extensor Digiti minimi
accessory slip of extensor digitorum
attachment: c.e.t. to extensor expansion of digit 5
actions: extension of little finger at MCP, PIP & DIP joints
Extensor tendons
tendons of extensor carpi radialis longus & brevis pass in seperate compartments through anatomical snuffbox, deep to tendons of thenar outcrop mm. which form boundaries of the snuffbox (aBductor pollicis longus & extensor pollicis brevis anteriorly & extenssor pollicis longus posteriorly)
tendons of extensor carpi ulnaris, digital extensors & extensor digiti minimi occupy seperate compartments
Posterior Compartment Arm-muscles-artery-nerve
Extensors of shoulder and elbowTriceps, AconeusCommon Artery: Profunda brachii arteryCommon Nerve: Radial Nerve
Location of vestibule
area superior to vestibular folds
Hypoglossus (innervation, action)
innervation- CN XII
action- depress tongue
abductor pollicis longus
extend and abduct the thumb
flexor pollicis brevis
recurrent branch of median nerve
Rib fracture
1. most common major trauma-induced thoracic injury2. Can cause intrathoracic injury especially 1st rib
Four Compartment Model
1. superior mediastinum2. anterior mediastinum (sternum to anterior pericardium)3. middle mediastinum (heart)4. posterior mediastinum (posterior pericardium to vertebral column)
- lining of oral cavity- gingival, alveolar, mucogingival
functional parts of an organ in the body
a cavity, depression, or hollow in a bone
Nerves used in swallowing...
V. Trigeminal- muscles of mastication
VII. Facial- muscles of facial expression
X.Vagus- motor to larynx and pharynx
XII.Hypoglossal- tongue muscles
Serratus Posterior Superior Insertion
Superior borders of 2-4 ribs
Teres Minor Insertion
Greater tubercle of humerus, middle 1/3
Intertransversii Innervation
Dorsal and ventral rami of spinal nerves
Pronator Quadratus action
pronates forearm; deep fibers bind radius and ulna together
Iliacus Insertion
lesser trochanter of femur and shaft inferior to it, and to psoas major tendon.
Anterior Arm and Forearm: Borders
Brachioradialis (lateral)
Pronator Teres (medial)
Imaginary line joining lateral and medial epicondyles of humerus
Serratus posterior inferior
-supplied by branches of intercostal nerves-deep to latissimus dorsi and attaches to lower ribs-Depresses lower ribs

Study and learn this image
pg 21-34 Gray's Atlas
pg 77 clinical Anat
What structure forms the anterior part of nasopharynx?
soft palate
Functions of larynx
sound production
act as sphincter to close airways during swallowing, preventing aspiration of food and liquids
Superior and middle concha attach to what bone?
ethmoid bone
Innervation of the paranasal sinuses
branches of CN V
What is the cartilagenous portion of the auditory tube that opens into the nasopharynx called?
torus tubarius
flex finger @ MT jointextend finger @ IT joint
flexor pollicis longus
sole flexor of thumb's distal phalanx
Types of Visceral Sensory Receptors
1. nociceptors2. physiologic receptors
Rectus sheath
1. dense CT that envelopes rectus abdominus2. formed by lateral muscles en route to linea alba
What CAUSES cryptorchism?
A defective gubernaculum or hormonal failure.
parotid gland
- produces 25% of saliva- primarily serous
canine fossa
- shallow depression just distal to canine eminence
- portion of oral cavity that lies btwn teeth and gingiva on one side and lips and cheeks on other side- outside of teeth
both true!
T/F: Anesthetizing the IAN will numb the lower quadrant including the gingiva and lip in anteriors. anesthetizing just the mental nerve at mental foramen will affect only soft tissue in anterior region.
in the kidney, surrounds the apex of the renal pyramids
minor calyx
Teres Major Origin
Dorsal surface of inferior angle of scapula
Semispinales Insertion (thoracis, cervicis, and capitis)
fibers run superomedially to occipital bone and spinous processes in thoracic and cervical regions.
Flexor Pollicis Longus Insertion
Base of distal phalanx of thumb
Psoas Major Insertion
strong tendon to lesser trochanter of femur
Musculocutaneous Nerve C5-C7
From lateral cord of brachial plexus, pierces coracobrachialis to enter anterior compartment of arm
supplies mm. of flexor compartment
continuing onto forearm as lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerve
Suprascapular nerve
Branch of the Upper trunk (C5-6) of the Brachial Plexus sensory, postganglionic sympathetic, and motor innervation to supraspinatus, infraspinatus
Name the muscles that are responsible for closing the layrngeal inlet during swallowing.
transverse arytenoid
oblique arytenoid
thyroepigglotic muscles
Innervation of hard palate
Branches of V2- nasopalatine N.'s, greater palatine N.
Salpingopharyngeus muscle and fold (origin, insertion, innervation, action)
origin- torus of auditory tube
insertion- thyroid cartilage
innervation- vagus N.
action- elevate pharynx during swallowing
Composition of inner ear
Membranous labyrinth within the bony labyrinth which is within the temporal bone
extensor indicis
extend index finger at MT and IT joint
Characteristics of nociceptors
1. respond to stimuli in damaged tissue or potential to be damaged2. visceral pain--dull and difficult to localize3. may include referred pain--crossing of ANS and somatic sensory nerves4. carried by afferent nerve fibers of sympathetic ANS
Neurovascular supply of peritoneum
1. vascular and neural innervation derived from structures over which peritoneum lies2. visceral: autonomic innervation from organ3. parietal: somatic from adjacent abdominal wall or diaphragm
What embryological structures produce the actual SYMPTOMS of Coarc Aorta?
3rd, 4th, 6th pharyngeal arteries.
filiform papillae
- hair-like, flesh colored - found in lines parallel to sulcus terminalis
pterygomandibular raphae/fold
- laterally on each side of mouth- curtain-like connection btwn pterygoid hamulus and posterior end of mylohyoid ridge- appears to run from medial of maxillary tuberosity to retromolar pad of mandible- easier to see when mouth is stretched open
fungiform papillae
- very red - mushroom shaped- contain taste buds
mental nerve
___ nerves comes out of the mental foramen and innervates soft tissue only.
Levator Scapulae Insertion
Superior part of medial border of the scapulae.
Flexor digitorum profundus action
flexes distal phalanges of medial four digits
Deep Brachial Artery (Profunda brachii)
branch of brachial artery follows radial nerve in spiral groove on posterior humerus
continues as radial collateral artery to join lateral anastomosis at elbow
supplies triceps
Hypothenar Muscles: ABductor, flexor, & opponens digiti minimi
attachment: flexor retinaculum & hook of hamate (f.& o.d.m.)' from pisiform (a.d.m) to #V proximal phalanx (a.d.m. & f.d.m.); medial side of 5th metacarpal (o.d.m.)
innervation: ulnar nerve C8-T1
actions: ABduction, flexion, opposition (folding palm & lateral rotation of metacarpal V to touch finger to thumb)
NOTE: the small palmaris brevis m. lies superficial to hypothenar mm. attaching to palmar aponeurosis and skin of hypothenar eminence
Medial cutaneous nerves
branch of medial cord of the brachial plexussensory, postganglionic sympathetic innervation of the skin on medial side of arm and forearm
Function of chorda tympani N.
taste of anterior 2/3 of tongue
preganglionic parasympathetic N. supply to sublingual and submandibular glands
Anterior thigh muscles
1. pectineus2. psoas major + iliacus = iliopsoas3. vastus medialis4. vastus intermedius5. vastus lateralis6. rectus femoris
Clinical Notes for Neurovascular supply of diaphragm
1. paralysis of phrenic nerves2. diaphragmatic pacing3. phrenic nerve block
Cutaneous innervation of abdominal wall
1. same as muscular2. T7-xyphoid process3. T10-umbilicus4. L1-pubis
What is rebound tenderness?
Doctor attempts to elicit pain by creating a wave effect in the abdominal cavity. Used to Dx appendicitis.
labial commissures
- where upper and lower lips meet each other at the angle of the mouth
List the 4 nerves used in swallowing
Flexor carpi ulnaris insertion
pisiform bone, hook of hamate and 5th mc bone
What muscles attach at the common extensor origin? (4)
common extensor origin= lateral epicondyle of humerusExtensor carpi radialis brevisExtensor carpi ulnarisExtensor digitorumExtensor digiti minimi
If the cricopharyngeus fails to function, what are the clinical consequences
Inhalation of food and eventually acute respiratory infections
Function of the buccinator muscle
Press cheeks against teeth and prevent food from accumulating in area between the cheeks and teeth during mastication
Muscles that pull pectoral girdle from anterior chest wall
1. serratus anterior2. pectoralis minor 3. subclavius
General Features of Abdominal Wall
1. consists of 4 muscles2. superficial fascia- fatty (camper's) layer and membranous (scarpa's) layer3. deep fascia4. aponeurosis5. umbilicus
Is the diaphragm a muscle of inspiration or expiration? For quiet expiration are any muscles needed? Which?
Diaphragm is for inspiration; expiration can occur due to the elasticity of the lungs.
trochlear, cranial nerve IV, motor, one muscle of eye, superior orbital fissure along with cranial nerve III, oculomotor nerve
The trochlear nerve, cranial nerve ___, is ____ and supplies one muscle that moves the eyeball and exits the superior orbital fissure along with cranial nerve ____, ____ nerve.
What muscles make up the superficial layer of the anterior compartment of forearm?
Pronator Teres, Flexor carpi radialis, Palmaris longus, Flexor carpi ulnaris
The gag reflex, causing movement of the uvula, is used to clinically test for the function of what Nerve? What happens if this nerve is injured?
vagus N.
with injury, uvula deviate away from side of the injury
Location of Postganglionic Nerve Cell Bodies in Parasympathetic System
1. small and located within or adjacent to walls of organ being innervated2. some functionally integrated into enteric NS3. preganglionic are long in comparison to postganglionic
List the key contents of the spermatic cord.
testicular artery, cremasteric artery, symp. nerve fibers, genital br. of genitofemoral nerve, lymphatic vessels, remnants of processus vaginalis
vestibulochoclear nerve, cranial nerve VIII
The ___ nerve, cranial never VIII, is sensory, exits at the internal acoustic meatus and deals with equilibrium and balance and hearing.
What is the location of the cavernous sinus?
lateral aspect of body of sphenoid bone of either side of the sella turcica
Where does the right marginal coronary artery run? What does it branch off of?
It runs along the diaphragmatic right edge of the heart and branches off (2nd impt branch) of the right coronary artery
1. infiltration, 2. IAN block/lingual nerve block
Name the 2 ways to achieve anesthesia on the lingual of the mandible.
What causes pain in a hernia? Which nerve?
Intestine passing through the ring. ILIOINGUINAL NERVE.
autonomic nervous system = 2 neurons in sequence
The ____ nervous system must have two neurons in sequence.
The Maxillary nerve is located in the infraorbital groove/canal and foramen, branching down the wall of the maxillary sinus to innervate the maxillary teeth and buccal gingiva.
The Maxillary nerve is located in the ____ groove/canal and foramen, branching down the wall of the ____ ____ to innervate the ___ teeth and ____ gingiva.
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