(psychoanalysis) primitive instincts and energies underlying all psychic activity, contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification, Freud's term for the human being's basic drives
representing, intervening, supporting (etc.) on behalf of one or more individuals, groups, or communities, with the goal of securing social justice.
the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The ego operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain, (psychoanalysis) the conscious mind, the part of the personality that is in touch with reality and strives to meet the demands of the id and the superego in socially acceptable ways
Culturally established social behavior and conduct expectedd of a person in any designated interpersonal relationship.
Refers to an individual.
a comprehensive and usually personal conception or view of humanity, the world, or life, the way we see the world around us and all reality
Helps link clinets with community resources and services.
2 Primary components:
1- Involves perspectives on the nature of communities.
2- Involves how social workers practice withi the community context.
-The careful examination and evaluation of beliefs and actions to establish an independent decision about what is true and what is not.
-Not taking things at face value but making a determination about it yourself
A description or representation to help visualize a process or thing that exists.
focusing on strengths provides empowerment. This orientation focuses on client resources, capabilities, knowledge, abilities, motivations, experience, intelligence, and other positive qualities that can be put to use to solve problems and pursue positive changes.
|ethics vs. values||
ethics=right and correct
values=good and desirable
situation where ethical principles conflict and all solutions are imperfect.
focus on material gain through criminal acts(theft, extortion, fencing stolen items, selling drugs), exist in stable lower-class areas in which close connections among adolescent, young adult, and adult offenders create an environment for successful criminal enterprise
During adolescence, the ________ in the brain (which serves as an internal brake on runaway emotions and impulsive actions) is undergoing a hormonal assault.
a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus
- the process of increasing personal, interpersonal, or political power so that individuals can take action to improve their life situations
feelings of intrinsic motivation, in which clients perceive their work to have impact and meaning and perceive themselves to be competent and capable of self-determination
How individuals fit into their community environment and are linked to those who govern them.
The person or persons who call attention to an issue.
The point where two systems (including individuals, families, groups, organizations, or communities) come into contact with each other or communicate.
organizes, guides, and directs a group encounter or gathering
|primary sex characteristics||
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible
|Gilligan: care vs. justice||
Kohlberg's theory focuses mainly on men and centers on a justice perspective while Gilligan focuses on women and their care perspective
Level 1: Orientation to Personal Survival - woman's self-interest, needs and well-being of others are not considered
Transition 1: Transition from Personal Selfishness to Responsibility - a movement in moral though from consideration only of self to some consideration to the others involved
Level 2: Goodness as Self-Sacrifice - putting aside one's own needs and wishes, the well-being of other becomes important, the good thing to do is to sacrifice herself so that others may benefit
Transition 2: From Goodness to Reality - women begin to examine their situations more objectively, the draw away from depending on other to tell them what they should do, they begin to take into account the well-being of everyone concerned, including themselves
Level 3: The Morality of Nonviolent Responsibility - women thinking in terms of the repercussions of their decisions and actions, thinking has progressed beyond mere concern for what others will think about what she does, it involves accepting responsibility for making her own decisions
|Kohlberg's Moral Development||
stages and levels:
(contains 3 levels)
Stage 2: Naive Instrumental Hedonism
In (Stage 2)of Kohlberg's moral development, rules are obeyed in order to receive rewards. Often favors are exchanged.
Level 1: Pre-conventional (self-interest)
Stage 1: Punishment and obedience orientation
Stage 2: Naive instrumental hedonism
Level 2: Conventional (role conformity)
Stage 3: Good boy/girl morality
Stage 4: Authority-maintaining morality
Level 3: Post conventional (Self-accepted moral principles)
Stage 5: Morality of contract, of individual rights, and of democratically accepted law
Stage 6: Morality of individual principles and conscience
Set of elements that are orderly and interrelated to make a functional whole.
|Social Action Model||
Assumes there is a disadvantaged segment of the population that needs to be organized, perhaps in allieance with others, in order to pressure the power structure for increased resources or for treatment more in accordance with democracy or social justice.
|Social Systems Perspective||
Emphasizes analyzing how the various social subsystems within the community interact with each other. It helps you view clients in the context of the larger community system.
the tendency of a system to progress toward disorganization, depletion, and death.
system's tendency to move from a more simplified to a more complex
|Five Phases of Sexual Abuse||
1)Engagement - perpetrator will experiment with the child to see how close he can get and how the child will react
2)Sexual interaction - sexual activity in various degrees of intimacy occurs during this phase
3)Secrecy - sexual activity has already occurred, so the abuser will use some manipulations to hold the victim ensnared in the abuse
4)Disclosure - the victim reveals that abuse has occurred
5)Post-disclosure - time of high anxiety for the victim and family, feelings may include denial on the part of the perpetrator, guilt and insecurity on the part of the victim, and anger on the part of other family members
|5 stages of psycho-sexual development||
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, Genital
1) oral (birth to 18 mos); 2) anal (18 mos to 3 yrs); 3) phallic (3 to 6 yrs); 4) latent (6 to 12 yrs); 5) genital (adolescence)
|treatment for eating disorders||
individual, group, and family therapy; nutrition education and monitoring by a dietitian, medical evaluation and monitoring by PCP,psychological evaluation possible psych medication and monitoring by psychiatrist, possible body image, equine therapy, music therapy, art therapist, or movement therapist can prove to be beneficial: multidisciplinary team focused approach
(1) resolution of the psychosocial and family dynamics that led to the development of the eating disorder (2) provision of medical services to correct any medical problems that resulted from starving, binging and purging, or being obese (3) reestablishment of normal weight and healthy eating behavior
|Comprehensive Sex Ed Programs||
The Sex Information and Education Council of the United States is an organization dedicated to providing comprehensive, effective sex education; Four goals: information; attitudes, values, and insights; relationship and interpersonal skills; responsibility; research has determined that these programs delay first intercourse, reduce the frequency of intercourse, decrease the number of sexual partners, and increase contraceptive use; Seven characteristics: focus on decreasing specific risk taking behavior, based on social learning theory that emphasizes assuming responsibility for behavior, recognizing consequences, and teaching effective strategies to protect oneself, provide vital, practical, and accurate info about the risks of sexual behavior, the address how the media encourage young people to become involved in sexual behavior and help them think about how to respond, they provide examples of practice with communication, negotiation, and refusal skills, reinforce values that address the worth of postponing sexual activity and avoiding risky sexual behavior, and they employ teaching methods designed to involve the participants and induce them to personalize the information
The United States has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy among Western industrialized nations
A special form of input in which a system receives information about its own performance.
|3 Models of change||
2) Social Planning (big agencies, rely on experts)
3) Social Action
|Piaget's Theory (on how people learn)||
Piaget beleived that all people learn how to think in the same way. They all go through various stages of how they think as they develop. As people grow older they begin to think in more complex and abstract ways.
|status of offense||
acts that are defined as illegal if committed by juveniles but not if committed by adults, like running away, truancy, violating curfew, having sexual relations, being ungovernable, and being beyond the control of parents
Refers to a system larger than a small group.
|Clues that Child Abuse has occurred||
bruises and welts, burns, lacerations and abrasions, skeletal injuries, head injuries, and internal injuries; overly compliant and passive, aggressive and attention getting, developmental lag
bruises, lacerations, fractures, burns, head injuries, and internal injuries
extremely passive, accommodating, submissive, behaviors aimed at preserving a low profile and avoiding potential conflict with parents that might lead to abuse (hyper-vigilance); notably aggressive behaviors and marked overt hostility toward others, caused by rage and frustration at not getting needs met; developmental lags
|patterns of sexual activity: race vs. ethnicity vs. poverty||
African American teenagers are more likely to have sexual intercourse than whites and Hispanics; Black females raised in affluent homes are more likely to abstain from sexual activity than those raised in poorer environments; factors related to having sex at a later age include living in an intact family, having a highly educated mother, attending church regularly, and living in a neighborhood with high incomes and low unemployment rates for women