Health Psychology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Physical symptoms
Back Pain
Responders with multiple symptoms tended to be female of low educational level, less often paid work, poorer childhood health and were more anxious and depressed
MS behaviors
Made-up histories
faking syndromes
preventing healing
tampering with test results

Psychological Perspective
Cognitive Appraisal

Woodshop Study - Information is important because it influences your perception of the event. Cognitive appraisal is important to the physiology of the stress response.
increase the symptoms people perceive
Myocardial Infarction
Coronary Heart Disease
Blockage of one of the arteries, damage to heart
"heart attack"
death to cells, part of heart dies

Psychological Perspective
Monkey - diet study

**Food deprivation is a demand that can produce stress

**The demand is not what generates the response. The perception contributes to the response to the stressor - without perception you do not have stress response.
primary appraisal
determination of an events meaning
Both a sensory and emotional experience of discomfort; usually associated with actual or threatened tissue damage
what is average rate of nonadherence?
When Joe's teacher unexpectedly required him to take on an extra project for a cleass tha trequires him to do additional work in the library at nights, his family agreed to provide child care for his 6-year old. In doing so, they were offering
instrumental support
blockage of blood vessel (plaque, calcium, fatty deposits)
Based on Caroline Thomas's Research, which disease is the most correlated with psychological traits?
A biological and biochemical process that begins in the brain and that spreads through the ANS, causing hormone release and eventually exerting an effect on the immune system

Biological Perspective
Father of Stress Research (prolific writer)

Noxious stimulation

Triadic Stress repsonse: enlarged adrenal glands, small spleen & thymus, gastric ulcers
food mixes with hydrochloric acid and pepsin, an enzyme that breaks down proteins
buffering hypothesis
hypothese that social support may mitigate stress indirectly thrugh the use of more effective coping strategies
Types of Goals
Short and longterm
Concrete and abstract
Have to have some probability of reaching
usually a mental target
the most common mental illness
1 out of 5 have a lifetime risk
80% of those with depression tend to develop physical health problems
the 4 bodily fluids (phlegm, blood, black bile, yellow bile) related to personality; disequilibrium was proposed by the Greeks to result in disease
Public health outlets commonly use this type of model
Social ecological
Manuel has been accepted to medical school, which he sees as a real opportunity to use his knowledge in biology and his skills with peple. This situation represents the concept of ________ in the cognitive appraisal process.
Cheranita is experiencing the first stage of hte general adaptation syndrom. an environmental stresor has triggered a process in her brian in which the __________ activates the ___________ nervous system, which stimulates the adrenal gland, which secret
hypothalamus; autonomic
Type of prevention: Getting an annual Pap smear to check for possible signs of cervical cancer
Type of prevention: Having a legal drinking age of 21 to prevent teens form beginning to drink
These cells are produced in the Thymus
This type of personality conceals their true feelings of isolation behind a mask of cheerful self-confidence
Cancer-Prone Personality
helper t cells
sentries that travel through the bloodstream hunting antigens and secreting chemical messengers (lymphokines), which stimulate other immune cells
magrophages (big eaters)
patrol body for worn out cells
indirect effect hypothesis
immunosuppression is an aftereffect of the stress response
Downside to Hope/Optimism
Unrealistic optimism may lead to failure to engage in preventive health practices
Dispositional optimists may fare worse in the face of persistent, uncontrollable stress
a system in which all healthcare needs are provided for a fixed monthly or quarterly fee per person
What are the goals of science?
understanding, prediction, control
Medical student's disease
medical students that learn about symptoms of various diseases, they come to believe incorrectly that they have contrcted one of these illnesses
Al-omari deals with the stress of his daily painful skin medical treatments, by imagining himsself walking across campus again with his friends, laughing and joking with them. Al omari is using which type of conrol?
Somebody snithced on Sam. When his mom heard about his prank, she gave him a spanking. Now his bottom is sore with a dull aching pain. What type of fiber is most likely to be sending thesignal for sam's pain?
Name some psychological strategies for coping with mild to moderate pain?
-reducing negative emotions-distracting himself from his pain-doing a relaxation exercise
signs of HIV
- significant loss of T-helper lymphocytes
(normal: 1000, AIDS: 200)
- reversal ratio of the T4 helper cells (or CD4) to T8 suppressor cells (or CD8)
(normal 2:1 T4 to T8
AIDS: 1:2 T4 to T8)
NAME that GAS stage: Increased blood pressure may lead to chronic hypertension or high blood pressure
This kind special kind of B-Cell remembers specific invaders, making for easier identification in the future
Memory B-Cells
retrospective study
a backward looking study in which a group of ppl who have a certain condition are compared with a group of people who are free of that condition
role constraint hypothesis
says when stressors are the same, gender is irrelevant
the sum total of genes that a person inherits
Acute Pain
Last less that six months and usually treated by drugs or surgery
general practitioner 
a physician trained to treat a wide variety of diseases
What is avoidant coping?
Denial or refusal to acknowledge stress
What are the four organismic models?
1. Medical2. Biogenetic3. Psychosomatic4. psychodynamic
lay referral network
an informal system of individuals who provid advice or information regarding a person's symptoms and health
A medieval knight met a dragon while he was crossing a bridge over a huge chasm. He perceived that his only options were to charge into battle with the deadly beast or leap from the bridge. He was experiencing a(n)
avoidance-avoidance conflict.
Which sex if more likely to "tend and befriend" than fight or flee, male or female?
Effects of Chronic Stress: Increase the risk of coronary heart disease in this system
Cardiovascular and Metabolic System
white blood cells (leukocytes)
infection fighting cells of the immune system
Gratitude Experiment Results: 3 groups Gratitude Group, Hassles group and a control group
Gratitude group showed benefits
1. Psychological (alert, energetic, enthused)
2. Physical (more exercise, better sleep)
3. Interpersonal (more helpful and connected)
The World Health Organization describes health as what?
Positive state of physical, social, emotional and spiritual well-being.
What is behavior epidemiology?
it involves studying how lifestyle and behavior influence health and disease in populations
Obesity is defined as having a body mass index of
greather than 30
According to the Blumberg Study, how to people who are consistently serious, overcooperative, over-nice, overanxious, painfully sensitive, apologetic personalities respond to therapy?
Do not respond well
Who developed an instrument called the Life Events Survey also known as The Social Readjustement Scale to access the number and severity of life events that occur in a two-year period?
Dr. Holmes and Dr. Rahe
Perceived benefits and causal attribution with Heart Attacks
People who blamed their heart attack on others were more likely to have another one
People who look at the perceived benefits of being more appreciative of like were at a less likely risk to get another heart attack
What is Type 2 diabetes?
body becomes resistant to insulin and cannot produce enough
Research on the relationship of hassles and uplifts to health has shown....
some relationship of hassles to health
Why are people so optimistic
Belief that if the problem has not happened one is exempt from future risk
Problem is preventable by individual action
The disease is infrequent
Lack of experience with the disease
What is a cohort?
a group of people who start at the same time.
What is one effect of epinepherine and norepinephrine on memory?
The enhance memories of stressors?
The three types of lymphocites that make up the immune system are:
B-Cells, T-Cells and Natural Killer Cells
What is emotion focused coping?
Is there a way to feel better about it?
All of the following are denger differences that have been shown to exist in the relationship b/t social support and health
-women tend to have more extensive support systems than men-women tend to enjoy more health benefits from social support than men-women are often expected to provide more social support than men
What is the definition of obesity?
Having a very high amount of body fat in relation to lean body mass or BMI of 30 or over
All of the following are concerts a researd needs to consider when using survey methods.
-self-reports may be biased due to social desirability concerns-peple may be unable to accurately answer the survey questions-questions need to avoid making assumptions or leading participants' answers.(NOT: surveys tend to be more expensive than other research methods)
A person living in the US today.......
Is more likely to die of a chronice disease than any other cause of mortality.
Why is aging a huge problem in the 21st century?
1. Caring for the elderly is very expensive2. End of life care is very expensive3. As a society, we have been underfunding social programs that will support the upcoming bulge of older people
Cerebrovascular Disease
fragment of plaque in blood vessels gets stuck in lungs, can be fatal or it can flow to the brain
"pulmonary embolism"
Mass psychogenic illness (MPI)
adrenal glands
secrete the hormones epinephrine(adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) which help to arouse the body in times of stress
emotional maladjustment; involves a high degree of self consciousness and vulnerability to stress as well as the tendency to experience anxiety, hostility, andd epression
Transient Ischemic Attack
Cerbrovascular Disease
disruption in blood flow to the brain, not steady
no damage
causes dizziness
attributions that global, stable, and internal, tendency to ruminate
coritsol levels spiral upwards and hippocampus is damaged, leaving it unable to signal the hypothalamus to shut off the stress response ex. alzheimers, or depression
Imagined or envisioned state or condition toward which a person aspired and which drives voluntary activity
Health conditions, such as stomach ulcers, migraine headaches, and hypertension, that are caused or exacerbated by stress are known as "diseases of ________"
Svetlana is aware of the recommendation to wear sunscreen when she is outdoors. She recognizes that she is at risk and should change her behavior to start wearing sunscreen on a regular basis. However, she has not actually begun changing her behavior, d
Cytomegalovirus (CMV)
OOI - Viral Infection
GI problems, inflamed esophagus, stomach pain
inflamed retina
(could be responsible for T4/T8 reversal)
The release of this catecholmine stimulates the heart, blood sugar level, muscular stength and visceral responses
Significancesurvivalmedicalpsychological economic
-in order for humans to function-lead to treatment-pain is worsened by depression/anixety-make money for US
immunosuppression model
stress suppresses the immune system, leaving the individual vulnerable to opportunistic infection and disease
parathyroid glands
hormones secreted by this gland regulate level of calcium in the body
Grateful Head
Bicycle helmet program slogan called the grateful head. Bicycle helmet use nearly doubled by the last week of the intervention
Why the Health Paradox?
Less tolerance for pain/discomfort
More lifely to seek help that before
People live longer--more likely to suffer from chronic illness
People less willing to tolerate illness
Heightened awareness of health; more likely to notice symptoms
the forecast of the course of disease
managed care
place restrictions on their members choices and services -over 70% of employed americans are on this
Which of the following has ben describe as the "deadly emotion" for Type A people?
The term for beneficial, good, or functional, stress is
These cells are produced outside the Thymus
What is an environmental event or stimulus that threatens an organism and that leads to a coping response, which is any response made by an organism to avoid, escape, from or minimize and aversive stimulus?
NAME that GAS stage: Our susceptibility to illness increases
This hormone increases heart rate and blood pressure
prospective study
a longitudinal study that follows a healthy group of subjects over time
flight or fight reaction
outpouring of epinephrine, cortison, and other hormones that prepare an organism to defend against a threat
Chronic pain
Last 6 months or longer and psychological treatments
may or may not involve clinical signs, symptoms, and a disease entity. involves functional impairment as well as effects on cognitions, emotions, and behaviors
What is seek information?
Learning more about the problem
type of managed care in which members are entitled to use the services of any affiliated physician or hospital with little or no additional charge -visits to specialistas and nonemergency hospital must be preapproved and referred by the primary care physician
Nocebo effect
they perceive side effects, such as dizziness or fatigue, that could not be the direct result of the drug - they manufacture sensations based on expectations
You are a researcher and need to include a physiological measure of stress in your next experiment. Which of the following could you use?
Dr. Philips provides her patients with a lot of opportunity to tell her about their illness experience, including their observations about symptomes, what is important to them, their opinions, desires, and goals for treatment, and views her job as making
mutual participation
Steve shows a persistent pattern of dirnkign too much and often drives drunk. He meets the criteria for the diagnosis of ....
substance abuse
chemical in red wine that reduces LDL, protects from blood clots and artery damage
NAME that GAS stage: Arousal of sympathetic nervous system releases hormones that help prepare our body to met threats or dangers
This results when T-Cells and B-Cells are activated and some of their substances become memory cells; thus the next time it encounters the same antigen, IS is primed to destroy it
Acquired Immunity
between groups design
some getting placebo and some getting active drug
personal control
the belief that we make our own decisions and determine what we do or what others do to us
Unrealistic Optimism
Compared to other people your age and sex, are your chances of getting lung cancer greater than, less than, or about the same as theirs?"
People always think less than for things like Alcoholism, heart disease, diabetes, drug addiction, heart attack, lung cancer, skin cancer, STD. People thought they were more susceptible to Ulcers
Risk factors for depression
Lack of social support, recent stressful life experience, previous history of depression, family history of depression, income, chronic medical condition, female, advanced age
Older americans with sever depression are nearly twice as likely to die during a given period that those without severe depression
laboratory study
a study conducted in the laboratory as opposed to the natural environment
What are the four epidemiological research methods?
1. Surveillance data2. Cross-sectional3. Cohort studies (retrospective and prospective)4. Case-control
competing environmental stimuli
when the environment contains a great deal of sensory info or its exciting, people become less likely to notice internal sensations-people are far more likely to report sensations or physical symptoms when the external environment is boring or lacks info
US healthcare vs other natiosn
-other nations use universal healthcare system-provide healthcare for everyone funded by taxes and payroll deductiosn-healthcare is usually excellent, less complicated and less expensive-In canadian system each province pays its citizens medical bills and determines its own policies such as what type of care will be covered-most canadian physicians are employed privately and patients may choose any doctor they wish
As you drive to school, the radio informs you that there is a traffic accident on an expresway near you. You determine that you will not be affected since you will exit well before any traffic gam will occur. the thought process in which you are engagin
primary appraisal
NAME that GAS stage: Our capacity to resist is depleted
mortality (death)
the number of deaths due to a specific cause in a given group at a given time
Bedscapes and 2 types of relaxation
Psychological- feeling calmer, more serene, relief from anxiety, relief from pain, ease of sleep
Physiological Relaxation- indicated by reduction of blood pressure, heart rate and respiratory rate
What is the equation for interactionism?
Behavior= (f) Person and environment.
complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
methods not included in conventional medicine to prevent or treat illnesses: they are complementary if used along with convetional methods and alternative if used instead of them
Which of the following patients is most likely ot be undermedicated?
8 year old jamie
Suppose that a recent study found an increase in heart and lung disease among people aged 50-60. Further stduy reveleased that, compared to people 20 years younger, these individuals teneded to smoke more during thier young adulthood, b/c they were not a
a cohort effect
In this stage of GAS, the body mobilizes its resources
The Alarm Stage
Animal and Human Studies
Disease is slow and progressive, it is difficult to test stress in humans.

The research is correlational.
How do you express prevalence?
number of people with the disease/size of population.
doctor centered approach to health care
the behavioral style of some physicians in which interactions with patients are highly controlled by the practitioner and focus on the symptoms or treatment rather than the person
According to the gate-control theory of pain, the proposed gating mechanism is found in the
substantia gelatinosa of hte spinal cord
What is surveillance data?
It is a method used to track changes in incidence and prevalence of diseases over time.
3 major types of cognitive strategies for treating pain
-distraction (takes focus off pain stimulus)-imagery (person tries to alleviate discomfot by creating mental scene that's unrelated to pain)-redefinition (person substitues constructive thoughts for ones that arouse feelings of harm)
nicotine-based models of cigarette smoking
-focuses on the role of with drawl symptoms in explaining continuation of smoking
been in place before the disase appeared,make sense, dose-response, relative risk, incidence or prevalence
in order to infer causality, the alleged cause must have ____, the relationship must ____, there must be a ___ relationship, the strength of the ____ must suggest causality, and the _______ of the health outcome must drop when the alleged causal factor is removed.
Main 4 characteristics of a case control study
1. Identify people who have the disease2. Select a matched control group of people without the disease3. Determine exposure to the risk factor in the past4. Compare the proportions of cases exposed to the proportion of controls exposed
Although the percent of people who smoke has decreased over the psat several decades, the tobacco industry is making more money than ever. Why?
-people who are smoking are more likely to be heavy smokers than in previous decades.-Because the population has increased, the absolute number of smokers has increased even though the percent has decreased. -U.S. tobacco compaines have increased exportation to other nations
In the social ecological model, health is a function of what?
Health is a function of how the individual interacts with and is influenced by these larger environmental systems.
Women usually require fewer drinks to get drunk than men in part b/c.....
women have a smaller volume of blood than men of equal body weight
one of the shortcomings of the ehalth belief model is
that there is no standard way of measuring its component
What is the difference b/w stress and a stressor?
Stress is a process and a stressor is an event, situation, or stimulus.
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