Cognition Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
morpheme
minimal meaningful language unit
overgeneralization/overregularization
application of grammatical rules without making appropriate exceptions
Rehearsal
The conscious repitition of information, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage.
Egocentrism
Preoperational child's inability to separate his or her own perspective from those of othersex: 3 mountains
Hill Climbing
A heuristic problem-solving strategy in which each step moves you progressively closer to the final gaol
thalamus (memory)
encoding sensory memory into STM
confabulation
process of combining and substituting memories from events other than the one you are trying to remember
Linguistic Determinism
Whort's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
Rehearsal
Verbal repetition of information in an attempt to learn it.
Hypnagogic Hallucinations
Vivid hallucinations which occur either right before sleep or just as you begin to wake up. You typically see people/things and think they are real.
Syntax
The rules for arranging words into grammatical phrases and sentences
recall
retrieving a memory with an external cue (fill in the blank).
semantic memory
a subdivision of declarative memory that stores general knowledge, including the meanings of words and concepts
insight learning
the sudden appearance (often creative) or awareness of a solution
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
the often temporary inability to access information accompanied by a feeling that the information is in the LTM
deep processing
semantic encoding, the processing of meaning rather than simply the physical or sensory features of a stimulus
procedural memory
memories of perceptual, motor and cognitive skills
Mood-Congruent Memory
The tendency to recall experiences that are consistent with one's current good or bad mood.
emotional intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
Spontaneous retrieval
a retrieval that occurs without making a conscious effort to recall information.
other cognitive skills
memory, attention, lang abilities etc...may affect reading abilities
self reflection
children can analyze their thoughts and actions
~Outer part is the cerebral cortex~Thalamus - (relay station) main inputs to cortex~Basal Ganglia - role in movement~Limbic system - role in emotion~Hypothalamus - sends messages to pituitary gland~Hippocampus - memory storage and consolidation
Cerebral Cortex
characteristic features
attributes that are merely descriptive but are not essential
Gestalt Psych
humans have tendencies to actively organize what we see. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
Heuristics
Rules of thumb that help in simplyfing and solving problems, although they do not gurantee a correct solution
representativeness heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
serial position effect
better recall for information that comes at the beginning (primacy effect) and at the end (recency effect)
acoustic encoding
the encoding of sound, especially the sound of words
mood congruence
tendancy to recall memories that are consistent with one's current mood
Grammar
In language, a system of rules by which enables us to communicate with and understand others.
divergent thinking
thinking that moves away in diverging directions so as to involve a variety of aspects and which sometimes lead to novel ideas and solutions
Multi-modal code
An integration of memory codes such as combining visual and verbal codes.
imitation is not...
necessary for learning to have occurred
top-down processing
the flow of information from long-term memory toward the sensory store
Gamblers Fallacy
is often cited as further evidence that humans are poor intuitive statisticians.
anterograde amnesia
loss of memory for events that occurred after the brain damage
Behaviorist Approach
says psych must focus on objective, observable reactions to stimuli in the environment
functional fixedness
tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions
retrieval cue
a stimulus that provides a trigger to get an item out of memory
intelligence quotient (IQ)
a measure of a person's intelligence as indicated by an intelligence test
dual-coding theory
a theory that memory is improved when items can be represented by both verbal and visual memory codes.
reading is
hard, slow, and takes effort and kids make mistakes unlike with learning to speak
Means-ends behavior
the deliberate use of an action to accomplish some goalex: Kicking dolls to make them shake
American Exceptionalism
Chomsky takes an objective view to the idea of American Exceptionalism. We are the champions of peace, freedom, and democracy We happily spread these wonderful values arond the world We are good and have noble intentions and we fight evil Chomsky does not agree with this view and looks at the US the way other countries do.
superordinate/basic/subordinate-level categories
refers to the specificity of the word and it's category (going from least to most specific)
artificial intelligence (AI)
a field of study in which computer programs are designed to simulate human cognitive abilities such as reasoning, learning, and understanding language
naturalistic study
a study of the TOT state in which people record these events as they occur outside the laboratory.
Orwells Problem
How can we know so little, given that we have so much evidence.
template matching theory
compare a stimulus with a set of templates or specific patterns you have stored in memory (very inflexible)
research has supported the prediction that aggressive children
show problems with social info processing...aslo suggest methods for helping these children, for example, teaching them more non aggressive reponses so they will hav emore options
How is a professors time spent?
Research (70%) Teaching (20%) Service (10%)
1) We prefer stories to statistics
People prefer to believe stories than listen to statistics however eyewitness/anecdotal testimony is unreliable. When available, statistical evidence is always better than anecodotal evidence. ex. breast implants and cancer
two rows of pennies, m and ms...etc..
ask child if rows are the same, spread out one row, ask again. Conserver will say yes, non conserver will say one row has more now
Sub-cortical Structures
Reticular system
alertness
Constituents
Grammatical building blocks.
Treisman’s Attenuation model
Semantic Memory 
factual information 
Global Neuronal Work Space
Primacy and recency effects
Who said 7+-2?
George Miller
Amygdala
emotions and emotional memories
Huntington’s Disease
Striatum diesHyperkinesias (complex involuntary motor movements)
Independent Variables
Hypothesized cause of effect.Manipulated by the INVestigator
Automatic vs. Effortful (aka Controlled) processing
Algorithm
systematic procedure guaranteed to lead to correct solution (time consuming, often too many possibilities) - ex. maze
eyetracker
measure and study eye movements
Scripts
 
describes appropriate sequences of events in a certain context
less flexible schemas 
includes default values for actors, props, setting and sequence of events that are expected to occur
Ex: restaurant script
 
Schema
Generalized knowledge about a situation, place, person, or event(Heuristics)
Exaptation
birds use wings as sun visors
Aphasia
A person who has difficulty communicating, caused by damage to the speech areas of the brain.
arbitrary symbolic
language creates an arbitrary relationship between a symbol and its referent: an idea, a thing, a process, a relationship, or a description
Transduction
 
conversion of energy to neural signals
Transform energy from one form to the other
 
turtles all the way down
infinite regress
treismans feature integration theory:
_____>______>______>_______
object>preattentive stage>focused attention stage>perception
Verification
make sure solution works; sometimes insights are wrong
Retroactive Interference 
opposite of proactive interference. newer material interferes backward in time with your recollection of older items
Which brain imaging technique uses radioactive tracers to measure blood flow?
PET
Attention
process of concentrating on specific features of the environment or on certain thoughts or activities
Mental Imagery
 
imagery: the mental representation of things that are NOT currently being sensed by the sense organs; 
they aren't immediately available but we can still imagine them
can also sometimes represent things that we have never personally observed by our senses (ice cream: color, taste, coldness)
most research focuses on visual imagery; according to research visual images are used and reported much more than other senses
according to researchers, to solve problems & answer certain questions, we visualize the objects in question...we represent them mentally
 
production
An If-Then (condition-action) pair of statements, especially in a model of problem solving. (Ch. 12)
when participants engange in conscious recollection
explicit memory
Propositions
sentences that relate one concept to another and can stand as seperate assertions (ex: snowflakes are made of frozen water)
Tulving
- Anoetic (not knowing) – being aware of things- Noetic (knowing) – understanding the meaning of something- Autonoeatic (self-knowing) – aware of ourselves
Exemplar Model
Category membership is defined by similarity to other specific members of the category explains prototypicality, preserving info about variability and correlated features but violates cognitive economy
Confirmation Bias
In reasoning, the phenomenon that people would rather rey to confirm a hypothesis then try to disprove it.
Iconic Store
discrete visual sensory register that holds information for very short periods of time.Remembered in forms of icons.
coarticulation
occurs when phonemes or other units are produced in a way that overlaps them in time; phonemes in words overlap, as well as in sentences.
Representativeness
make decision based on how example resembles class, often see when people ignore base rate information.
epiphenomenalism
-a kind of property dualism
-the brain influences teh mind but NOT vice-versa
-all thoughts are determined by the brain but there are still different properties  
statistical learning
the process of learning about transitional probabilities and about characteristics of learning
Givens
starting condition (what you know at the outset)
Neuron
a cell that is specialized for receiving and transmitting a neural impulse
Pop-Out
The ability to detect an object amongst distractors objects in situations in which the number of distractors presented is unimportant
Life-narrative hypothesis
people assume their life identities during that time
Back Propagation
error signal is transmitted backward through the circuit; changing the weights
STM
holds 5-7 items for about 15-30 seconds; memory trace decays within 20 s w/o rehearsal
Schacter's 7 Sins of Memory
 
Transience:memory fades quickly
Absent-mindedness: repeated actions, etc check mail; realize already did it
Blocking: similar to "tip of the tongue" for some reason, it's being blocked; issue w/ accesibility
Misattribution: where did I hear that?
Suggestibility: if something is suggested, we're likely to believe it
Bias: personal experiences or beliefs
Persistence: remembering things as significant that may or may not be
 
insight
A deep, useful understanding of the nature of something, especially a difficult problem in a problem-solving situation, often thought to occur suddenly. (Oh. 12) -
What are Propositional Representations?
Propositional representations are based on simple language like units called propositions that become tied together
occurs when individuals lose their purposeful memory for eevents prior to whatever trauma induces memory loss
retrograde amnesia
Mental Set
the tendancy to persist with old patterns for pobrlem solving evenwhen they are not successful
Decision Making
the process of choosing among various courses of action or alternatives
hierarchical semantic networks
proposed Elizabeth Loftus and Allan Collins, networks in their memory that group together related items
Object recognition
process by which you identify the object
Inattential Blindness
participants in study that were not expecting to see shapes didn't see them (or saw them and then immediately forgot) when they had to focus their attention on another point
Inferences: Individuals are unlikely to make inferences if...?
Reading scientific textsReading newspapers with contradictory information
Ill-defined Problem
Problems where the goal is not obvious, means-ends analysis is therefore not useful.
Visuospatial Sketchpad
one of four elements of working memorybriefly holds some visual images
Negative Afterimages
images that are the opposite or complement of actual images -caused by fatigued cells in retina responding to light. fades quickly
Stimulus Salience
area's that stand out and capture attention


 
bottom up processing
color and motion are examples
phases of decision making
-analogy to problem solving model
-rationality (cost/benefit)
goal-derived categories
-____ categories are defined soley by how well their members fulfill a desired goal or plan
ex. things to eat on a diet (not much similarity in observerable features in common)
-related to knowledge approach to categories  
How are consonant sounds made
Consonants: disrupting air flow
Template matching
a model of object recognition proposes that recognition happens when a stimulus matches a template(BUT that would require far too many templates)
Where do schema's come from?
Experiences--children develop these after 1st exposure. This is restricted to the culture you're in.
Language comprehension
Hold sounds in STM, recognize wordss and retrieve from LTM, understand structure of sentence to get meaning, make inferences about the meaning
Input Attention
the basic processes of getting sensory information into the cognitive system
inhibitory neurotransmitters
decreases the changes that a neuron will fire
Donders
Reaction times: the amount of time it takes for a participant to react to a stimulus. Reaction-Time experiment
Retina
A network of neurons that line the back of the eye
Light-from-above heuristic
the assumption that light is coming from above
Declarative Knowledge
 
knowledge of facts that can be stated: a concept that functions to organize or point out aspects of equivalence among other concepts (ex writing your signature---> letters)
we organize concepts into categories
 
Difference between representativeness heuristic and availability heuristic?
Representativeness heuristic - we make estimates based on how similar an event seems to its populationavailability heuristic-we judge the likelihood of events by how easily they can remember examples or instances
What is the best way to avoid problems of suppression or rumination, since it absorbs attention and temporarily helps people to stop thinking about their problems
Distraction
Repetiton-Priming Task
Recent exposure to a word, increases the likelihood the word will later come to mind when given a cue that could evoke many words
amnesia retrograde vs. anterograde
retrograde : can't remember what happened BEFORE the event.
 
anterograde : can't form new memories AFTER
Phonological Similarity Effect
memory span for similar sounding items is smaller than for dissimilar items
Factors Affecting Availability: SIMULATION HEURISTIC
A special case of availability heuristicAvailability = Ease with which one can recall examplesSimulation = Ease with which one can think of (construct) particular scenarios/imagine a series of eventse.g., Judge the likelihood you will be rich
Law of Large Numbers
In decision making, the proposition that large samples will be representative of the population from which they are selected.
Functionalism
* An early approach to the study of consciousness that emphasized the discovery of the basic uses of consciousness and how it helps us adapt in daily life. (What are the FUNCTIONS of the mind? - A functionalist would study the emotion of anger by trying to determine the purpose or function of being angry)
TOT phenomenon
"tip of the tongue" a person feels they know it but cannot immediately retrieve it
Case grammar approach
An approach to understanding how we decide what relationships the words in a sentence have with one another. According to it, we assign roles to words based on how the words are used.
cerebral cortex: frontal lobe
serves higher functioning such as language, thought memory and motor functioning
Recency Effect
the level of correct recall in the final items of the originally presented list, high recency means "high accuracy" low recency means "low accuracy"
Visual Search
A task of detecting the presence or absence of a specific target objet in an array of other distracting objects
Word level
contains word units, which are all of the words that a person knows
Feature Integration Theory
object perception occurs in a sequence of stages in which features are first analyzed and then combined to result in perception of an object; we identify objects by first breakingthem apart into individual “free floating” features in the preattentive stage, andthen re-integrate the features in the focused attention stage, at which point weperceive the object.
Sounds of Language (Phonology)
 

Phonology: the study of how sounds are organized in language. ie which sounds go in order to create words.

Phonemes: the smallest unit of speech sound that can be used to distinguish one utterance from another in a given language. *15 in Hawaiian lang & 12 letters; 46 Eng & 26 letters

Phonological rules: general statements about the relationship btwn sounds; acquired impilicity. ex certain sounds can't be next to each other
 
confirmation bias
A situation in which one searches for evidence consistent with one’s decisions, beliefi, or hypotheses. (Oh. 11)
What is the definition of the attempt to not respond or think at all
Thought suppression
Understand, Plan, Carry Out, Evaluate
4 Steps of Problem Solving:
1. ________ the problem
2._________a solution
3. _________ ____ a solution
4. ______ the results
Indirect Memory Task
Ss are not asked to use their memoriesword fragment completion - implicit stem completionperceptual ID (hard to detect stimuli)Category production
What are Syntactics?What is Syntactical Structure?
Grammatical rules that govern the organization of words into sentences- Sentences are not random strings of words!- A pattern of words in a certain order is the sentences syntactical structure
Analogy Approach
An approach were we use a solution to a similar, earlier problem to help solve a new one.
Problem Solving ModelBlocks to problem solving
1) Functional fixedness (perceptual set)2) mental set (solving problems the same way...you get stuck!!!)3) lack of specific knowledge/experts4) creativity5) evaluate solution/critical thinking (often skipped)
paired associate learning
people are showed pairs of words and later shown one of the pair and asked to recall the other word
What is Tulving's theory of LTM?
Episodic vs semantic vs procedural
Person Identity nodes (PIN's)
An abstract description of people that links together perceptual knowledge (e.g. faces) with semantic knowledge
Definitional Approach to Categorization
can decide whether something is a member of a category by determining whether a particular object meets the definition of the category; matching object to category definition - applies to limited situations
goal and subgoal
The desired end point or solution of the problem-solving activity. (Oh. 12) ; An intermediate goal along the route to eventual solution of a problem. (Cli. 12)
Name that Theory: An EVENT -> physiological AROUSAL and EMOTION at the SAME TIME
Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion
Connectionist achitexcture is good at modeling...
good for modeling: overlap among stimuli, pattern completion/recognition, gradual learning, graceful degradation, learning, priming, categorization
Positron emission tomography (PET scan)
Measures the changes in blood flow within regions of the brain in order to understand the pattern of brain activity.
? How does Baddeley’s working memory model describe short-term, working memory? 4
Phonological Loop Holes, Central Executive--holds Visuospatial Sketchpad and Episodic Buffer
What are the different types of processing?
Top down--drawing inferences, using prior knowledge
Bottom up--using your senses and the info you get from them to figure out what's going on
Is eyewitness testimony reliable? Describe the relevant research that supports yourposition.
No, eyewitness testimony does not seem to be reliable. There aremany research studies that support this, but one of the more compelling wascompleted by Loftus and Palmer. In this study, participants were presented with avideo of a car accident. Afterwards, participants were asked to estimate how fastthe cars were going when they “smashed”, “crashed” or “hit”. Participants wereshown to be very susceptible to the suggestion of the question, responding withfaster speeds when the word “smashed” was used than when the word “hit” wasused. In addition, participants were more likely to “remember” broken glass at thescene when “smashed” was used, even though there was no broken glass in thevideo. This study suggests that the memories of eyewitness can be affected by howquestions are asked, which calls into question testimony prompted by highly biasedlawyers during courtroom trials.
organizing (aka learning) does what two things?
1. connects the stuff together2. creates an algorithm (organizational structre that will help you re-create what you need).
67. What is language?Three points...
1. Most common and universal feature of human society2. Gives us power!!!3. Based on usually arbitrary connections between linguistic elements
What is the difference between functional fixedness and mental set?
FUNCTIONal FIXEDness is the inability to use OBJECT in an unusual way. Mental set being stuck in a PATTERN OF THINKING you cannot go out of.
Sources of overconfidence in decision making
Own knowledge is often based on tenuous assumptions and unreliable sources/informationWe can easily find information to prove our point, but we do not seek information to disprove itCurrent hypothesis seems even more plausible because you can't recall the alternativesAlternative hypothesis sought/found are often not treated seriouslySelf-Fulfilling prophecy: When selected individuals do well, basis for their selection is reaffirmed. BUT non-selected individuals may have also succeeded
What was the bird/antelope example?
You saw birds if the information in the background was more conducive, and antelopes if vice verse. We group facial feature together.
What is the prototype approach to categorization? How does it differ from the exemplar approach?
Prototypes are used first, then exemplars. Exemplars are for small categories and prototypes are for large categories. They work together.
111. What were the three types of sentences used in the Miller and Isard expt?
1. Fully grammatical sentences2. Semantically anomalous sentences3. Ungrammatical string of words
Problems with the Feature Comparison Model
-Very few concepts in everyday life can be captured by a specific list of defining features-Assumption that individual features are independent-Does not explain how the members of categories are related to each other
Attempting to solve the problem: ALGORITHMS
An algorithm is a mechanism that will produce the solution, but sometimes inefficiently- AN EXHAUSTIVE SEARCH!
If a suspect has higher confidence, does this mean they are more accurate?
Nope. It depends more on witnessing conditions (good vs bad)
What are the two kinds of transfer?
1. general transfer = getting your head into the task2. specific transfer = you take specific info from the first task and apply it to the second one.
62. What were the results from Conway, Cohen, and Stanhope's study?Two main results...
1. Recall of material dwindled across 12 years from 60% to 25% for concepts2. Recognition of the same material dropped only a bit, from 80% to around 65 or 70%
What are the downfalls of the feature model of pattern recognition?
Different A's don't have the same features, and T and L have the same features. How did this ever become a theory?
1. How did Bransford and Johnson's experiment relate the long-term memory?
They found that what we remember is affected by what we already know
What did Raskin say about jokes and schemas?
Said first they activate a schema, and then make you laugh by violating that schema--punchline causes you to activate 2nd schema that violates the first one.
What are the downfalls for the template model of pattern recogition?
How in the world would they all fit in your head?! Plus, if you flip something upside down, you still recognize it. And if someone writes an A a weird way, you can still go, oh, that's an A.
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