Cognition final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Signs
Sterotyped communications about an animals current state
metacognition
thinking about how you think
prototype
a standard or typical example
cheater
a selfish nonreciprocator that benefits but never incurs any costs
linguistic determinism
Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think
rehearsal
conscious repetition of information to either maintain information in STM or to encode it for storage
memory
human capacity to register, retain, and remember information. Three models of memory: information processing model, levels of processing theory, Atkinson-Shiffrin model
cognition
all the mental activites associated with thinking, knowing and remembering
factor analysis
a statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test; used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one's total score
social cognition
invovles many areas--anything that involves our thinking about the social worldwe are very good at social interactions, but there are still individual differences in ability
inference
the act or process of inferring.
language
spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
maintenance rehearsal
a working-memory process in which information is merely repeated or reviewed to keep it from fading while in working memory. maintenance rehearsal involves no active elaboration
reconstruction
retrieval that can be distorted by adding, dropping, or changing details to complete a picture from incomplete information
distributed practice
spreading out the memorization of information or the learning of skills over several sessions, typically produces better retrieval than massed practice
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 398)
Long-Term Memory
The relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences.
belief perseverance
believing something even when it's been proven wrong
clustering
percentage of occasions in which a word is followed by its primary associate during free recall of words.
linguistic awareness
learning to recognize and separate units of language (words, syallables, morphemes and phonemes)
Reversibility
The ability to mentally reverse or negate an action or a transformation
Noam Chomsky
recognized as a leading intellectual has ideas about topics that are extremely important to society however, you will never hear about these ideas - why? Noam Chomsky disagrees with the US gov., he dissents from public opinion and is considered dangerous because he does so
retrospective memory
recalling information that you have previously learned
event-related potential
records brief fluctuations in the brain's electrical activity in response to stimuli
Mental Set
The tendency to perceive and approach problems in certain ways
implicit memory
a memory that was not deliberately learned or of which you have no conscious awareness
syntax
rules that are used to order words into grammatically sensible sentences
hindsight bias
the dendency to falsely report, after the event, that we correctly predicted the outcome of the event
Recall
A measure of memory in which the person must retrieve information learned earlier, as on a fill-in-the-blank test.
phoneme
(linguistics) one of a small set of speech sounds that are distinguished by the speakers of a particular language
transfer-appropriate processing
encoding material in a manner related to how the material will be used later.
mastery orientation
a child who displays a master orientation will seek out challenges, persist in difficult tasks, and be likely to attribute failure to a lack of effor (if they try harder, maybe they can do it)
The Cognitive Revolution
A scientific revolution that promises to unlock the secrets of the mind
tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
the subjective feeling you have when you are confident that you know the target word for which you are searching, yet you cannot recall it
Ecological Validity
occurs when the conditions in which the research is conducted is similar to the natural setting where the results will be applied
flashbulb memory
a clear and vivid long-term memory of an especially meaningful and emotional event
neural network/parallel processing model
clusters of neurons that are interconnected (and computer models based on neuronlike systems) process information simultaneously, automatically, and without our awareness
Confirmation Bias
A tendency to search for info that supports our preconceptions and ignore or distort contradictory evidence.
functional fixedness
fixed on the usual function of an object
flashbulb memory
a memory of an important event that caused an emotional reation.
stage one humor development
18-24 months: substituting one object for another in pretend play (shoe for a telephone)
positron-emission tomography (PET)
measures the brain's blood flow by sensing low-level radiation to determine brain activity in different parts of the brain
How & why do context, cohort, age, and culture influence patterns of cognitive development?


1.Environment:
higher SES, education, income, job complexity all decrease cognitive decline.


repetition priming task
recent exposure to a word increases the likelihood that you'll remember this word when exposed to a cue that would evoke many different words
retrograde amnesia
memory loss for a segment of the past, usually around the time of an accident
piaget stated that children did not really understand math until they understood
reversibility---tested by showing children an array of 8 items and then splitting the array first in half and then again unevenly (4+4 or 1+7)
Briefly trace the history of the controversy regarding adult intelligence, including the findings of cross-sectional and longitudinal research & how cross-sequential research compensates for the shortcomings of the other methods.
Cross-sectional designs, male intelligence peaks at age 18 & declines during mid 20s. Younger adults outscore older adults. Longitudinal designs, child geniuses still improving by age 36.Cross-sequential, study confirmed that mental abilities improve during adulthood. Not until 80s that most people fall below the mid-range performance of young adults.
stroop effect
when it is difficult to say the ink color
one to one principle
each item is associated with one and only one counting word
The notion of a \"Confound\"
Scientific thinking tries to rule out other causes until you narrow it down to one cause.
What are the 2 types of research?
Research 1: Finding out things \"researching\" what already exists Research 2: Discovering/poducing new ideas/results that do not already exists. Contribution to knowledge.
What are the 6 basic mistakes of our thinking?
We prefer stories to statistics We seek to confirm, not question ideas We sometimes misperceive the world around us We tend to oversimplify our thinking We overestimate the reliability of our memories We underestimate the role of chance and probability
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