Hesi Biology Flashcards

Terms Definitions
CELLS ARE
PROKARYOTESEUKARYOTES
describe chlamydiae
intracellular parasites
example of species
sapien
AGONIST
GENERATES; GROWTH,SECRETION, MOBILITY,METABOLISM AND GENE EXPRESSION---CALLED AMPLIFICATION
1 MICRON
0.000001 METER
HOMOZYGOUS
YY OR yy
Intracellular digestion takes place.
Liposome
CHLOROPLASTS
RESPONSIBLE FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS, TRAPPING OF LIGHT ENERGY FOR THE SYNTHESIS OF SUGARS. CONTAINS DNA
HELICOBACTER
BACTERIA CAUSES PEPTIC ULCERS
What is Biology?
Study of life
Fatty acids phospholipides and steriods
Lipids
phylum determines
whether vertebrate or invertebrate
describe korarchaeota
some hot springs microbes
EUKARYOTIC CELL
HAS PLASMA MEMBRANE GLYCOCALYXCYTOPLASM SEMIFLUID
CYTOSKELETON--MICROFILAMENTS AND MICROTUBULES THAT SUSPEND ORGANELLELS, GIVE SHAPE AND ALLOW MOTION
AUTOTROPHS
SELF-FEEDERS--USE LIGHT OR CHEMICAL ENERGY TO MAKE FOOD
VIRUSES
POLIO, INFLUENZA, HERPES, SMALLPOX, CHICKENPOX, HIV--CAUSES AIDS. HEPATITIS B, MEASLES, MALARIA
TELOMERE
HOW TELOMERASE REPLICATES THE CHROMOSOME END
These are membrane enclosed structures that have various function depending on the cell type. Plants have a central area that functions in storage, waste, disposal, protection and hydrolysis.
Vacuoles
In which organelle does transcription begin?
mRNA
electroporation
a method for transforming DNA. especially useful in plant cells. High voltage pulses of electricity are used to oopen pores in cell membranes, through which foreign DNA can pass.
synapsis
the pairing of homologous chromosome pairs during prophase of the first meiotic division, when crossing over occurs.
order determines
vegetable eating, or meat eating
CHEMIOSMOTIC COUPLING
MEMBRANE PUMPS, CARRIERS AND CHANNELS
PHOSPHOLIPIDS
FORM COMPLEX STRUCTURES IN AQUEOUS SOLUTION
VACUOLES ARE MORE PROMINENT IN
PLANT CELLS
golgi apparatus
PROCESS PROTEINS AFTER LEAVING ER
INCOMPLETE DOMINANCE
HETEROZYGOTE HAS A DIFFERENT INTERMEDIATE PHENOTYPE COMPARED TO THE HOMOZYGOUS DOMINANT OR HOMOZYGOUS RECESSIVE INDIVIDUAL
DOMINANT TRAIT
EXPRESSED PREFERENTIALLY OVER ANOTHER TRAIT
GENOTYPE
GENETIC CONSTITUTION OF AN ORGANISM WITH RESPECT TO A TRAIT.
What type of cellular reproduction does bacteria undergo?
Binary fission
What is the probability that a recessive trait would be expressed in offspring if 2 parents who are both heterozygous for the desired trait were crossed?
25%
These are particular types of proteins nearly all cellular function is catalyzed by some type of enzyme.
Enzymes
No nucleus defined nucleus organelles, few internal structures, do not have structures surrounded by membranes, 1 celled organism, BACTERIA
Prokaryotic Cell
Organelles reads the RNA produced in the nucleus and translates the genetic instructions to produce proteins.
Ribosome
A diploid germ cell containing 72 chromosomes under goes meiosis. How many chromosomes will be in each gamete?
36
dominant oncogene
a gene that stimulates cell proliferation and contributed to oncogenesis when present in a single copy.
polypetide
a polymer composed of multiple amino acid units linked by peptide bonds
coenzyme
an organic molecule, such as a vitamin, that binds to an enzyme and is required for it's catalytic activity.
dideoxynucleotide
a deoxynucleotide that lacks a 3' hydroxyle group and is thus unable to form 3'-5' phosphodiester bond necessary for chain elongation
nucleotide
building block of DNA, RNA. consisting of a nitrogenous base, a 5 carbon sugar and a phosphate group, together nucleotides form codons, which when strung together form genes, which link to form chromosomes
insulin
a peptide hormone secreted from the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas that regulates the level of blood sugar
LYSOSOMES
A MEMBRANE BOUND ORGANELLE THAT IS RESPONSIBLE FOR DEGRADING PROTEIN AND MEMBRANE IN THE CELL AND HELPS DEGRADE MATERIALS INGESTED BY THE CELL
WHEN SODIUM CHANNEL OPENS AND SODIUM RUSHES INTO A MYOCYTE HEART CELL, THE CELL BECOMES
DEPOLARIZED
MAST CELL
IMMUNE CELL THAT RELEASES HISTAMINE CAUSING RED ITCHY WELTS
POLYPEPTIDE CHAIN
DIFFERENT SUBUNITS ARE PACKED TOGETHER TO FORM THE OVER STRUCTURE OF THE PROTEIN.
RECEPTORS
HOST CELL MEMBRANE THAT ENABLES THE ATTACHMENT OF HIV
HISTONES
5 KINDS OF PROTEINS FORMING COMPLEXES WITH EUKARYOTIC DNA
Chromosomes
Binds to the plasma membrane where it replicates, cell grow, pinches in 2 and produces 2 identical cells.
At which phase of meiosis does crossing over occur?
Prophase I
This is found in eukaryotic cells and are the site of respiration
Mitochondria
antigenic determinant
a surface feature of a microorganism or macromolecule, such as a glycoprotein, that elicits an immune response.
recombinant DNA
the process of cutting and recombining DNA fragments from different sources as a means to isolate genes or to alter their structure and function
describe facilitative diffusion
aka active transport. when carrier proteins embedded in the cell membrane bind to specific substances, allowing them to enter the cell.
dalton
a measurement unti equal to the mass of a hydrogen atom.
what do lysosomes do in the endo/ctomembrane system
intracellular digestion
Taq polymerase
a heat stable DNA polymerase isolated from the bacterium Therrnus aquaticus
HUMAN NEUTROPHILS
PRODUCED IN THE MARROW AND RELEASED INTO THE BLOOD TO SEARCH FOR INVADING PATHOGENS. AFTER ONE DAY THEY COMMIT SUICIDE AND ARE REPLACED BY YOUNGER CELLS.
INTEGRASE
AN HIV PROTEIN HELPS INSERT THE HIV PROVIRUS INTO THE HOST'S DNA
HETEROZYGOUS
DIFFERING ALLELES FOR A TRAIT IN AN INDIVIDUAL, SUCH AS Yy
N-C-CO
BACKBONE ATOMS DOWN THE CENTER OF THE HELIX
Cell
2 types of cell and they are referred as solids. All living things are made up of cells and they are the smallest working units of all living things.
describe osmosis
a form of diffusion. when a large molecule is disulved in water in order to allow it too pass through a cell membrane.
the levels life organized from smallest to largest
atoms, molecules, supramolecular strucutres, cells, tissue, organs, organisms, populations, communities, biosphere
catalytic antibody (abzyme)
An anitbody selected for its ability to catalyze a chemical reaction by binding to and stabilizing the transition state intermediate.
HIGH POWER OBJECTIVE LENS
MAGNIFIES 40 X - ON NOSEPIECE
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
ARGININE- FOR YOUNG BUT NOT FOR ADULTS
ROUGH RETICULUM
FORMS CHANNELS WITHIN THE CELL. COVERED WITH RIBOSOMES--ITS ROUGH APPEARANCE. ---ARE THE PROCESS OF SYNTHESIZING PROTEINS FOR SECRETION OR LOCALIZATION IN MEMBRANES.
What is a benefit of water's ability to make hydrogen bonds?
High specific heat.
What is the important characteristic of water?
Polarity of the hydrogen-oxygen bonds.
A recessive trait will be expressed if?
Both alleles are recessive.
class can be 5 things
fish, amphibians, avians, reptiles or mammals
what are the 3 kingdoms under the archea domain
Creanarchaeota, Euryarchaeota, Korarchaeota
MITOCHONDRIA AND CHLOROPLASTS
ARE IMPORTANT FEATURES ; PROVIDE THE CELL A SOURCE OF ENERGY PRESENT IN PLANTS CONTAIN DNA
If the dominant allele is present?
The phenotype expressed will be dominant.
gene insertion
the addition of 1 or more copies of a normal gene into a defective chromosome
methods that material use to enter or exit a cellular membrane
osmosis, diffusion, membrane transport proteins, recognizeable proteins
FOLDING PATTERNS OF FOLDING OF PROTEIN BACK BONE
ALPHA HELIX BETA SHEET
why is unsaturated fat in liquid form
because they contain 1 or more hydrocarbon bond in their hydrocarbon tail
ATP is made where in the body?
It is made in the body through cellular respiration, plants, and animals.
what is a cell wall and what kindoms have them
a tough rigid structure in plants>made of cellulose. In protists>a variety of proteins. In fungi> chitin
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