HESI PEDS Flashcards

Nursing Interventions
Terms Definitions
Toddler RR, HR
RR: 20-30
HR: 80-130
Preschool RR, HR
RR: 20-25
HR: 80-120
School Age RR, HR
RR: 18-22
HR: 70-110
Sources of B6 (pyridoxine)
meats, cereal, yeast, soybeans, peanuts, tuna, chicken, bananas
Cyanotic heart defects
tetralogy of Fallot, TA, transposition of great vessels
What is given to prevent RSV infections in immunocompromised patients?
Synagis (palivizumab)
what is Development?
an increaese in capability or function, its more complex concept, and its a CONTINOUS, ORDERLY series of conditions that leads to new activities; and eventually patterns of behavior.
Nursing interventions and medical treatments for a child with leukemia are based on what three physiologic problems?
Anemia (decreased erythrocytes); infection (neutropenia); bleeding thrombocytopenia (decreased platelets)
Transposition of the Great Vessels
Mixed blood flow.Pulm circulation arises from L vent and systemic circulation arises from R vent. Incompatible with life --> medical emergency give prostaglandin to keep ductus open.
Risks of untreated Tonsilitis
may lead to acute glomerulonephritis or rheumatic heart disease
when does the posterior fontanel close?
2 to 3 months
Explain why hypospadias correction is performed before the child reaches preschool age.
Preschoolers fear castration, acheiving sexual identity, and acquring independent toileting skills.
Transposition of the Great Arteries
Pulmonary artery leaves the left ventricle and the aorta exits from the right ventricle.
Nursing interventions for acute asthma exacerbations
rapid acting bronchodilators and steroids
Describe the postoperative nursing care for an infant with pyloric stenosis.
Maintain IV hydration and provide small, frequent oral feedings of glucose or electrolyte solutions or both within 4 to 6 hours. Gradually increase to full-strength formula. Position infant on right side in semi-Fowler position after feeding.
Describe nursing intervention to reduce the workload of the heart.
Give small, frequent feedings or gavage feedings. Plan frequent rest periods. Maintain a neutral thermal environment. Organize activities to disturb child only as indicated.
What intervention is contraindicated in epiglottitis?
Never put anything in the mouth because of the risk of complete airway obstruction
List the signs and symptoms of esophageal atresia with TEF.
Choking, coughing, cyanosis, and excess salivation.
What are common signs of digoxin toxicity?
Diarrhea, fatigue, weakness, nausea, and vomiting: the nurse should check for bradycardia prior to administration.
Why are young children prone to ear infections?
The eustachian tubes are flattened
what is the grasping reflex?
infants hands and feet will grasp when hands or feet are stimulated.
Describe the signs and symptoms of a child with meningitis.
Fever, irritability, vomiting, neck stiffness, opisthotonos, positive Kernig sign, positive Brudzinski sign; infant may not show all classic signs even though very ill.
Desribe the function of an osmotic diuretic.
Osmotic diuretics remove water from CNS to reduce cerebral edema.
What is the physiologic reason for the lab finding of hypoproteinemia in nephrosis?
Hypoproteinemia occurs because the glomeruli are permeable to serum proteins.
What interventions can be taught to prevent urinary tract infection in children?
Avoid bubble baths; void frequently; drink adequate fluids, especially acidic fluids such as apple juice or cranberry juice; and clean genital area from front to back.
what is tonic neck reflex?
when the baby lies supine the head is turned to one side, the infant will assume a fencing position, and will adjust accordingly if you turn his head to the other side
Describe the information families should be given when a child is receiving oral iron preparations.
Give oral iron on an empty stomach and with vitamin C. Use straws to avoid discoloring teeth. Tarry stools are normal. Increase dietary sources of Iron.
Compare the dietary interventions for acute glomerulonephritis?
AGN: low sodium diet with no added salt; nephrosis: high protein, low-salt diet
Differentiate between a right to left and left to right shunt in cardiac disease.
A left to right shunt moves oxygenated blood back through pulmonary circulation. A right to left shunt bypasses the lungs and delivers unoxygenated blood to systemic circulation, causing cyanosis.
What are the priorities for a child undergoing abdominal surgery?
Maintain fluid balance (I & O, NG suction, monitor electrolytes); monitor vital signs; care for drains, if present; assess bowel function; prevent infection of incisional area and other postoperative complications; and support child and family with appropriate teaching.
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