Terms Definitions
Visual Cliff
Characteristics of SR

Excitatory: increases chance neuron will fire

Inhibitory: decreases the chance the neuron will fire

A Few Neurotransmitters:

Gamma Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
Implicated in anxiety
Alarm response

Implicated in

Pleasure and reward

Implicated in

Serotonin (5HT):
Thought processes

an A-HA! moment
problem with control movements
Localization of Function: Thalamus

Processing Info
touch senses
but not smell
Research designs and methods
basic "primitives" simple three-dimensional geometric forms like geometric ions. has to do with recognition by components
involves transofmring information to reach a conclusion; includes evalutation and generating arguments to reach a conclusion
Central Executive
directs attention, coordinates simultaneous processing in phonological and visiospatial systems, involved in planning
gave us forgetting curve

interested in memory and forgetting
tested on himself with nonsense syllables (dah,Lax,etc) using a memory drum (we'd use computers) 
savings Method to calculate savings score 
Sternberg’s work on searching STM
Wernicke's aphasia
semantics and syntax problem
Learning curve, memory, forgetting curve
inductive reasoning
making probabilistic/ statistical generalizations predictions or inferring general rules from available data (ie. experience)
Yin Study (1969)
recognition of mono-oriented objects
orientation important for faces, but not for objects (ex. house)
prosopagnosia : inability to recognize faces specifically
expertise Effect
Experts categories differ from novices
Language disorders that follow brain injury caused by stroke, tumor, wound or infectionWernicke's aphasia-lexical errors, difficulty comprehending speech, semantic and lexical deficitsBroca's aphasia-labored speech, word-finding pauses, loss of function words, disturbed word order, syntactic deficits
procedure guaranteed to solve a problem

definite results
Rote learning (aka verbatim ala Ebbinghaus tradition)
cerebral lateralization
2 hemispheres are functionally asymmetric; left side language; right side spatial/face processing
gave rise to behaviorism, rejected introspection and cognitive processes because they vary so much and cannot be measured. famous for "little albert experiment"
the functions of consciousness, rather than its structure, were of interest
generation effect
generating material yourself, rather than passively receiving it , enhances learning and retention
Imp: some previous experience improves our performance on a task even though we do not consciously remember the experience
Systems COnsolidation
gradual reorganization of circuits within brain regions and takes place on a longer time scale lasting weeks, months, or even years
extralinguistic cues
body language, eye movement, etc
The activation of information in memory, making it more accessible for subsequent use. (Ch. 3, 6, 9)
Eye Witness Testimony
Explaination (autobiographical) of what you saw-major details are fairly accurate-minor details are frequently mistaken
geon theory
feature + template theory
geon : geometric icon (basic form) 36 geons, 3 geons = 1.4 billion 3 geon objects
decision mechanism : certain geons have particular relationship, way shapes/geons correspond to each other
degraded objects study
problems : same as different flexibility, face recognition, selective deficit (some patterns broken down, some taken as whole)
confirmation bias
logical reasoning errors when one remembers and uses informations that confirms what you already think
MMS explains
amnesiacs can have episodic memory impairment but still respond to priming
Refers to the grammatical rules that govern how we organize words into sentences.
Internal Validity
The degree to which extraneous variables are controlled.A well-designed experiment offers a great deal of control and precision, enhancing their internal validity, but fall short in terms of naturalness (how they represent everyday life)
Intermediate Selection Model
(leaky Filter model) 
Treisman's attenuation Theory:
attended message can be separated from unattended message early in the info processing

attenuator: analyzes incoming message in tems of physical characteristics, language, and meaning
either full strength 
or weak

Dictionary Unit: contains words, each of which have thresholds for being activated
words that are common/important have low
uncommon words have a high thresholds threshold

Spontaneous retrieval
retrieval which occurs without making a conscious effort to recall
dichotic listening
presentation of two different messages into each ear
What do parallel and distributive mean in the connectionist model?
Distributive=>Nick is distributed--there is not a Nick spot, but rather multiple spots that describe Nick
the visual image that resides in iconic memory
The main difference between early and late selection models of attention is that in lateselection models, selection of stimuli for final processing doesn't occur until theinformation is analyzed for:
procedure in which pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response causes the neutral stimulus to elicit that response
Family Resemblance
things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways; allows for some variation within a category; looser and more ambiguous, not perfect but close. No one necessary feature for a category.
Information-Processing Approach
Information is transformed through a series of processes - inspired by the computer
Suppose twin teenagers are vying for their mother's attention. The mother is trying to payattention to one of her daughters, though both girls are talking (one about her boyfriend,one about a school project). According to the operating characteristics of
attended words
identified and represented in a limited capacity short term store
semantic relatedness
The principle that related concepts are stored closely together in semantic memory, with strong connecting pathways between them. (Ch. 6)
capable of storing information for somewhat longer periods but also of relatively limited capacity
short-term store
Procedural Memory
knowledge about how to do something
Availability Heuristic
involves juding the probability of an event by how easily examples of the event come to mind
What were the results of the Baddley (5-10 word list)?
semantic effect
logical reasoning error in which one believes in conclusion becuase of what you think to be correct rather than what logically follows information
Prototypicality effect
some members of a category are perceived as better members of the category are perceived as being better members of a category than others (judgments of category membership can be carried out faster for prototypical members)
Reasoning Difficulties: ABSTRACT/ARBITRARY
Reasoning about people and real-world events, scenes, and objects is easier than abstract objects whose characteristics are arbitraryEX: If the object is textured, then it is squareThe object is not squareTherefore it is not textured= VALID!Use the rules: Deny the consequent = valid
Bayes Theorom
The rule that judgment should be influenced by two factors: base rate and the likelihood ration. In decision making, people tend to overemphasize the likelihood ratio and underemphasize the base rate.
Refers to a kind of automatic thinking in which we are entrapped in old categories, without being aware of new information available in the environment.
Functional fixedness
Solutions to some problems require the use of familiar object in a novel fashion. Effectiveness depends on how the objects are verbally labeled, whether the person has used the object and age.
Hypothesis Testing View
children acquire language by mentally forming tentative hypotheses regarding language, based on their inherited facility for language acquiition and then testing these hypotheses in the environment.
Behavioral Approach to Memory

BA (review): studies the relationship between stimuli and behavior

Memory Consolidation: the idea that memories need to be processed before they become strong enough to with stand interference (like additional new info)
 memory from recent events are fragile
if processing is disrupted, and fails to be consolidated 

George Miller and Pilzecker experiment showed we can remember 7 -/+ 2 item's
immediate new info group
delayed new info group

Proactive Interference (PI)
forgetting that occurs because of interference from material encountered BEFORE learning
ad hoc functional category
-an improvised category
-a category that comes to notice/forms due to a particular need 
mental walk task
imagining walking toward a mental image
when we are told where the stimulus will show up next
Prospect theory
people make decisions based on utility of outcomes rather than value, framing (viewed as gain vs loss), and overestimation of rare events
Verbal Protocol
Verbalize their thoughts as they solve the problems
Illusionary Conjunctions
A situation in which visual features of two different objects are incorrectly perceived as being associated with a single object
Single disassociation
can be studied in a single person
Proactive Interference
interference the occurs when info that was learned previously interferes with learning new info; material learned first can disrupt retention of later matieral
View invarient properties
properties that remain visible even when the geon is viewed from many different angles
Phonemic Contraction
when an infant decreases phonemes of non native language
Declarative Memory 
(knowing that) memories which can be consciously recalled such as facts and events 
false memories
Memory for information that was never presented, or for events that never happened. (Oh. 7)
106. What about phonemes did the Liberman et al. experiment examine?
Categorical perception
occurs when our perception of an object remainds the same even when our proximal sensation of the distal object changes
perceptual constancy
Source Monitoring
Trying to identify origin of memories and beliefs
computer simulation models
introduced by Allen Newll and Herbert Simon as modeles designed to solve problems as humans do. Became general problem solver
different recognition for faces
strong dependence on orientation - system specializes for configurations
Implications for teaching reading: Phonics Approach
Readers use indirect approachLearn words through pronunciationAdvocates developing children's awareness of phonemes
Whorf's linguistic relativity hypothesis
A person's language imposes a particular view of the world
Localization of Function
Specific Function area's of the brain such as

mental representation
an image of events, objects, things or everything in your head (includes RELATIONSHIP between items that occur in the world)
tactic knowledge explanation
unconcious use of knowledge about the world
Who did the memory experiment with rugby players?
Baddeley & Hitch
Ad-hoc categories
concepts can be based on goals; how well an object fits with the goal determines categorization
Release from PI
when the decline in performance caused by proactive interference is reversed because of a switch in the to-be-remembered stimuli
object-based attention
attention is directed to one place on an object, the enhancing effect of this attention spreads throughout the object; locks onto objects
Supervised Learning
network learns by a process that is analogous to the way a child gains knowledge about the world by making mistakes and being corrected
View invariance
able to be identified when viewed from different angles
speech act
the intent behind what people say (ie to request info, to provide info, to insult, to complement, etc.)
143. What are four morpheme distinctions?
1. Inflectional morphology2. Derivational morphology3. Bound morphemes4. Unbound morphemes
a disease of older adults that causes dementia as well as progressive memory loss
Alzheimer's disease
Marcel's Experiment
(late selection support)
Congruent : faster than baseline, priming
Incongruent : slower than baseline, negative priming
Unassociated (baseline)
all meanings of 2nd word are activated, attention selects one of those meanings. Selection of one meaning inhibits activation of inconsistant meanings
Congruent : faster than baseline, priming
Incongruent : faster than baseline, priming
Unassociated (baseline)
all meanings of 2nd word are activated, attetional selection is blocked by mask and so all meanings remain active to affect repsonse to 3rd word.
Perceived World Structure Study (Rosch)
2 Dimensions Level of abstraction Differentation of Categories
What happens in Decision Making?
Assess situation and choose among several alternatives- Potentially contradictory or missing information- No specific rules to follow- Consequences are not always immediately apparent
Ebbinhaus's Forgetting Curve
* A function relating memory to time passage. A good deal of forgetting occurs soon after study, then slows down over time.Forgetting occurs rapidly early in the retention interval, then slows down considerably.
What is the metaphor for thinking about selective attention in the visual modality?
Attention as a spotlight
subtractive technique (with brain imaging)
when all baseline activities are ignored and all that is measured is the activity caused by the task being evaluated
Attention as a Resource
A metaphor of attention processes that says that attention is a limited resource that can only be used for a certain amount of things.
Law of familiarity
things are more likely to form groups if the groups appear familiar or meaningful
Knowledge Representations
the form for what you know in your mind about things, ideas, events, and so on, that exist outside of your mind
an internal, personal depiction of something external
79. Describe animal communication systems
-Have arbitrary connections but these connections are inflexible-Beyond arbitrariness, they don't exhibit the characteristics that appear to by universally true of human language
The Prototype Approach
-You decide whether an item belongs in a category by comparing that item with the prototype.-Object > Idealized object that represents that item
Depth of Processing studies (Craik and Tulving) (Morris, Bransford and Franks)
deep/semantic processing will improve memory as opposed to other types of processing - however if retrieval task is presented in a context that matches a type of processing - that processing will be optimal for retrieval
what are some historical (pre 1900s) interpretations of cognition?
- philosophers and scientists both thought that subjective experience is important in how one views the world around them
- Epictetus- man is disturbed not by things but by the view he takes of them
What was a huge problematic case involving showing mug shots before line-up?
Ronald Cotton--Accussed of sexual assault of Jenny Thompson, spent 11 yrs in jail. Then cleared by DNA, now close friends.
Family resemblance (probabilistic view)
category members tend to share sets of features (each has some part of set)
Memory is both Reconstructive and Constructive

Reconstructive: we use strategies to retrieve the original traces and then rebuild these info into the original memory

Constructive: prior experience affects how we recall things and what we actually recall from memory (personal bias affects our memory)
150. What are the semantic roles called?
Semantic cases or case roles
Deese-Roediger McDermott procedure (DRM)
if Ss are shown test words that belong to a certain group they will remember words that belong in the group but weren't on the list
how do we know variability of sounds?
coarticulation Role of top-down processing, context, role of visual cues
What's a PET scan do?
When part of the brain is active, usings more blood and glucose. Uses radioactivity.
to increase the importance of + transfer
-use huge response pools.-there will be backwards and forwards associations going on at the same time, but the foward association will be stronger because learning the first will help you learn the second
99. How does sounds "change" or vary in format frequency?
-Change from speaker to speaker-Change from one time to the next within the same speaker-Most prominently they change from one word to the next depending on what sounds precede and follow
Recognition via Multiple Views (Tarr) (Decedent of feature net)
People have stored many views of what an object looks like from some angle but often mental rotation required because view point dependent
What shows that procedural memory is an aspect in and of itself?
They are relatively immune to dementia and damage--episodic are at the highest risk.
119. What are the two assumptions of Chomsky's Transformational Grammar?
1. Language has a hierarchical structure (phrase)2. Phrases can be transformed to express thought
Problems with STM in Modal memory system
If short term memory is impaired there should be no way the memory can get to LTM but it has been shown it canAlso filling STM with digits does not prevent simultaneous cognitive tasks such as reading.
What did Peterson and peterson show happens to working memory if you don't rehearse?
They gave them 3 letters, then counted back by 3's for a while (3,6,9,12,15,18s) OUTLOUD.
3sec-75% chance of remembering, 18sec--.08% chance of remembering
Why can't we come up with a stimulus as easily as we can generate the response?
2 possiblities1. Assoc is weaker2.** there is an equally strong assoc, but the code that you'd been using for the stimulus isn't complete** ie It's not that the association is weaker, but that they don't have enough info to reproduce it.
Wenicke's Area- Where is it and what does it do?
A large region of the parietal and temporal lobes of the left cerebral hemisphere (Toward the back of the brain)Thought to be essential for UNDERSTANDING AND FORMULATING coherent speechDamage to Wernicke's area results in serious difficulties understanding speech, as well as language production that is too wordy and confusedBOTH KINDS OF DAMAGE (APHASIA) CAN DECREASE A PERSON'S GRAMMATICAL ACCURACY. (once we examine languages other than english)
123. What is the first rule of phrase structure grammar?Two parts...
1. Entire sentence is symbolized by an S2. S can be broken down into noun phrase (NP) and verb phrase (VP)
The Man Who Mistook his Wife for a Hat
Dr. P could not see faces and could see details but could not put things together (sees a nose and an eye but does not recognize it as one face.) Amazingly, he could watch cartoons and drawings just fine!
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