Cognitive Psychology Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Retrieval strategies
Stratum
inhibits globus pallidus
Creativity
novel, different
useful?
everyday mechanism or not?
semantic priming effect
Expertise
Demonstrates consistently exceptional performance on representative tasks for a particular area.
MRI
Magnetic Resonance Imaging--measures the activity of specific neurons that are functioning during cognitive tasks.
bias
-retrospective distoritions and unconscious influences that are related to current knowledge and beliefs
Filter model of attention
Epiricisim 
knowledge acquired from sensory experience
(what you are currently experiencing or know from experience)
 
Limitations
- don't always experience what is reality
- cannot know something unless you have previously experienced it
 
central executive
both coordinates attentional activities and governs reponsesone of elements of working memorycritical to working memory (gates mechanism that decides what information to process further and how to process it.)
Perceptual/Visual Illusions
Illusory Percepts:


Not always accurate
Ponzo and Muller Lyer Illusions
lines have same size
but, due to depth in from linear perspectives
change blindness
Ø              When you can look without seeing; we only see things we are paying attention to
prosopagnosia
a disruption of face recognition
Retrieval
the process of transferring information from LTM back into working memory, where it becomes accessible to consciousness
semantic features
Simple, one-element chargcteristics or properties of semantic concepts; in the Smith Feature Overlap Model, stored asafearurc list. (Oh.6)
What were the results/implications of the Brown-Peterson task?
Means-Ends Heuristic
Identify the ends(goals, sub-goals) and figure out the means to reach those ends- Break problem into sub-components/steps- At each step, reduce the difference between initial state and goal state --> move closer to goal state- Work forwards from initial state, or backwards from goal state
semantics
complementary to syntax, study of meaning in a language.
Object-Based Visual Attention
location-based: moving attention from one place to another
Object based: your attention spread in the object and attention based on
 
 

environment: static scenes or scenes with few objects

specific object: dynamic events

 
transcience
decreasing accessibility of info over time
epiphenomenon
accompanies real mechanisms but not part of it
Expert
very skilled performance in a particular domain (area of knowledge)
action slips
unintended, often automatic, actions that are inappropriate for the current situation 
Misinformation Effect
misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change how that person describes that event later
TMS
alters electrical current in brain with big magnets, turn on/off areas, don't know what's going on, ethical issues
Stages of Language Acquistion
 
Prelinguistic Stage
One-word Utterances
Two-word Utterances
Three-word Utterances & Beyond
 
mapping
In problem solving, the one-to-one correspondences between elements of problems, as in analogies. (Oh. 12)
Logical Reasoning
mental procedures that yield valid conclusions; uses syllogism and analogies
What was the Miller simple span task?
Visual System
photo receptors simulate biploar cells which in turn excite gangliaon cells which form together to make the optic nerve
Expertise: METACOGNITIVE SKILLS
Experts- Monitor problems more effectively- Judge difficulty of problems more accurately- Better at own-error detection and correction- Capable of self-regulating their own learning
Thinking
Requires you to go beyond the information you were given, thinking also has a goal such as a solution, a decision, or a belief.
Transduction
Transduction – the conversion of one kind of energy into another kind of energy
Localization of Function: Perception
 

Fusiform Face Area (FFA): responds to faces
Temporal lobe
 Damage causes Prosopagnosia
Prosopagnosiaf: can't recognize faces



Parahippocampal Place Area (PPA): responds to indoor/outdoor senses
Temporal lobe


Exrastriate Body Area (EBA) responds to bodies and parts of bodies
people with anorexia have less gray matter in this area
Occipitotemporal Cortex

 
suggestibility
memories that are implanted as a result of leading questions or comments during attempts to recall past experiences
unilateral neglect
patient ignores half their visual field
Normative view
how people should make decisions; rational
Neocortex
the top layer of the brain, responsible for higher-level mental processes
Dissociations
situations in which one function is absetnt while another is present
Echoic Memory
sounds also persist in the mind
Axon (nerve fiber)
transmitting structure of the neuron
Neuronal Structures
Dendrites, soma, azon, myelin sheath, synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitters, synapse
Retrieval from LTM
-cued recalled vs serial recall
 
cued is better than serial
from this, we can infer that errors in LTM recall are typically the result of retrieval failures rather than the storage failures

 
depth processing
processing the meaning of information instead of just the surface form/features
algorithm
A specific rule or solution procedure that is guaranteed to• furnish the correct answer if followed correctly. (Ch. Ii)
a node that activates a connected node; this activation is knows as the priming affect
prime
Characteristic Feature
Those attributes that are merely descriptive but not essential-EX. A Robin: small, perches in trees, can fly
Representative Heuristic
occurs when you decide wheteher the sample you are juding matches the appropriate prototype for that concept or representation
*MOST IMPORTANT DECISION MAKING HEURISTIC
Proactive interference
if we fail, we try something new
insight
having a new perspective on an old problem
Illusion of Truth
feeling of familiarity from implicit memory leads us to assume things that aren't true (i.e familiar face=famous)
Hill-Climbing Heuristic
Choose the path that directly moves you closer to the goalEncourages short-term goals, rather than long term solutions!
Small Sample Fallacy
The incorrect assumption that small samples will be representative of the population from which they were selected.
Transformational rules
Used to convert surface structure to deep structure during understanding.
Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894)
studied visual perception and unconscious interference.
Language
the use of an organized means of combining words in order to communicate.makes it possible to think about things and processes we currently cannot see, hear, feel, touch, or smell.
Atkinson-Shiffrin Model of Memory
(1968)
(different types of memory)
 

Sensory: is an initial stage that holds all new info for seconds or fractions of a second
all/most info short-lived (decays quickly)
Persistence: sparkler's trail, or (anti) frames of a film all blend together 


Short Term(STM): holds 5-7 items for about 15-30 sec.  
limited resources, time duration, capacity 


Long Term(LTM): can hold a large amount of info. for years even decades
 
sufficient condition
you don't necessarily need to have this condition present
early selection model
explains selective attention by early filtering out of the unattended message
Phoneme restoration effect
perceive noise as phoneme consistent with word (legislature example); example of top down effects in speech perception
Conceptually driven processing effects
context and higher-level knowledge influence lower-level processes
Achromatopsia
A failure to percieve color ( the world appears in grayscale). Not to be confused with color blindness (e.g. in which red and green cannot be dicriminated)
Neuropsychology
study of the behavior of humans with brain damage
Automatic processing
type of processing that occurs without intention and at the cost of only some of cognitive resources
Massed Storage
learning in which sessions are crammed together in a very short period of time
retrograde memory loss
memory loss due to traumatic injury 
thematic effect
Recalling based on the theme or suggested meaning of a passage, rather than recalling the exact passage; see also reconstructive memory. (Ch. 7)
Activation of this hemisphere of the brain is linked to positive emotions, approach, and response to reward
Left Hemisphere
Mood-dependent Memory
People are more likely to remember material if their mood, at the time of retrieval matches the mood they were in when originally learning material
Problem Solving
the mental activity used when we want to reach a certain goal that is not readily available
Pattern Recognition Study (Anee Treisman)
preattentive (early) recognition stage is unconscious, automatic, parallel and "parts" where as attentive (late) recognition stage is conscious, effortful serial, and "wholes"
Computer Modeling: There are many computational models!Anderson's ACT-R Framework
Sub-symbolic (Differential activation of declarative chunks in memory)Symbolic (Production system: If/Then) If = Left side: ConditionThen = Right side: Action- Match between goal and left side of the production (condition) determines which production fires (parallel matching, serial firing)- Results in action (internal or external) that modifies the existing goal (i.e., sub-goal) or produces a new goal
Hemispheric LateralizationLanguage is located in, or processed by what side of the brain?- (Left handers vs. Right handers?)
Generally, greater activation of LEFT hemisphere in language processingLanguage is processed equally by the right side in 6% of right handers and 50% of left handers
Kleinsmith & Kaplan (1963-64)
Gave participants either high arousal words or low arousal words. Low arousal words were hgihly remembered at first, after 20 mins later they were equal and after 1 week high arousal was much higher.
Flanker-Compatibility Task
(describe it's purpose)
used to mearsure the visual attention to high/low test


focus attention on finding target so that distracter will not affect their performance

Low-Load: one potential target
reaction time longer for incompatible distracter
more resources available 


High-Load: distracter didn't affect reaction time
use all resources to process
no resources to process the distracter
the distracter doesn't matter because it can't lure any extra attention (so compatible or not doesn't matter)
event-based prospective memory
remebering to perform a future actino when a specific event occurs
gestalt psychologists vs structuralism
overall pattern vs compilation of sensations
What parts of children's language learning disproved behaviorism?
Overregularizing--the past tense phrase gets applied to everything, even when they've never heard anyone say that word and are never reinforced for it
In-attentional Blindness 
We sometimes fail to see an objecting we are looking at directly, even a highly visible one, because our attention is directed elsewhere
Associative Agnosia
A failure to understand the meaning of objects due to a deficit at the level of semantic memory
Exemplar approach to categorization
involves determining whether an object is similar to a standard object but involves many examples that have been encountered before - helps to explain atypical cases and variable categories. However, its too unconstrained, what's an exemplar?
Partial Report Method
after it was flashed, sounded tones which tell row of letters to report; attention was directed to whatever trace remained; were not able to report all of these letters because they rapidly faded as the initial letters were being reported
Resistance to visual noise
still perceive geons under "noisy" conditions
Visual vs Spacial Images
 

Visual imagery: the use visual characteristics (color, shape,)

Spacial imagery: spacial features such as depth, dimensions, distances, & orientations
 
semantic congruity effect
Judgments are speeded when the things being compared are congruent with the instructions (e.g., instructions to “choose the larger” of two large things). (Oh. 11)
Which type of reasoning is used for planning, making commitments and evaluating arguments?
Everday Reasoning
Problems with Exemplar Approach
-Our semantic memory would quickly become over-populated with numerous exemplars for numerous categories-Might be more suitable for more specific categories (i.e. \"Tropical fruit\")
Bilateral temporal and left occipital lesions
difficulty seeing and imagining things
Point of View based module (perception)
S1-simple cells; orientation and location specificC1 - complex cells; 0rientation and near - location specificS2 - near location specificC2 - location invarientSimpler cells use view tuned units where more complex cells use object tuned units
Parallel Processing
handles 2 or more items at the same time
Repetition Blindness
when an item is repeated and you have difficulty detecting it, making it harder to catch errors 
Distinction between “Deep” structure and “Surface” structure.
Surface structure is the superficial structure/appearance. Deep structure is an underlying form that contains much of the information necessary to the meaning (more abstract)
How was the cognitive revolution possible?
Behaviorism doesn't answer everything (Children language learning)
Computers analogized to the mind
serial recall
people try to recall the list items in their original order
Long-term memory
info can be stored for long periods of time; archive of info about past event/knowledge/ works with WM - virtually unlimited capacity
2 Types of Categories for Schemas
 
Natural Categories: groupings that occur naturally in the world. Ex: trees, birds, anything not manmade
Artifact Categories: groupings that are designed or invented by humans to serve particular purposes or functions. Ex: kitchen appliances, cars
both are relatively stable
 
12. In Bransford and Franks experiment, how did the sentence in recognition differ?
Original sentences in recognition differed in the number of idea proposition they contained
Why do we have Phonological Loop?
No neccessary for complex processing, speaking, reading or comprehension but is crucial for language learning
Sample size and RepresentativenessWhat is the law of large numbers?What is the Small Sample Fallacy?
Large sample size is representative of the population from which they are selected = Law of large numbersEX: Throw dice 600 times, each number likely rolled approx. 100 timesSMALL SAMPLE FALLACY - Assumes small samples will be representative of the sample from which they are selectedEX: Throw dice 6 times, one number is likely to come up at least twice= LEADS TO INCORRECT DECISIONS
false recognition effect
-when peopel study a list of words and are asked to remember learning the words such as sweet or candy, people FALSELY recognize the word SWEET as often as teh correctly recognized candy
-effect is reduced with the introductino of teh DISTINCTIVENESS HEURISTIC  which occurs when pictures are assigned to the words 
What is a script?
A schema about an event with ordered components--going to a restaurant.
3 traditional dependent variables
Response time to task, types of errors  made, and frequency of errors
Relevant Research on Forgetting/Brown & Peterson
 
Brown (1958) in England & Peterson (1959) in the U.S
investigated the rapid forgetting of items in STM following distraction
task: 1) P sees a constant trigram (2) P sees a distractor "492" then have to count backwards by 3s (3) after a period of time, P repeats the trigram they encountered; results viewed as a simple way to study forgetting....interpreted in terms of trace decay (natural fading)
inference may play a part in disrupting one memory with another, similar memory

 
85. According to Chomsky what can performance reveal?Two things...
1. Performance can reveal imperfections2. He said that dysfluencies can be attributed to the language user
Solving a problem: Analogy Approach
When faced with a new problem, we often make reference back to previous examples of the same/similar tasks- Attempt to apply prior situation to current problem
What does Freud say about childhood amnesia?
Childhood so painful you repress memories so you don't ever have to think of them again.
Simple Search heuristic
at each step try to find a move that takes you immediately closer to the goal
168. What can people with conduction aphasia do? What is their impairment?
-They can understand and produce speech well-They are unable to repeat what they have just heard
How does Everyday reasoning differ from Formal reasoning?
Information may be missing or left unsaid and there may be several possible answers
Using Language: What is the typical reading speed? (Words Per Min)How long does word identification take? (Milliseconds)
The typical reading speed is between 250-300 words per minWord identification takes around 200 milliseconds
What study looked at accuracy of FB memories?
Talarico and Rubin in 2005--asked about 9/11 and one every day event on 9/12, 9/18, six weeks after and 32 weeks after. Over time both memories got less accurate (20%[email protected]), but confidence of 9/11 memory stayed higher.
Once info is stored, how do we retrieve it?
 
from STM- Parallel vs Serial Processing

Parallel: simultaneous handling of multiple operations; all items retrieved at once (retrieving all 26 letters of ABCs at once)

Serial: operations done one after another; items retrieved in success; takes longer to retrieve all items than parallel (going thru ABC list one by one in order)
 
86. What is the strongest version of the Whorf hypothesis?
The hypothesis claims that language controls both thought and perception to a large degree; that is you cannot think about ideas or concepts that your language does not name
Individual Differences in Susceptibility to Belief-Bias Effect
"No one can talk me out of what I know is right" = More susceptible!!"People should always consider evidence that contradicts their beliefs." = Less susceptibleWE RELY TO HEAVILY ON OUR ESTABLISHED BELIEFS!
What do real people say about Frued's view of Childhood amnesia?
If we repress memories cus their painful, why are our earliest memories usually the painful ones and not the happy ones?
54. How did Loftus and Palmer examine leading questions?
-Showed short traffic films of car accidents-Asked participants to describe accident by answering series of questions -Varied verb in question (hit, smash, collide, bump, or contact) when asked "how fast cars were going when they "verb" each other?"
What were the results of the War of the Ghosts experiment?
P's omit unfamiliar words or switch them for another more cultural word. eg. Canoe=>Boat.Distorted part of the story=>If part of the story is hard to understand, they make up reasons that make sense and put them in the story
Shows we have schemas for stories.
What is the Method of Loci?
AKA Method of Place. It is a kind of mnemonic link system. A method to aid in the memory of a long sequence of ideas by mentally establishing a flow through the environment that brings attention to the landmarks in a particular order.
126. What is the third rule of phrase structure grammar?
VP can be rewritten as a verb (V) plus and noun phrase (NP)VP -> V + NP
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