History Final 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Public Debt
Successors of Muhammad
expansion of desert
Hugh Johnson
Head of NRA
fabric decorated with thread
a group of three rulers
nationalist and racist political system
approval; commendation or official sanction
Karl Mauch
1871 found great Zimbabwe's ruins
wrote "on revolution of celestial bodies"
-rejected geo centric universe. Affirmed heliocentric, didn't why mars and venus would change places. . pre-modern scientist. didn't have capibility to prove heliocentric universe. (saw problem in retrograde motion.
Victoria Woodhull
radical, publicly proclaimed free love, fought for women's rights, women's suffrage (vote), first female to run for presidency.
was a pioneering American psychologist philosopher who was trained as a medical doctor. He wrote influential books on the young science of psychology, educational psychology, psychology of religious mysticism, and on the philosophy of pragmatism.
Free Silver
the unlimited coinage of silver
In France Calvinists became known as
Date of Seisacthea in Athens
594 B.C.
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederacy during the American Civil War
John Dickinson
Drafted a declaration of colonial rights and grievances, and also wrote the series of "Letters from a Farmer in Pennsylvania" in 1767 to protest the Townshend Acts. Although an outspoken critic of British policies towards the colonies, Dickinson opposed the Revolution, and, as a delegate to the Continental Congress in 1776, refused to sign the Declaration of Independence.
216 BCE
Humiliating defeat for Romans by Hannibal at Cannae
Spanish Civil War
Spanish conservatives formed the fascist party know as the Falange under the leadership of General Francisco Franco. They called themselves the Nationalists and they were opposed by the Loyalists, or Republicans, people who favored a republic.
Principles of Society
applied Natural Selection to society
Mikhail Gorbachev
New Soviet leader (1985), proposes some policy changes in USSR that starts a debate within Reagan's administration
a 20th centry philosophy that centers on individual existence and advocates that truth and values are arrived at by each persons choices and experiences
Temperance Movement
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption.
With which group did the English establish trade?
Hitler annexes  austria
-austria excited bc in depression
-said that it was part of germany
Banks Plan
What: Plan created by General Nathaniel BanksWhere: Keeps the slaves in the South instead of escaping to the Union or refugee campsWhen: Reconstruction (post civil war)Why: Was an attempt to solve one of reconstruction era's main problems, what about slaves?
What was the greatest contribution of the Phoenicians?
World-system theory
Idea that a discernible social system, based on wealth and power differentials, transcends individual countries
The French observer Andre Siegfried identified that Americans considered their _________ __ ______ a sacred acquisition, which they would defend at any price.
standard of living
Bartolomeu Dias
Portuguese explorer who in 1488 led the first expedition to sail around the southern tip of Africa from the Atlantic and sight the Indian Ocean. (p. 428)
Lexington and Concord
First battle of the revolutionary war.
black tuesday
october 29th, when the stock prices fell sharply
June 6, 1944 when the allied powers tried to trap Germany by storming Normandy
Gettysburg Address
most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history. It was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg.

natural resourses
materials provided by God
in nature that
man can use.
Stratified Society
When division of labor develops, the society becomes stratified, with each person making what they specialize at and selling to the market. This society develops into hierarchical tiers.
Black Bear Ranch
Digger/ “Free Family” commune, one of Peter Coyote’s homes in California.
Tiberius Gracchus
Who/What: A Populare and brother of Gauis Gracchus. He was murdered along with his brother by Optimate senators.
Where/When: Rome, 2nd Century BCE
Why Important: Proposed/enacted many reforms including land redistribution.
Define Ibn Battuta.
A traveler and historian from Morocco.
My Lai
-site of massacre of south vietnamese villagers
-U.S. infantrymen killed over 500 men, women, and children around village
Jacob Lawrence
Harlem artist that portrayed the daily lives of AA heroes such as Frederick Douglass and Harriet Tubman
Nikita Khruschev
Succeeded Stalin as the head of the Soviet Communist Party and became the Soviet premier.
Peloponnesian War
Athens and its allies were defeated by Sparta and its allies.
wife of Zeus, queen of the gods, and goddess of marriage.
Korean War
This was a national conflict in an Asian country aided by Russia in the North and the U.S. in the South (1950-1953).
Battle of Fallen Timbers(1794)
Decisive battle between the Miami confederacy and the U.S. Army. British forces refused to shelter the routed Indians, forcing the latter to attain a peace settlement with the United States.
American Expeditionary Force
Force that included men from widely selected parts of the country.
Mark Hanna
He was quoted to "stand pat and continue Republican prosperity."
Lone Star Republic
Name for Independent Texas under Sam Houston (1836) --- before that was David Burnet
isthmus of panama
a republic in S Central America. 2,693,417; 28,575 sq. mi. (74,010 sq. km).
Treaty of Tordesillas
Set the Line of Demarcation which was a boundary established in 1493 to define Spanish and Portuguese possessions in the Americas.
papal states
made up a region in central italy that was under the control of the pope
the battel of New Orleans.... what happened?
U.S. defeated the British
Zheng He
Def - In the early 15th century, he created the largest flotilla in the world. Had ships up to 400 ft long or 5 times bigger than Columbus' ships. He traded across the Indian Ocean. Voyage helped reinforced China's image.
Sig - Represents the recovery and expansion of Eurasia after the crises of the 13th and 14th century. Since China didn't have a need to trade they disbandoned the fleet they now have a weak navy causing Europeans to dominate the region.
Hitler's consilidation of Power
1. Captured full legal authority 2. Crush all alternative poiltical groups 3. Purge rivals within the nazi party itself.
Federal Emergency Relief Administration
this was led by Harry Hopkins and granted money to state and local government to be used to help the unemployed
Name ten of the power 25. GO!
1. National Rifle Association
2. National Association of Manufacturers
3. National Association of Realtors
4. Chamber of Commerce
6. American Association of Retired Persons
7. American Medical Association
8. American Hospital Association
9. International Brotherhood of Teamsters
10. Motion Picture Association of America
11. Recording Industry
12. American Farm Bureau Federation
13. American Bankers Association
14. National Governors' Association
15. National Right to Life Committee
16. National Association of Homebuilders
17. National Federation of Independent Business
18. American Israel Public Affairs Committee
19. Association of Trial Lawyers of America
20. National Beer Wholesalers Association
Virginia House of Burgesses
Created in 1619. It was an assembly of elected representatives from the Virginia Colony. It was the first representative assembly in the colonies & was used as a model by other colonies.
With what were Democrats, after Jackson, identified?
-Westward expansion -A dislike for big business -Indian removal -Freedom on the frontier
What is the Corpus iuris civilis?
"Body of Civil Law" that was a reorganization of Roman law
Three commitments that the US made in the new foreign policy of containment after WWII
Protect Berlin; Stop the spread of communism in Korea; stop the spread of communism in Vietnam


British soldiers
farm fields
Miguel Hidalgo
creole priest
A follower of Islam
The Liberator
William Lloyd Garrison
triple alliance WW1
Germany Italy A-H
Allied Supreme Commander, 'controlled' Japan while it was unstable, also commanded troops in Korea as the US army's Far East Commander
political ideology that eclectically blended liberal and conservative philosophies and policies, sometimes called "the Third Way," components include conservative economic principles and liberal social principles
Roger Sherman
suggested the Great Compromise
Sherman Act
outlawed agreements and conspiracies that restrain interstate trade; made it illegal to monopolize or attempt to monopolize any part of interstate trade
an ethnic group centered in present-day hungary
Kievan created this state, Slavic, Viking state
Fads of the Fifties
TV dinners, I
3.12 Hudson Bay Company
Canada's oldest buisness
confederate states
south carolinea, mississippi, florida, alabama, georgia, louisiana, texas, virginia, north carolina, tennessee, arkansas
dealers who operate between the original producers of goods and the retail merchants who sell to consumers. eleventh century, European exploration was driven by the fact that they wanted Asian gold w/o paying the Muslim middlemen
-Taft-Hartley Act
The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. The Act, still largely in effect, was sponsored by Senator Robert Taft and Represen
Policies adopted by European states to promote overseas trade and accumulate capital in the form of precious metals; governments should be involved in order to protect the economy
Easton Treaty
the Native americans switched from supporting the French to the British during the French and Indian war with this treaty
Hawley-smoot tariff act
established the highest protective tariff in the U.S.
An aristocrat, created a council of 500 and helped form Athenian democracy
The use of connected ditches, canals, or pipes to move water to dry areas.
John Marshall
Chief justice Adams appointed who remains in the position under President Jefferson
Andrew Mellon
Wealthy buisnessman is the secretary of the treasury under Harding, lowers the tax rates.
a leader who rules with total authority, often in a cruel or brutal manner
Alfred M. Landon
Mildly Liberal Republican candidate for presidency, of the Sunflower State of Kansas, wealthy oilman, had balanced the budget of his state in an era of unbalanced budgets
the feeling that one's own ethnic group or race is superior to all others
William Lloyd Garrison
Wrote Essays on Civil Disobedience
Harpers Ferry
Location of federal arsenal that John Brown raided to get guns to arm slaves
Sand Creek Massacre
1864: 500 Cheyenne woman/children were slaughtered
Napoleon Bonaparte
Overthrew French Directory in 1799 and became emperor of France in 1804. Failed to defeat Great Britain and abdicated in 1814. Returned to power briefly in 1815 but was defeated and died in exile. (p. 591)
New England
most of the nations early factories were built here
jay's traty
treaty that allowed the British to continue their fortrade on the American side of the US
the seizure of a country or territory by a stronger country
17th parallel
Divided Vietnam into a Communist North and a Pro Western South.
geography of Japan
- archipelago off the Asian Mainland/Korean peninsula
- land too mountainous to farm
- seas isolated and protected; provided trade routes and food resources
to not take part in some activity, such as voting
Indian Removal Act
*When:1830*What:Law passed in order to facilitate the relocation of Native Americans living east of the Mississipi River to go further west.*Significance:Didn't remove just authorized the pres. to negotiate land-exchange treaties w/tribes.
Argued that after FDR's death, Truman was more worried about containing USSR than beating Japan
Gar Alperovitz
A member of the House of Representatives is elected to a term of...
2 years
any wanderer, a person or group of people with no permanent home
Final Solution
getting rid of the Jews as a whole
a large landmass that juts out from a continent
what branch of gov. has the power to grant titles of nobility?
Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO)
An organization dedicated to the establishment of an independent state for Palestinians in the Middle East
Island Hopping
The Pacific campaigns of 1944. Planes from American carriers controlled the air, allowing the Navy and land forces to isolate and capture the most strategically located Japanese-held islands while bypassing the rest.
New St. Peters
Was commissioned by Julius II. Took over 120yrs to build. Was very expensive, and was designed by Bramante. 
George F. Kennan
Wrote in "foreign Affairs", X paper recommends hat since soviets nukes, there is no use in trying to defeat them. Should contain and maintain them.
The _________ Acts of 1770 were a series of revenue generating duties on such products as glass, lead, paper paint and tea. America, upset with this legislation, stadged a _______ of British goods and Britain repealed all of the duties except the ___ tax
TownshendBoycottTea tax
what was the biggest utopian town in Indiana?
New Harmony
Highway Act of 1956
Law that provided $32 billion for 41,000 miles of highway construction.
Articles of Confederation
delegated most of the powers to the individual states, but the federal government had power over war, foreign policy and issuing money. Later abandoned for the Constitution.
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)
Government agency that guarantees bank deposits, thereby protecting both depositors and banks.
Zora Neale Hurston
came from all black town in florida; studied mixture of african traditions and new african american cultures
400 B.C. Greeks - Hippocrates
first to separate medicine from religion
Kaiser Wilhelm II
was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.
What is total war?
every aspect of a person's life should be affected in war
Truman Doctrine
it must be the policy of the US to support free peoples who are resiting subjugation by armed minorities or by outside prssures
What were the five majors powers dominated by the 15th century?
Milan, Florence, Venice, Papal states, and Naples. (not a unified Italy)
What industry did the government take control of due to a strike during the war?
Coal industry.... Rents, food, prices, wages
what is a poll tax?
states made balcks pay a poll tax, to make it harder for them to vote.
At the turn of the century, why did most immigrants come to the United States?
Positions as unskilled laborers were readily available in US cities
jfk assassinated
confederate iron clad.
Mao Zedong
CCP organizer
Anglican Church
Church of England
were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin
a kind of aggressive nationalism.
use or take advantage of
a large, important Christian church
Stereotyping or prejudice toward, or discrimination against, the Jews
The Catholic Church
unifying force in Europe
To be uninvolved in world affairs
*revival of ancient learning*Italy in 14th and 15th centuries
John Tyler
Harrison's Vice President. Becomes president 30 days after Harrison's inauguration. Hurt Whig party
henry clay
represented kentucky in congress, large supporter of the american system, member of the democrat-republican party, sympathized with blacks
Painted the sisten chapel, the creation of adam
Classical Style
A 17th/18th century cultural style emphasizing restraint and balance, following models from ancient Greece and Rome
26th amendment
granted the federal government the rigt to lower the voting age to 18
Pharaoh of Egypt around 1358 BC, youngest pharoh, restored old gods, died at an early age
Land Ordinance
What Ordinance divided up the land?
Byzantine emperor in the 6th century A.D. who reconquered much of the territory previously ruler by Rome, initiated an ambitious building program , including Hagia Sofia, as well as a new legal code, christian
elite, black uniformed unit called the SS (protection squad); only loyal to hitler; 1934, arrested and murdered hundreds of Hitler's enemies
Intolerable acts/coercive acts
punish bostonquatering acts thomas gage- gpvenormartial law
Denmark Vesey
free black carpenter accused of providing slaves with weapons, hanged along with 35 others, 37 banished
believed rulers should set a good example
study of how people and cultures develop
young boy that runs between machines all day doing odd jobs
the science of humans and their works.
Jim Crow Laws
The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965
intrafaith boundaries
The boundaries between a single major faith.
mandate of heaven
in Chinese history, the divine approval thought to be the basis of royal authority
Weak ruler who left the governing of his empire to his wife
Treaty of Ryswick
Ended King William's War, restored pre-war boundaries
estates general
started by philip iv, legislature: 1 nobles 2 clergy 3 townspeople
a place when grain is grounded into flour
the majority of Muslims are from what sect?
How many people were drafted in conscription?
2.8 million
Thermidorian Reaction
July 1795; succeeded the terror; it was a reaction to the chaos and extreme policies under Robespierre
sending away a public figure who is seen as a threat to a democracy
Separate but Equal state transportation facilities are Constitutional.
Plessy v. Ferguson. (1896).
any violent upheaval, esp. one of a social or political nature.
reed plant of the Nile Valley, used to make a form of paper
Treaty of Versailles
Ended WWI (1919); provided for the League of Nations; also punished Germany with loss of territories and the payment of rearations as a result of their "war guilt"; Russia also lost territoires with the reestablishment of Eastern European nations such as Poland.
Frederick the Great
A Hohenzollern King of Prussia who built up the Prussian military, opened public schools, and encouraged religious tolerance
Philippine insurrection
One U.S. sentry shot a Filipino who was crossing a bridge. The situation deteriorated and eventually there was a war with the Philippines. Took 2 years to settle this dispute. Though the U.S. had better arms, the guerilla warfare employed by the Filipinos left the Americans outmatched. Between 200,000 and 600,000 Filipinos died in the war, most from sickness and disease caused by the war
The use of one's job to gan profit (money). This was a major source of money for political machines.
Quartering Act 1765
Provide money to house and supply stations British officers
The oldest civilazation in India is along what river?
The Indus River
Federal Reserve Act
This act created a central banking system, consisting of twelve regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency.
Nazi Police State
Hitler's SS. Carried out the blood purges and the Nazi attack on Jews. Started out as police but ended up as the people who ran the holocaust.
say they needed to talk with the colonists ro theyd lose them
minority in parliament
Louis XVI
An inept ruler who was not very bright and indecisive. He was the last king of France before the Revolution
Japans military rulers were enraged by ..
the U.S oil embargo
treaty est. the 49th parallel as the northern boundary of the us from the lake of the woods to the rocky mountains
treaty of 1818
Black Death
Spread by fleas who lived on the rats, bubonic plauge was spread through breath
Declaration of the Rights of Man
written August 27, 1789; promoted liberty, equality, property, security, and the resistance to oppression; "...every citizen may therefore speak, write, and publish freely."
the king and queen of Spain, who gave Columbus part of the money he needed
Ferdinand and Isabella
What 2 political parties came about because of the election of 1828-
Whigs= national republicans, National Republicans vs. Jacksonian Democrats
The Guomindang during World War II was
The resistance government of the Chinese versus Japan's invasion of China
Common Sense was so important because?
gave people own chance to speak and their say in independence
What are the Bill of Rights?
A written list of freedoms that a government promises to protect.
Which of the following is true of all the delegates at the convention?
all experienced in gov. in their colonies
economic reconstructing
Catal Huyuk
first village
indias rivers
indus ganges
to not harm animals
edmund burke
believed in conservatism
National Association of Colored Women
Lord of Roanoke
Mateo became this
Dynasty directly after Qin Dynasty
small poorly ventilated shops (mostly in the north)
Forest Resources helped New England become a center of ____________.
Spanish for conqueror, term for Spanish soldier-explorer who looked for new land and gold for the Spanish crown
Yalta Conference
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin secretly met to discuss postwar plans; self-determination, leader of China, Soviets got role in Manchurian and Korean governments for entering war against Japan, creation of UN with Security Council
blue laws
stated appropriate social behaviors for Puritans
a pyramid-temple that soared toward the heavens
creamy or yellowish material made from dried and treated sheepskin,goatskin,or other animal hide formerly used for books and documents
Great Uprising
first nationwide work stoppage in American history. Unsuccessful railroad strike of 1877 to protest wage cuts
form of government that includes a town or city and the surrounding land controlled by it
worked like a slingshot to propel objects up to 980 feet
gave jobs to friends, which will overwhelm his life and presidency
Oregon Trail
trail that ran westward from Independence, Missouri, to the Oregon Territory
Collective Bargaining
Representatives of a union negotiating with management on behalf of all members.
monroe doctrine
president warned all outside powers not to interfere with affairs n the western hemisphere
city in Germany home to martin luther
An act, sponsored by United States Senator Reed Smoot and Representative Willis C. Hawley, and signed into law on June 17, 1930, that raised U.S. tariffs on over 20,000 imported goods to record levels.
First Continental Congress
*planned through committees of correspondance*drafted Articles of Association.*boycott Britsh goods
The city of St. Petersburg was established by Peter the Burger.
lists of individuals whose loyalty was suspicious
Ghost Dance
a religious dance of native Americans looking for communication with the dead
a system of inheritance in which the eldest son in a family receives all of his father's land; many turn to colonies to get land of their own
Four Noble Truths
Buddha's teachings: 1) Pain and suffering are inescapable parts of life. 2) They are caused by human attachment. 3) People can understand and triumph over them. 4) This is possible by following the Eightfold Path.
Japan is in close proximity to this peninsula on the Asian mainland
one of the two main languages spoken by the northeastern native americans
James Oglethorpe
The founder of the colony of Georgia
A people that began to settle the forests in the northwestern area of North American around 5000 b.c.Ancestors of the Navajo and Apache
Scientific Revolution
The era of scientific thought in Europe during which careful observation of the natural world was made, scientist created theories and new inventions, and accepted beliefs were questioned. Change-explination of the world is less religous based. Theories/Ideas were based more on a experimentation. "Scientific Method"-logical gathering and testing of scientific ideas.
Who was the celebrated baseball player of the 1920's?
Babe Ruth
Florence Nightingale
took upper middle class ladies to nurse hurt British soldiers; b/c of her women got a new profession - nursing
viet cong
civilians in south that fought for north vietnam, confused with innocent
Grey Panthers
old Americans who organized to demand better health, social security, and other benefits
A group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor, empress, or other powerful sovereign or government: usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, French Empire, Russian Empire, Byzantine Empire, or Roman Empir
Emergency Quota Act
law for only 357,000 immigrated people a year
William of Normandy
king of England who defeated King Harold and soldiers at the Battle of Hastings
Smith's basic roles of government
protection from invasion (army), defense of citizens (police), public works (roads and canals)
French Revolution
A series of wars between the new French Republic and the monarchies of Europe.
Taft wanted to remove .. from Western Europe
U.S troops
Known for his Latin literature. He was the greatest Roman orator and was also a politician and philosopher
TI - Fascism
A political philosophy or regime that exalts nation and race above the individual. It stands for an economically centralized autocratic government that's headed by a dictator. There is severe economic and social regimentation and forcible suppression of opposition. Fascism subordinates the value of the individual over the greater good of the nation and is totalitarian in nature. There is imperialist ideology and much violence with a focus on extreme nationalism. Examples of fascist regimes were seen during WWII in Germany (Hitler), Italy (Mussolini), and Japan.
JFK's domestic successes
-The peace corps, 1961
-equal pay act, 1963
-federal protection for J. Meredith and the freedom riders
-increase of min wage
-Johnson later passed much of kenedy's legislation, like civil rts act, medicare, and a package of tax cuts and reforms.
War between natives and US government. Fought in the Pacific Northwest. Chief Joseph’s men refused to relinquish their lands to white settlers without a fight. They fled before the army finally defeated them and relocated them to Kansas.
Indian war: Nez Perce
Mauryan Empire
The first state to unify most of the Indian subcontinent. It was founded by Chandragupta Maurya in 324 B.C.E. and survived until 184 B.C.E. From its capital at Pataliputra in the Ganges Valley it grew wealthy from taxes. (
FDR's New Deal Plan
To provide aid directly to needy. Economic aid to alleviate depression/ economic recovery. Financial and Banking Reform.
Congress of Vienna (1814-1815)
Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France
crimes agaisnt kansas
summner (MA) gests beat up by preston broooks
Santo Domingo was established in 1496 by ________
Bartolommeo Columbus (Columbus brother)
After the Japanese and Manchus invaded Korea, the Koreans responded by ___.
excluding foreigners from their nations
What was Pinckney's Treaty?
Spain lets U.S. navigate Miss. R. and port of New Orleans
Describe assimilation. Where was it found in early America?
Assimilation is when two cultures merge and their people intermarry; assimilation occurred between Spanish and Indians in Mexico.
French & Indian War (7 Years War)
In EuropeFrench in America made alliances with Indians(Washingtons fort?);French/AmericanInian/European
the zimmerman note did what?
tried to draw mexico into war with the u.s.
What were some positive changes for the Black people after/during Freedmen's Bureau?
1) helped promote education in the south 2) opened schools and established colleges and proviced books and teachers
the Atlantic Slave Trade and its effects on Africa in the 1600s
it grew by the 1600s, more slaves were taken out of Africa because of the meergence of the plantation economy in North America and South America
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