History Review 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions

North Dakota

a rolling grassland
under ground cemetaries
george plunkitt
tamany hall guy
capital of S Vietnam
truman doctrine
prevent overthrow of democracy
Shays Rebellion
anti-tax protest by farmer
controlled governments entrusted by many north Italian cities
ramses ii
king of ancient Egypt.
minorty population in Japan; these people are the lowest on the social ladder; had laboring jobs
Marks of lIberalism
Natural Rights
innate goodness of humans
laissez faire economics
Faith in education
Jefferson Davis
convinced congress to adopt resolutions restricting federal control over slavery
tools, machinery, and buildings used to make other products
William Penn
Inherited his father's estate, including money the king owed his father. he was the founder of Pennsylvania
The Mongols carried ___ _______
few supplies
Trade zone where discounts are offered, and where one nation has dominance
the division of power between the government and the 50 states
Mary Touvestre
Maid for the confederacy's chief engineer. Stole the blueprints for an ironclad ship that was being built. Became the first black and first women to testify against the south. Closed the gap between the north's ship building process and the south's from 6 to 2 weeks.
Republicans in the late 1800s who opposed reform
Vertical Integration
practice in which a single manufacturer controls all of the steps used to change raw materials into finished products
What is jamestown
first european colony in 1606
Lend-Lease program
A program developed by Franklin Roosevelt that allowed Britain to borrow war supplies from the United States during World War II
emergency quota act
kkk-anti immigration act-limited the amount of immigrants living in US to 3%
another name for a Northern soldier during the Civil War
natural rights
Fundamental rights over which the government could exercise no control. An uncompromising belief in such rights energized the popular demand for a formal bill of rights in 1791.
Southern Song. Cheng brothers & Zhu Xi. adapted Confucianism to answer Buddhism's questions. Li=principle/law; Qi=vital energy. 
Pork/beef fat
refers to religious controversy that british greased their bullets with pork/beef fat which is sacrilegious to hindus and muslims, final spark that led to the sepoy mutiny of 1857
Roger Williams
popular Salem minister who also challenged the Church; an extreme Separatist; was banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Aryan culture
Migrated in from north; warrior and patriarchal society (male dominant); wiped out Harappan with advanced technology; Indo-European; chariot warfare & tamed horses; orally passed down legends approx. 500 B.C.
William Bradford
scholar who was elected governor 30 years in a row
According to the Torah, God told this man to leave Mesopotamia and promised to lead him and his people to the Promised Land
"people who follow the Sunna (way of the prophet)"; the largest branch of Islam; believers accepted the first four caliphs as rightful successors Muhammad
V.I. Lenin
Leader of the Bolsheviks, he was Germany's "secret weapon" to bring down Russia
Nixon's pardon
(FORD) ford pardoned nixon, which made him unpopular
mass culture
art and entertainment appealing to a large audiance
Ethan Allen
captured Fort Ticonderoga in New York “in the name of the Great Jehovah and the continental congress
takes place in story of Nala and Damayanti, girl's father hosts event for daughter to chose her husband, spreads word to attract suitors
WHO: A spartan king, fought in the battle of Thermopole (300)
WHERE/WHEN: Sparta, 480 BCE (Death)
WHY IMPORTANT: Fought in the battle of Thermopole, which slowed the Persian advance
What Perisn king, known as "the whimp", did Alexander the Great beat two times in battle, and was pursued by Alexander but was eventually killed by his own men?
Darius III
Pendleton Act
set up Civil Service Commission and created a system by which applicants for classified federal jobs would be selected on the basis of their scored on an exam; prohibited civil servants from making political contributions
the business of buying and selling or exchanging items
the act of setting a person or people free
Winter of 1609-10
the "starving time", 90% of settlers died
Capetian line
French line of kings, started by King Henry 2
Theodore Roosevelt
This was a 26th President of the United States; hero of the Spanish-American War; Panama canal was built during his administration; said `Speak softly but carry a big stick` (1858-1919). He was considered by many to be the nation's first conservation President.
the umph of fiscal policy it to get the economy moving by government spending. When the government spends, economic output is multiplied 4 times. When gov spent for goods and services, people would then spend the money, and then those recipients would spend their money…etc. 4X according to Keynes.
Morill Act of 1862
*Land granted to colleges from government for campuses in return for promising agricultural programs.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Outlawed discrimination against blacks and bitches
During the Cold War, what was the main concern of the United States?
absolute monarchy
a monarchy that is not limited or restrained by laws or a constitution.
What were the last 2 republican states in the south?
S.Carolina and Louisiana
The Korean War
In June 1950 the N. Korean army invaded S. Korea, quickly taking Seoul. The UN Security Counsil met in emergency session and declared the invasion an unwarranted aggression. After three years of fighting, the war ended in stalemate.
Checks and Balances
system in which each of the branches of the federal government can check the actions of the other branches.
Salah ad-Din ibn Ayyub
the Kurdish soldier who seized Zangi's empire in the late 12th century; he overthrew the crusader kingdom of Jerusalem and reduced the crusader states to tiny enclaves on the coast of the Mediterranean; killed the Fatimid caliphate to extinction, and conquested Egypt for Sunni Islam; established the Ayyubid dynasty as well as the Mumluk dynasty; ruled from the 12th century to the 13th century;
Played an important role in the shaping of the Islamic world through his conquests. Also helped unite northern Africa and southwest Asia which led to less division and less competition of Asia and Africa, so there was less of an armsrace giving Europe an advantage.
The City of Tikal was:
the most prominent city, trading center for mayan religion, major ceremonial site
At San Jacinto, Santa Anna believed Houston's troops would...
fight only on the defensive.
The Civil Acts of 1964
"Persons may not be denied access or refused services in various public accommodations (places).
- Prohibited discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, or sex. Created the Equal Employment Opportunity Commision.
What are amicus curiae briefs?
Legal briefs submitted by a "friend of the court" for the purpose of raising additional points of view and presenting information not contained in the briefs of the formal parties.
Benedict of nursia was responsible for what accomplishments in the sixth century?
The most important set of monastic rules
Luck is what happens when preparation meets opportunity.
Said by Seneca the Younger (the tutor of Nero) Luck is not random good fortune. A person who is always working towards success will be ready to take advantage of circumstances.
Faust, "The Civil War Soldier and the Art of Dying"
-fashion the way they approach the end of their life out of their understandings of who they are and what matters to them
-CW created a new relationship to death; now there is 'ordinary death" which was prewar type death; and then death in battlefields and camps
-"good death" goal that all men and women should struggle to achieve; representations of good death in pop culture of CW
-Protestant assumptions dominated discourse
-What you are when you die, the same will you reappear in the great day of eternity; how one died thus epitomized a life already led and predicated the quality of life everlasting
-Most distressing part is that thousands of Americans were dying far from home; family members needed to witness a death in order to assess the state of the dying person’s soul, for these critical last moments of life would epitomize his or her spiritual condition.
-Determined not to die alone, soldiers worked to provide themselves with proxies for those who might have been around them at home; pictures of family members; they communicated to these loved ones as they died
-Families learned of death of loved ones in unreliable newspapers lists; just names not the circumstances
-Soldiers would write to each others families, nurses, etc. telling them that they died heroically, would tell of last moments and last words.
-Some managed to write home as they were dying; letters on deathbeds were so similar almost like there was a checklist: conscious of his fate, demonstrated willingness to accept it, showed signs of belief in God, invoked idealized domestic deathbed by leaving messages to those who should have been at his side.
-If no one was around when they died people looked for signs that would reveal the nature of their last moments; physical appearance, expression on face etc.
-“our dead look much more peaceful” than the enemy; showed they were right
-last minute baptisms
appearing true
Charles beard
economic determinism
radical political organization
changes to the constitution.
Persia's leader
Reza Shah Pahlavi
Frances Willard
Temperance and women's
suffrage advocate, she was a leader in the Women's
Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and the Prohibition
french protestants influenced by Calvin; minority
leading industrialists came together to write; set min prices and wages to keep the from falling; biggest failure becasue industrialists wrote it so they formed loopholes and made prices too high
gregory xiii
Italian ecclesiastic: pope 1572–85, educator and innovator of the modern calendar.
Southern states
(mama) Virginia, Carolina, Georgia, Maryland
the main reason for European exploration
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Protestants who, during the 1600s, wanted to reform the Anglican Church (p. 77)
Basic Law
Western powers had encouraged Land(state - there were 10 of them) govt. but also sponsored a constitutional convention in Bonn , 1948/9. Wrote Basic Law to officially establish Federal Republic of Germany. To be temporary until reunification of East and West. EXTENSIVE Bill of Rights (reaction of recent history) and power decentralized under a federal system - thus avoiding weakness of Weimar.
Montezuma II
Ruler of the Aztec empire.
-Warrior who was reluctant to fight
a process by which particles are separated out from water, wind, or ice by size, shape, or density
Republican Party
a new party launched in 1854
Joseph Stalin
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
In the 1600s, Robert Boyle's work transformed the field of ___.
Hideki Tojo
Japan's prime minister. ordered attack on pearl harbor
Sedition Act
Could arrest anyone talking against gov.
Joseph Pulitzer
Created first modern mass circulation newspaper
Boston Massacre
a clash between British soldiers and Boston colonists in 1770, in which five of the colonists were killed
buildings with four sides shaped like triangles. The sides come together to form a point at the top.
Operation Rolling Thunder
Massive Bombing in North Vietnam
Who commanded the German Afrika Korps and was known as the Desert Fox
Korean War
June 1950 Communist North Korea supported by the USSR attacks South Korea which was supported by the US; the UN condemns North Korean attacks and supports the US; truce line negotiated in 1953 but North and South Korea never sign a peace treaty
he was the wise statesman who led Athens during much of its golden age; he had three goals:
- glorify athens
- strenghten democracy
- hold and strengthen empire
An army of citizens who serve as soldiers in an urgent situation.
a famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813)
Spanish Armada
the Spanish fleet that attempted to invade England, ending in disaster, due to the raging storm in the English Channel as well as the smaller and better English navy led by Francis Drake. This is viewed as the decline of Spains Golden Age, and the rise of England as a world naval power.
to consider void any act of Congress that a state deems unconstitutional
Napoleon Bonaparte
(late 18th century [1799])
officer in the army of KIng Louis XVI; overthrew Directory; ruled French republic; crowned himself emperor; SIGNIFICANCE: made lots of conquests; brought political stability to France; made peace with Roman Catholic Church
378 CE
valens brings an army of 40,000 against 10,000 visigoths and loses
bald eagle
known as the king of all birds
Commercial Aviation
Developed slowly in the 1920’s with the use of planes to deliver mail. Technological development such as the radial engine and creation of pressurized cabins, were laying the ground work for an increase in commercial travel in the 1930’s and beyond
Thomas Peters
Escaped slave that makes his own declaration of independence; found Sierra Leone
1887, Frances Walker was the director of Indian Affairs. If the Indians were left alone they would die, so they were forced to adopt anglo values and convert to christianity. They were given 160 acres each, but it was open to white settlement. This lead
Dawes Act
the attempt to control every aspect of a country's life: political,economic, intellectual,religious, and social
an ancient empire in SW Asia: greatest extent from ab. 750 to 612 b.c.
Most historians argue that a recession reoccurred in 1937 because Roosevelt:
cut government spending.
Henry VIII
had 6 wives, created the Church of England/Anglican church in order to get an annulment
A policy of threatening to go to war in response to any enemy aggression.
Bay of Pigs
April 1961, US trained Cuban exile forces invaded Cuba at the Bay of Pigs to take back the island from Communist president Fidel Castro
A. Phillip Randolph
An africian american who called for all africian americans to c ome to the capital on july 1, 1941 to march under the banner "We loyal colored Americans Demand the right to work and fight for our country"
First Continental Congress(1774)
Convention of delegates from twelve of the thirteen colonies that convened in Philadelphia to craft a response to the Intolerable Acts. Delegates established association which called for a complete boycott of British goods.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Stephen A. Douglas was the author
forced his nobles to sign the Magna Carta
King John
an avatar of Vishnu and one of the most popular of Indian deities, who appears in the Bhagavad-Gita as the teacher of Arjuna.
Martin Luther
a German monk who became one of the most famous critics of the Roman Catholic Chruch. In 1517, he wrote 95 theses, or statements of belief attacking the church practices.
central powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
department stores
giant retail shops that sold a lot of different items (a one-stop shop); low prices and convenience
Alien & Sedition Acts
4 bills passed during the Quasi War
who donated the papal states?
where were they?
who were they donated to?
king pepin I
central italy
the pope
National government should be strengthened
Belief by Alexander Hamilton and the Federalists
Problems with the Church
many village priests were married and had families when marriages were against church rulings; bishops sold positions in the church; kings appointing bishops using the lay investiture
Tensions within Sepoys
(a) Muslim and Hindu. In 1857, the EIC introduced new rifle cartridges that you tear open with your teeth. But, they were sealed with animal fat. They were said to be cow fat: upset Hindus because cows are sacred. They were also said to be sealed with pig fat which upset the Muslims because pigs are unclean. The British didn’t think this one through—they were trying to water-proof their cartridges. They are the source of bubbling discontentment. They are Indian, hired by a foreign company, to protect the economic interest of that foreign country, in India. Also, the Sepoy units were under the control of British officers not Indian officers, but within their own country. Makes them feel/look like 2nd class citizens. This is a powerful source of discontentment. Between the animal fat and the feeling of 2nd class citizens, there becomes a crisis. It’s the Sepoy Rebellion.
Name three of the first crops grown in Kansas...
Corn, oats, and cotton.
U Miss and James Meredith
He was the first black student of the university, his admission caused riots in the usually segregated state. He was also a civil rights leader.
Department stores and chain stores
are 2 or more retail stores run by the same company, bearing the same name, and selling the same kinds of merchandise. Originated in 1859 when businessmen George F. Gilman (1830?-1901) and George Huntington Hartford (1833-1917) founded the Great Atlantic & Pacific Tea Company grocery stores. In 1879 W. P. Woolworth opened its doors and J. C. Penney followed in 1902. Eventually, all kinds of stores moved to the chain store model, selling groceries, apparel, shoes, prescription drugs, books, jewelry, furniture, hardware, and music. By the end of the twentieth century, chain stores were selling about one third of all merchandise in America.
How did the automobile alter society after WW I?
A lot more people got cars, so there were new businesses to support cars. People traveled more. People could move out to the suburbs and then drive to the city for work.
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