Hormones 5 Flashcards

blood glucose
Terms Definitions
LH
Structure-glycoproteinTarget-male-leydig cells,female-stimulates follicle maturationPrimary action-induces final maturation of follicle estrogen secretion,ovulation, CL formation and progesterone secretion. In males increases synthesis and secretion of androgensRegulation- FSH/LH-RH stimulates release
MSH
Melanocyte-stimulating hormone
Anterior pituitary
Stimulates melanin synthesis (? humans)
GnRH
hypothalmic (+)
TSH
stimulates thyroid gland
Epinephrine
Sympathetic stress response
PIH (Dopamine)
hypothalmic (-)
secreted by lactrotrophs
prolactin
Glucagon
raises blood glucose level
progesterone
promotes uterine living growth
Source
Ovary uterus embryonic membranes
ovary, uterus, embryonic membranes
none
ACTH
Target: adrenal cortex
Function: stimulate secretion of corticosteroids to combat stress
Secretion regulated by: CRH, negative feedback
GH
Growth hormone (cortisol permisive)
Anterior pituitary
Stimulates protein synthesis, lipolysis
Inhibits glucose uptake
+ sleep, stress, puberty, hypoglycemia, excercise, GHRH(major)
- somatostatin, IGF, pregnancy, hyperglycemia
Thyroxine
increases cell metabolic rate
regulates grown and mental development
regulated by TSH and TSH-RH
released by Thyroid
targets all body cells
Estrogens
stimulate uterine lining growth; promote development and maintenance of female secondary sex characteristics
Androgen
Steroid: sperm formations and development
Thymus hormone
Stimulates formation of antibodies
Estrogen
steroid; secreted in ovaries; stimulates the development of sex characteristics in women, the growth of the uterine lining during pregnancy; induces the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) before the LH surge
TestosteroneGonads
Testes: Male sexual maturation
Prolactin
Gland of origin: Anterior pituitary
 
Major action: lactogenesis, stimulates milk production and works with estrogen in breast development
-inhibits ovulation by releasing GnRH, inhibits spermatogenesis by dec. GnRH
-secretion inc by estrogen, breast-feeding, sleep, stress, TRH
-dec by dopamine, bromocriptine, somatostain, prolaction (Neg Feedback)
-homologous to GH
 
Sertoli cells
FSH- Female target tissue
Angiotensin II
- vasoconstriction
- aldosterone release
* increases BP via Na reabsorption and water retention
* stimulates H+ K+ excretion
:unchecked this can lead to
- metabolic alkalosis (losing acid)
- HTN (high blood pressure)
- hypokalemia (losing K+)
Insulin
Pancreas (beta cells)
Decreases blood [glucose], [amino acid], and [fatty acid], decreases blood [K+]
+ high blood D-glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, GH, cortisol, GIP, Glucagon
- low blood glucose, somatostatin
mantence of male sex chacterisics
testasterone
Testosterone
hormone that supports sperm producing and secondary sexual characteristics in males
prolactin (PRL)
stimulates milk production and secretion
Thyroid Gland-releases
Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Calcitonin
Glucocorticoids
Raises blood glucose levels during stressful times (it is a steroid)
parathyroid hormone
parathyroid gland; raises calcium level
norepinephrine
in adrenal gland; deals with anger
Anterior Pituitary
Where is luteinizing hormone produced?
Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone
(TSH)
protein hormone
produced in the anterior pituitary gland
targets the thyroid
stimulates growth and secretion of thyroid: by stimulating the follicular cells of the thyroid to release T3 and T4 from the thyroglobulin for release into the plasma membrane!
produced in response to TRH
 (omega C)
Arachidonic Acid(an omega-6 fatty acid)
Corpus luteum and placenta
Progesterone (P4) source
What organ does ACTH work on?
adrenal
Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)
Produced by: adrenal cortex
Target: kidneys
Function: regulate electrolyte balance by stimulating retention of sodium from the urine
Secretion regulated by: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone mechanism, blood volume, blood osmolarity, ACTH, ANF
high fever (>103), tachycardia, tachypnea, dehydration, delirium, and diarrhea s/sx for
thyroid storm
lowers blood glucose levels by accelerating transport of glucose into cells, convertingglucose into glycogen
insulin
Calcitonin
decreases levels of Calcium in blood
PTH
Peptide: lowers blood calcium level by stimulating calcium release from bones
Negative feedback
primary mechanism of homeostasis; a change in a physiological variable that is being monitored triggers a response that counteracts the initial fluctuation
Oxytocin
target breast and uterus, milk letdown and uterine contraction
AldosteroneAdrenal Gland
Kidneys: Water and electrolyte balance
Prostaglndin E2 (PGE2) biochem classification
Prostaglandin fatty acid
pregnanetriol
precursor in the biosynthesis of the adrenal hormone cortisol. Steroid hormone.
What organ does GH work on?
multiple organs
Estrogen
progesterone
_______ and ___________ secretion rise causing a corresponding increase in plasma levels that peak at about the middle of the luteal phase.
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Prolongs the conditions responsible for the "flight or fight" response: increase in metabolism, heart rate, blood pressure, etc.
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Adrenal Medulla
group of hormones male hormone body programs for MALES. growth and pubic hair
androgens
thymosin
thymus -- T lymphocytes;
immune response
Posterior Pituitary
stores and releases hormones from the hypothalamus (oxytocin and ADH)
Ovulation hormone signals (pre-ovulation)
Before ovulation, ovarium secretes estrogen to stimulate the maturation of the ovum. The current level of estrogen will give a signal to hypothalamus and hypophyse to stimulate the production of GnRH and FSH, respectively, so the estrogen level will be increasing til reaches the peak. This is when ovulation occurs.
Luteinizing Hormone (LH)
Gonadotropic, targets ovary and testes for ovulation and testosterone synthesis
follicle-stimulatin hormone
from ant. pituitary to sex glands; stimulating female egg maturation and male sperm production
Oxytocin Male primary action
PGF2alpha synthesis and pre ejaculatory movement of spermatozoa
What is synthesized in the neurons of the hypothalamus?
Neurohormones
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH): Source and action
Anterior pituitaty gland. Stimulates the cortex of the adrenal gland and boosts the synthesis of corticosteroids, mainly glucocorticoids but also sex steroids (androgens).
What is another term for the pituitary gland?
Hypophysis
24 hour urine catecholamines
- free norepinephrine
- epinephrine
- catecholeamine metabolites
* metanephrines & vanilly mandelic acid (VMA)
What hormone aids in everyday metabolism
thyrotropn releasing hormone
androgens
adrenal cortex -- male and female sex organs;
puberty
Prolactin Releasing Hormone PRH
causes adenohypophysis to release prolactin
Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin)
POSTERIOR PITUITARY -> KIDNEY: water retention
Activin male and female target tissue
Gonadotrophs of anterior pituitary
substrates for E2 synthesis, abnormal masculization (hair patterns, voice, behavior)
Testosterone female primary action
Inhibin: Source and action.
Ovaries or testes. Inhibits FSH production.
What does Adrenal medulla secrete?
- secretes catecholamines: epinephrine and norepinephrine
- actions similar to sympathetic nerves
Anterior pituitary (GH, Prolactin, FSH, LH, TSH)
Growth Hormone (GH): stimulates growth (esp. bones) and metabolic functions - regulated by hypothalamic hormones
Prolactin (PRL): stimulates milk production and secretion - regulated by hypothalamic hormones
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH): stimulates production of ova and sperm - regulated by hypothalamic hormones
Luteinizing hormone (LH): stimulates ovaries and testes - regulated by hypothalamic hormones
Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): stimulates thyroid gland - regulated by hypothalamic hormones
LH- Female target tissue
Ovaries (cells of theca interna and luteal cells)
Why is cortisol important?
It is important in regulating the body’s response to stress.It also blocks immune system reactions.
Thyroid Stimulating hormone (TSH): Source and action.
Anterior Pituitary. Stimulates T3 and T4 secretion. Controlled by TRH.
Thyroid hormone (TH, thyroxine)
THYROID: in the child it is necessary for physical and mental development; in the adult, it increases metabolic rate and temperature
prostaglandin F 2a male primary action
luteolysis, promotes uterine tone and contraction, ovulation
corpus luteum
dominant follicle
LH
LH surge
progesterone
Early in the luteal phase the ______ ______ is growing but not yet fully functional as an endocrine organ. Plasma estrogen levels continue to fall because the rate of estrogen secretion by the corpus luteum is not yet high enough to compensate for the loss of the estrogen-secreting _________ _________. This fall in estrogens removes the stimulus for ___ secretion, thereby terminating the ___ _______. ___________ secretion by the corpus luteum causes the plasma levels of this hormone to begin rising. The corpus luteum attains full maturity.
Which hormones come from the Thyroid?
Thyroid hormone and Calcitonin (from C cells)
Where are the Luteinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone produced?
by the anterior pituitary gland. (The pituitary gland is located in a depression at the bottom of the skull just over the back of the roof of the mouth).
What is Growth Hormone also known as, what hormone does it oppose,
- GH aka somatotropin
- an amphibolic hormone (in catabolism and anabolism)
- hypothalamus releases GHRH and somatostatin (SS) to the anterior pituitary that releases GH
- a single random measurement may not be diagnostic
- lvl modulated by many factors
- opposes the action of insulin
* promotes hepatic gluconeogenesis
* promotes lipolysis
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Term:
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