Human Development 13 Flashcards

Kohlberg's stages of moral development
Terms Definitions
directly observable characteristics
continuity-discontinuity issue
whats up
studies observable behaviors, recognized learning experiences over time as source of developmental changes. Describes learning as relatively permanent change in the capacity to perform certain behaviors that result from experience. i. Learning theory: emphasized the sequences and processes of conditioning that underlie most human and animal behavior.1. Conditioning: relationship between stimulus and response.2. Classical conditioning: Ring a bell, dog salivates. (Pavlov)3. Operant conditioning: Positive and negative reinforcement. (Skinner)
During the preoperational period (specifically 5-7 years), a child's concept of illness is that it is caused by people who are proximate to, but not touching the child. Link between the two is magic. "You get measles when you walk near people".
middle adulthood
34 - 60 years
Epigenetic Theory
Emphasizes interactionbetween genetic instructions and surrounding cont4exts (repress or encourage genetic expression.), develops impulses, interests, and patterns inherited from ancestors.
Conceptual Knowledge:
Acquired interpretive understandings stored in long term memory
pracitcal and progmatic, logic governs
old-old adult
80 years and beyond
the mental processing of sensory information, when the brain interprets a sensation.
prime adaptive ego quality of integrity vs despair
Prenatal diagnostic procedure in which a sample of amniotic fluid is withdrawn and analyzed to determine whether any of certain genetic defects are present
increase from general to specific functioning
Cervix goes from thick to thin.
the possibility that something else will happen
gradual unfolding of ones genetic pattern of change
industry vs inferiority(5-12)
knowledge&intellect, tasks or inferior
genetic makeup of person containing both expressed and unexpressed characteristics
somite layerproduces the vertebrae and ribs
young adult
20 years to 40 years
As the individual ages, they maximise their ability in the selected aspects of functioning. The pianist practices the few pieces more.
a process that stimulates the body's immune system to defend against attack by a particular contagious disease.
Mahler rapprochement
need for independence alternates with need for closeness
two or more groups born different years are studied over a long period of time. Allows for long term study, and also allows cross-sectional comparisons
Prepared Childbirht
Method of childbirht, uses instruction breathing exercises, and social support to unduce controlled physical responses to unterine contracions and reduce fear and pain
totally taking in new culture, and abandoning the old one
Quantitative Data
Can be categorized, ranked, or numbered
Primary task confronting young adults
intimacy vs. isolation
tendency to attribute life to objects that are not alive
Moral Reasoning
thinking that occurs when what's right/wrong
small segments of DNA located in definite positions on particular chromosomes
Buhrmester and Furman's Socioemotional Model of Friendship
*Juvenile (6-9): acceptance, hierarchies* Preadolescent (9-12): intense closeness, similarities*Early Adolescent (12+): sexuality erupts, patterns of fulfilling sexual needs and intimacy form*Adolescence: four attachment needs*YOung Adulthood: novel envn't, old friendships erode*Midlife: dyadic withdrawal*Old Age: barriers, bypass interaction
an organism more developed than an embryo but not yet born (from about 8 weeks after conception until birth in humans)
to balance equally; keep in equipoise or equilibrium.
While caring for an elder or a chronically ill family member, after taking on a large burden, the caregiver can suffer from this...
Babinski reflex
when infants feed are stroked, their toes fan upward
sexual development at 3 years
genital differences/ gender identity
Range of Reaction
each person responds to the environment in a unique way due to their genetic makeup.
Gross Motor Skills
Physcial skills that involve large muscles
developmentally appropriate practice
instruction and other services adapted to the age, characteristics, and progress of individual children
A boy's first ejaculation of sperm. Erections can occur as early as infancy, but ejaculation signals sperm production. Spermarche occurs during sleep or via direct stimulation.
Cross-sectional design
The study of different ppl at different periods of time
42. Lawrence Kohlberg sees people as deciding a behavior is right or wrong on the basis of whether it is rewarded or punished when operating at the (
Preconventional level
Define Metamemory in Adulthood.
Questionnaire designed to measure various aspects of adults' metamemory, including beliefs about their own memory and the selection and use of strategies for remembering.
Embryonic Stage
second stage of gestation (2-8 wks). Characterized by rapid growth and development of major body systems and organs
Scientific areas on a standard of DNA that carry hereditary info
social settings that a person may not experience firsthand but that still influence development
Stage Theories
These types of theories depend on big problems being passed before going on to the next.
deferred imitation
a sequence in which an infant first perceives something that someone else does and then performs the same action a few hour or even days later.
Early Adulthood period of development
20-40 years---most leave home, complete education, begin full time work. Major concerns are developing a career, forming an intimate partnership, and marrying, rearing children, or establishing other lifestyles
Children in which type of day care tend to be healthier that children who arent in daycare?
High Quality
Intrinsic Motivation
Goals or drives that come from inside a person, such as the need to feel smart or competent.
Define functional age.
Measure of a person's ability to function effectively in his or her physical and social environment in comparison with others of the same chronological age.
sensorimotor stage
according to Piaget the first stage of intellectual development; an infant's behavior is limited to making simple motor responses
Trust vs Mistrust
In the first year of life, this erikson stage depends on the baby's needs being consistently met.
USPSTF colorectal cancer screen recommendations
adults 50-75 with occult blood testing, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy
Theory of Mind
A person's theory of what other people might be thinking. In order to have a theory of mind, children must realize that other people are not necessarily thinking the same thoughts that they are. Seldom possible before age 4.
2. Autonomy v shame
1-3 yrscrisis= developing a sense of independencewillpower vs self doubt
approach to a typical annual physical for adult
general (appearance, body habitus, level of distress); CV (heart sounds/ heart murmur); abdomen (bowel sounds, palpate for tenderness, masses); skin (bruises, rashes, mole abnormalities); musculoskeletal (assess joint pain); neuro (gait evaluation; strength; sensation; reflexes); social history (tobacco, alcohol, drug use; sexual activity; seatbelt use and gun safety; safety in home)
Postconventional morality (or morality of autonomous moral principals):
Third level of Kohlberg’s theory of moral reasoning in which people follow internally held moral principles and can decide among conflicting moral standards.
Kohlberg's Stage 3 of Moral Development
The morality of mutual relationships. The "good boy-nice girl" orientation. Child acts to please and help others.
The language acquisition device LAD was proposed by Chomsky to explain
the universal inborn ability to learn langauge
Salma is 10-month-old who is being tested on the visual cliff. We would expect her to
refuse to cross over the "visual cliff"
On the basis of research on human bonding, we migh expect that adoptive parents
can bond with their children, even months or years after birth
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