Human Lifespan Development Flashcards

Terms Definitions
conditioning
According to behaviorism, the processes by which responses become linked to particular stimuli and learning takes place. The word is used to emphasize the importance of repeated practice.
superego
In psychoanalytic theory, the judgmental part of the personality that internalizes the moral standards of the parents.
internalization
Literally, sidedness, referring to the specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa.
egocentrism
Piaget's term for young children's tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective.
bullying aggression
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack, especially on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves.
replication
The repetition of a study, using different participants.
animism
The belief that natural objects and phenomena are alive.
overregularization
The application of rules of grammar even when exceptions occur, making the language seem more "regular" than it actually is.
scaffolding
Temporary support that is tailored to a learner's needs and abilities and aimed at helping the learner master the next task in a given learning process.
phallic stage
Freud's third stage of development, when the penis becomes the focus of concern and pleasure.
initiative versus guilt
Erikson's third psychosocial crisis, in which children undertake new skills and activities and feel guilty when they do not succeed at them.
classical conditioning
A learning process in which a meaningful stimulus (such as the smell of food to a hungry animal) gradually comes to be connected with a neutral stimulus (such as a particular sound) that had no special meaning before the learning process began. (Also called respondent conditioning.)
ethnic group
People whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion.
psychoanalytic theory
A theory of human development that holds that irrational, unconscious drives and motives, often originating in childhood, underlie human behavior.
private speech
The internal dialogue that occurs when people talk to themselves (either silently or out loud).
substantiated maltreatment
Harm or endangerment that has been reported, investigated, and verified.
perseveration
The tendency to persevere in, or stick to, one thought or action for a long time.
Reggio Emilia approach
A famous program of early-childhood education that originated in this town; it encourages each child's creativity in a carefully designed setting.
self-esteem
A person's evaluation of his or her own worth, either in specifics (e.g., intelligence, attractiveness) or in general.
gender differences
Differences in the roles and behaviors that are prescribed by a culture for males and females.
socioeconomic status (SES)
A person's position in society as determined by income, wealth, occupation, education, and place of residence. (Sometimes called social class.)
longitudinal research
A research design in which the same individuals are followed over time and their development is repeatedly assessed.
apprentice in thinking
Vygotsky's term for a person whose cognition is stimulated and directed by older and more skilled members of society.
corpus callosum
A long, thick band of nerve fibers that connects the left and right hemispheres of the brain and allows communication between them.
neglectful/uninvolved parenting
An approach to child rearing in which the parents are indifferent toward their children and unaware of what is going on in their children's lives.
authoritarian parenting
An approach to child rearing that is characterized by high behavioral standards, strict punishment of misconduct, and little communication.
kinship care
A form of foster care in which a relative of a maltreated child, usually a grandparent, becomes the approved caregiver.
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