Human Memory 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
source cueing
source cueingProviding source information can serve as a cue to help a person remember.
The proportion of material retained
Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious

~Authenticity of repressed memories?
~Memory illusions
An organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or sequence of events. ch.7 pg.276
A hypothetical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long-term memory. ch.7 pg.293
false memories
Remembering things that never happened, false memories may be remembered with high confidence. However, they are typically not the most confident memories, nor the first recalled. Often what is falsely remembered is associated with other real information. When and how people remember things that never really appened. Errors in memory can cause serious problems. Good example is false info in an eyewitness testimony.
sleeper effect
sleeper effect People hear message from high or low credibility sources. After a few days or weeks, the message from the low credibility source will have greater credibility. People lose source information and only remember message. Things that once seemed unreasonable, now become reasonable just after a simple passage of time.
Unconscious plagiarism. A person has a “good idea” that they think is new. It has been forgotten that it, or something similar to it, has been encountered earlier. Ex: Category Item Generation Task (person given category name and asked to give example. People often plagiarize the answer that person before them said.
Proactive interference
Occurs when previously learned information interferences with the retention of new information.

Ex: When you get a new phone number, your old number previous learning may create proactive interference that hampers your recall of your new number
Declarative Memory System
Memory for factual information
Interference theory
Purposes that people forget information because of competition from other material.

Ex: interference is when two subjects are similar and to decrease this problem you have to decrease the similarity.

Tip-Of-The-Tongeu Phenomenon Retrieval
A failure in retrieval
implanted memories
False memories implanted from an external source (intentional or unintentional). Self implantation and feedback: students viewed a film and then answered questions, knowing that the answered involved incorrect information. If the event is more plauable, it is more likely to be “remembered” or that the event actually occurred, when it actually did not.
imagination inflation
Implanted memories are more likely when people are encouraged to form mental images during recall attempts
lineup similarity
Identifying a perpetrator from among a set of alternatives Two bad things: 1) Misidentifying an innocent person 2) failing to identify the criminal
Short-term memory: Rehearsal
The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the infromation
Decay theory
The idea that forgetting occurs because memory traces fade with time.
Maintenance rehearsal
The process of repeatedly verbalizing or thinking about a piece of information
A group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit. ch.7 pg.272
life narrative
Events are comprehended and stored in reference to schemas already in memory. Memories often contain schema inconsistent information. Autobiographical memory is structured as a life narrative. Autobiographical memories serve as our life stories. It is the human tendancy to organize events into some kind of narrative structure.
autobiographical memory
Memories for the events in one’s life. Ones life narritave. Involves interpretive knowledge. A person’s life story, constructed from: places, people, causal connections, goals, activities. The type of memory that forms our life story. Covers events, situations, and other knowledge about one’s life span. It is related to episodic memory, except that it spans over many many memories rather than just focusing on one. Takes much longer to retrieve. 2 to 15 seconds. Remember pleasant ones better than the unpleasant memories. There is a forgetting curve over time, we remember the ones that are most recent.
false memories from interigation
false memories from integration If people hear related and overlapping pieces of information, they will integrate it together. Memory is more likely to identify something that is closer to the integrated whole as being old than actually heard, smaller components.
wording effects
Memory can be influenced by the wording of questions. For an incident on a video tape, people are more likely to say they saw something when the question used a definite article (the) rather than an indefinite article (a).
Information-processing approach
People have three kinds of memory stores: a sensory memory, a short-term memory, and a long-term memory.
~Associates computer memory storage of data to the information storage in human memory
Recall measure of retention
Requires participants to reproduce information on their own without any cues.
Retrospective Memory
The ability to remember events from the past or previously learned information
Source monitoring
The process of making inferences about the origins of memories.
Recognition measure of retention
Requires participants to select previously learned information from an array of options.
Ebbinghaus's Forgetting Curve
First person to conduct scientific studies of forgetting
Enriching Encoding: Elaboration
Linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding.

~thinking of examples
Anterograde amnesia
Loss of memories for events that occur after a head injury. ch.7 pg.293
schema-copy-plus-tag model
Schemas can be used to help organize and complete information in autobiographical memory. Schema copy plus tag model is a reference to a particular schema along with tags that denote idiosyncratric aspects. Peopole use schemas to help reconstruct autobiographical memories that are incomplete. The older the memories are, the more schema-consistent people’s reports are likely to be. Schemas guide the information of our memories and influence how and what we remember. The model represents both schematic and unique aspects of an event. When you retrieve the schema, it will help reduce the need to actively think about and process every detail.
How is knowledge represented and organized in memory?
~Schemas and Script
~Semantic Networks
~Connectionist Network and PDP Models
Short-term memory: Chunking
Grouping familar stumli for storage as a single unit
What are the factors that influence the likelihood that a person will form a flashbulb memory?
Novelty, surprise, importance, emotional reaction, affective attitude (opinions and beliefs), rehearsal surprising events, important events that are very vivid. It is critical to remember information that had an impact on our lives but not to remember more trivial information.
Be familiar with the six explanations for why infantile amnesia occurs.
1)Psychodynamic (Freudian) – memories are repressed to protect the ego from threatening psychosexual content. When we are infants we go through a period of sexual thinking and wishing. During this time we learn that the inesutal thoughts that we are having are taboo. To protect ourselves from this knowledge, our unconscious blocks from consciousness all memories from this time. 2) Neurological- the hippocampus and frontal lobes aren’t fully developed during infancy. The ability to lay down new memories would be hindered, contributing to infantile amnesia. 3) schema organization view –understanding the world and interests change. Infants are trying to understand how the world works and still developing how to use schemas. They focus on inappropriate aspects of events because of this. 4) language development view – Memories become more language influenced. Inability to organize information into a coherent life narrative, which can then be used to help retrieval. 5) development of the self(emergent self view) –The offset of infantile amnesia is the inverse of the onset of autobiographical memory. Newborns lack a sense of self as a separate entity from the environment. Once the sense of self is established, autobiographical memory can be constructed around it. 6) multicomponent development –Many factors account for infantile amnesia . different cultures experience different offset ages for infantile amnesia. There are a number of memory abilities or components that emerge to bring about this new type of memory. Greater focus of self in western cultures, so less infantile amnesia.
weapon focus effect
Attention is drawn to a weapon; memory from this is very robust. Peripheral information is more susceptible to misleading information.
Connectionist Networks and PDP Models
Models assume the cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks
Encoding: Getting Information Into Memory
The Role of Attention, Focusing Awareness, and Divided Attention
Retrieval failure
A great deal of forgetting may be due to breakdowns in the process of retrieval.

~Tulving and Thomson
when does the sleeper effect occur
D. When does the sleeper effect occur?Occurs when people are given some source of propaganda with high credibility or low credibility. Occurs when people store both the content of the information message and the source information. As time passes, the content information is better remembered than the source.
On which five retrieval processes does the cognitive interview act?
1) use principles of encoding-specificity and mood-congruent learning Facilitates accutate retreaval 2) encourage reporting whatever information is available Avoids problems of response bias 3) start recalling at different points Avoids set retrieval plans 4) alternate perspectives Encourages different retrieval routes 5) do not interrupt the witness Allows more weakly encoded memories to emerge
What is the likely influence of hypnosis on memory?
Tendency to recall more information, especially true of high susceptibility people. Hypothesized people are very confident about new information they recall, however most new information is wrong. Additional accurate recalls can be attributed by hypermnesia. Hypnotized people are trying to co-operate with the hypnotist (when they are asked for more information, they report more). People under hypnosis adopt a liberal response bias, reporting things they would normally not consider accurate.
CC verbal overshadowing and revelation effect
They are both false memories through normal memory use. Verbal Overshadowing: if people provide a description of a scene they witness, then memory will be worse compared to if nothing was said; occurs for both things described and not. When we talk about things we have seen, our memories can be changed by the verbalization. Revelation effect: people are more likely to say that something is old (in memory) if it is revealed slowly. The revealing process produces a feeling of familiarity. Misrecognize new information as old if the information is revelaed graudually rather than all at once. It can also occur when people make frequency judgements in addition to simple recognition judgements.
What are two consequences of problems with source monitoring?
1) more generated information is mistaken for real than visa versa. Repeated memory retrievals of imagined info may introduce more perceptionlike qualities to the memory. Any given memory can seem like something that actually append2) source monitoring is a decision making process; people set detection thresholds and biases based on a variety of factorsErrors can lead to: errors in eye witness testimony and cryptomnesia
What are the four different types of information people use to evaluate the source of a memory?
1) perceptual detail 2) contextual information 3) semantic detail/ affective information 4) cognitive operations
What do we know about children’s ability to demonstrate weapon focus?
Pickel, narter, Jameson and Lenhardt: weapon focus effecting child eyewitness. Participants 4 – 5 year old; 7 -8 year olds, and college undergraduates. Method: Ps watched a video in which a target individual dressed as chief or a mail carrier holds either a weapon or a neutral object steals money; following video, asked questions about the target individual. Results: weapon focus effect demonstrated in all age groups.
Working Memory: Visuospatial sketchpad
This component is at work when you try to mentally rearrange the furniture
in your bedroom
Be familiar with the three explanations for why the reminiscence bump occurs.
1) cognitive – Many of the events of this time are novel. Ex: for the first timeEvents in a persons life are remembered better if they were the first ones of that type. Because there are so many firsts, it is not surprising that these memories are easier to recall than others. 2) neurological – Neural processes are at their peak, neither maturing nor decliningWhen a person is at her cognitive peak. When her nervous system is neither maturing nor declining. People are at their best capacity to encode and store memories. Thus memories are more efficient at these times than any other. 3) identity formation – A person’s identity is formed. Ex: socially, vocationally, and ideologically.A person ismaking a number of decisions about who they are. More decisions are made during this time. Increased interconnectivity, memories from this time are more available than normally.
What is one way that a juror’s decision can be affected by how memory operates?
Juries are biased by information order. There is a strong recency bias. Mock juries come to different conclusions when same information is presented in different orders. Jurors may sometimes hear things they shouldn’t. this is essentially direct forgetting. People either hear information that was either: Inappropriately presented Presented by irrelevant Presented and relevantPresented by irrelevant information biased juries decisions much more than inappropriately presented information.
Working Memory: Phonological rehearsal loop
This component is at work when you use recitation to temporarily hold onto a phone number
What is the age range in which most people can accurately recall their first memory?
20 (15-25). Often observed with Galton’s free association task (responding with a memory when given a word)
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