Human Sexuality Exam 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
LGBT
massage parlors
dysmenorrhea
Painful menstruation
motor-cycle dykes
gender non-conforminglesbo
Male waist-to-hip ratio
.90
bacterial vaginitis
Causes=various bacteriaTransmission=sexual and non-sexual modes, possible infection or reinfection by sexual partnerSymptoms=white, yellow vaginal discharge, foul odor, itching, burning urinationDetection=microscopic exam of dischargeEffects=reproductive tract infection, infertilityPrevention=wear cotton panties, avoid tightly fitting crotch clothing, decrease dietary sugar and carbs, do not use feminine hygiene products, douche with vinegar and water only
FYF
first year failure rate
love map bond
physical attractivenessproximitysimilarityreciprocity
Where is hCG produced?
Conceptus
erotophobic-erotophilic continuum
Procreational, Relational, Recreational, Spiritual
cervical os
Entrance to uterus
dihydrotestosterone
Androgen derived from testosterone
reasons for failure
regrowth of tubes
Hysterectomy
Surgical removal of the uterus
cognitive dimension
concious, concretegains rudimentary knowledge of sexual vs non sexualunderstands that aspects of self, anatomy, actions are sexualcuriosity about pregnancy and birthparental negative labeling, non-labeling, mislabeling of genitals
post-coital pill
Prevents implantation, potentially prevents ovulation and fertilization, will not dislodge planted ova.-Pill taken 72 hours within unprotected coitus, followed by a 2nd pill within 12 hours1% LAF and 1% TAF when taken within 12 hours
miscarriage
Expulsion of fetus before viable
motor pathway
Control contractions in muscles-Genital muscle groups: Role in erection, ischiocavernosa, bulbasponsiosum musclesRole in ejaculation-muscles of epididymis, vas deferens , ejaculatory duct, urethra, and related structures in femalerole in orgasm-myotonia, rhythmic contractions in PC muscle, anus, vaginal introitusNon genital=muscle in face, hands, feet, buttocks, abdomen, grimacing, vocalizing, pelvic thrusting
call-girl
elite sex worker-very attractive, socially adept, well educated, well groomed, middle to upper class background, sexually and socially sophisticated-often on client at a time, very well paid-works out of own residence or in upscale residence provided by male-serves as hostess, companion-runs own business but very high overhead
zoophilia
Sexual arousal from sexually stimulating animals or being sexually stimulated by an animal.
asymptomatic infection
An infection without symptoms.
vaginal introitus
Outer 1/3-Source of lubrication-Movement of interstitial fluid through the vaginal mucosal membranes under pressure of vasocongestion-high density of nerve endings, sensitive to stimulation
hookers
Solicits on street, streetwalker-Has sex in cars, alleys, rent by hour hotels-often has 4-5 clients per day
Minipill
An oral contraceptive containing progestin only.
birth positions
gravity, anesthesia, health of mothersemi-prone, birthing chair, kneeling, squatting, water bath
tubal blockage
filling with medication, plugs, clips.4% LAF 1.4% TAF
ambisexuality
sex acts involving partners with anomalous biologic sex (intersex, transsexual) or anomalous gender identity (transgendered) **sex acts involving sex with anomalous partner choiceAKA - homosexual male sex with heterosexual male
Sexual Rights
Basic, inalienable rights regarding sexuality, both positive and negative such as the right to  reproductive self-determination and sexual self-expression and freedom from sexual abuse and violence
verbal sexual content
innuendos, jokes, taunting, propositions
erotic dimension
social restrictionsparent labels body parts as dirty and baddecreased parental tolerance of nuditycomfort with nudity in childhood associated with increased comfort with physical contact, lower rate of STI's in adulthood
Braxton-Hicks contractions
Uncomfortable but not painful contractions that occur around the 20th week of pregnancy that are thought to strengthn uterine muscles to prepare the uterus for labor. They are not part of labor.
Comstock Laws
1873-prohibited the dispensing of contraceptive device or information to any person
excitement phase
General features-focus on psychogenic and somagenic sexual stimulation-genital PSNS tone-vasocongestionFemale System-engorgement (lubrication)-clitoral swelling-ballooning and tentingMale System-engorgement, erection-nipple erectionSex Flush
asphyxiophilia
Sexual arousal from lack of oxygen-using noose or plastic bag-extremely dangerous=several hundred deaths per year
bisexuality
Erotic attachment that is independent of gender
vaginismus
Painful, involuntary spasms of PC muscle-prevents penetration of introitus
dyspareunia
Painful coitus-most commonly occurs in females-anxiety about coitus, failure to develop lubricating response, religious, pregnancy fears-vaginal infections, clitoral hood adhesions, pelvic disorders
prostaglandins
Prostaglandins in semen can cause pleasurable or painful contractions in the uterus of female.
tribadism
Rubbing the pelvic, genitals against the thighs, pelvis, genitals of the other partner
reactivation
5% transmission during vaginal birth
Fellatio
Oral sex performed on a male.
Asymptomatic
Having no noticeable symptoms despite the presence of an infectious agent.
Sodomy laws
Laws prohibiting specific sexual activities between adults, even in private and with their consent.
significant edema
swelling of hands, feel, legs, face
gender subcultures
gender bender, gender blender, gender outlaw, gender-free
high testosterone
spurs growth in right hemispheres, slows growth in left hemisphere, increases lateralization of the brain
Follicle-Stimulating hormone
(FSH)
secreted by the PG, stimulates follicle development in females and sperm development in males
pubococcygeus muscle
A muscle around the vaginal entrance
marriage by decree
focus on prize, propertymarriage occurs through religious, royal, or legal decrees
adrenarche
onset of sex hormone release from adrenal glands
Benign outcomes
30% report insignificant long term effectssexual contact did not involve father figureoffender acknowledged guiltnot a reoccurring eventchild free to talk about itchild in supportive familychild was protected from future contact
Hormones pass through the _____ _________ to the activate genes
cell membrane
hyperactive sexual desire
Obsessive preoccupation with sexual thoughts and desires-sexual contact does not bring satisfaction-lonely, worthless, abandoned,-need to prove attractiveness, deprivation of affection and love, cope with feelings of low self-worth, mental illness
latex condoms
Prevent major prevention of fluid borne STIs (90-95%)
latex dental dams
Saran wrap-used during oral stimulation
Tyson's glands
Located between the corona and foreskin, secrete smegma, possible cause of irritation or infection in uncircumcised penises-Easily cleansed by retracting the foreskin during bathing
pelvic venous contsriction
traps blood in pelvic tissue
vaginal lubrication
Vasocongestion in vaginal area causes extrusion of interstitial fluid through the vaginal mucosal wall
premature ejaculation
Failure to exercise voluntary control over the timing of ejaculation-most common male problem-organic causes extremely rare-anxiety, guilt, lack of experience, partner conflict, males with anorgasmic partners
female, male phenotype
Outside characteristics, what appears female or male
testicular cancer
Often occurs in males in 20s/30s-Swelling, pain or lump in testis, tenderness in lower abdomen, groin, scrotum-Detection=self-examination-Treatment=surgical removal, radiation, chemo
Lactobacilli
friendly bacteria that live in the vaginaconvert sugars to lactic acid
Secondary sexual characteristics
Physical changes not biologically related to reproduction that occur during puberty.
Prevalence
The total cumulative number of cases of a disease in a given population.
Contraceptive sponge
A porous contraceptive device that releases spermicide when inserted into the vagina.
Mania love
A possessive, dependent, and often controlling style of love.
Gay bashing
Criminal acts or violence, motivated by homophobia, committed against nonheterosexual individuals.
Gonads
Organs that produce cells (ova or sperm) for reproduction.
presumptive signs of pregnancy
unusually long cycle, missed periodnausea, fatiguespotting(little blood)breast tendernessfrequent urinationmild uterine crampingmany symptoms mimic premenstrual syndrome
World Methods used
25% use tubal ligation19% use vasectonmy19% used IUD15% use oral 21% other
early puberty
both males and females may experience the effects of estrogens and androgens
Supercision 
(superincision)
a form of male genital cutting in which a slit is made the length of the foreskin on top
scrotum
The pouch of skin that contains the testes in a male
Episiotomy
an incision made in the skin just behind the vagina, allowing the baby to be delivered more easily
Puberty
The time during which there is sudden enlargement and maturation of the gonads, other genitalia, and secondary sex characteristics, so that the individual becomes capable of reproduction
pre-existing factors of divorce
early age marriageshort courtshipfirst pregnancy occurs earlydissimilar backgrounddivorced parentsinfidelity
leptin
found in body fat is secreted into blood stream, signals te brain/pituitary to begin stimulation the adrenals and gonads to secrete hormones**low body fat will delay puberty
transsexual
A person who views herself or himself as being the sex opposite her or his biological sex.
egalitarian gender roles
Gender roles are seen as equal.
on street prostitution
Very grim for sex workers-hooker solicits on street, sex in cars, alleys, rent by hour hotel rooms, x-rated theaters, often has 4-5 clients per day-high levels of violence, rape,-low pay, minority, poor, homeless-66% mentally ill, 75% abuse drugs, 86% have history of physical or sexual abuse-4% run by pimp who takes all the money and provides protection; uses threats, drugs and beating to control
pregnancy test-urine, blood
Urine=stick placed in urine stream, sensitive to HCG as early as 6-8 days post fertilizationBlood=Detects as early as 48 hours post fertilization, testing expensive and time-consuming
gender conforming
Same-sex behavior does not require a disparity of gender, biologic female with a female gender role has sex the same
same-gender sexual behavior
Sex acts involving individuals with the same gender
johns, tricks, scores
Married, white middle-class men age 30-60 who use prostitutes
vaginal muscles
Dilate and contract in response to sexual arousal ad anxiety
refractory period
If visceral PSNS tone is reestablished the body becomes insensitive to further erotogenic stimulation
pelvic venous dilation
diversion of blood flow from genitals
testicular torsion
Twists in spermatic cord cuts off blood supply to testis, causes severe pain, and damage to the testis if not treated prompty
Pap Tests
spatula is inserted while speculum is in place, sample of cells and mucus scraped from cervix
Trimester
One of three periods of about three months each that make up the phases of a full-term pregnancy.
Follicular phase
The early period during a woman's monthly fertility cycle when the pituitary gland secretes follicle-stimulating hormone to enhance ovum development.
Cervix
The lower end of the uterus that connects to the vagina.
Domestic partnership
A legal contract between two members of the same sex that imparts all or most of the legal benefits of marriage but is not socially or religiously equated with heterosexual marriage.
days 14-16 of cycle
fertilization of ovum in oviducts creates zygote
legislation of Supreme Court
1670- Salem witch trials1873- Comstock Laws prohibited dispensing contraceptive devices1914-Margaret Sanger, lobbies for birth control1918- laws passed allows doctors to prescribe contraception1930's- states begin repealing comstock laws1965- SUPREME COURT allows rights to privacy for married1972- SUPREME COURT allows privacy for all1991- right to use contraceptive is questioned2005- some states allow pharmacists not to prescribe contraception
neither male nor female
3rd and 4th gendersAmerican Indian Two-SpiritKathoey of ThailandMahu of TahitiSambia of Papua, New Guinea
Uterus
The organ in the female in which the fetus develops
experience of body
breast fed 24-36 monthssleep in same bed with mothercarried to mother's body for several years
Stranger sexual contacts
7% of reported cases73% reported to authorities when child discloses at time of occurrencecommonly one time occurrencespsychological power most likely form, not physical forcebetter outcomes, child has less guilt
The _____ of ____ sequester their menstruating women into huts
Dogon of Mali
urinary tract infections UTI, cystitis
Causes=Invasion of urethra, bladder with E. Coli (or other microbes)Transmission=anal intercourse followed by vaginal, irritation of urinary meatus during prolonged or frequent intercourse (Honeymoon cystitis), use of spermicides may alter vaginal flora, increasing ploliferation of E. ColiSymptoms=frequent, painful urination, blood in urine, painful intercourseDetection=urinalysis for presence of bacteria
multiple orgasm
If genital PSNS tone is achieved and maintained return to excitement phase and additional orgasms occurs-if vasocongestion continues
Hijras of India
Born male, emasculated and dress as females, female characteristics.
Seminiferous Tubules
a set of about 1000 fine, highly convoluted tubes that occupy the lobes of the testis
site of sperm production
develops during puberty
APGAR score
A test that analyzes infant health at birth on the basis of skin color, pulse, reflexes, movement, and breathing.
Experimental method
A type of scientific research in which variables of interest are changed while all other unrelated variables are held constant to determine cause -and-effect relationships among variables.
Absence of SRY or Y
cortex of ovotestis develops into ovaryautosomes alone complete development of ovary
marriage transformed (1500 - 2000 CE)
to create maintain economic stabilityto create/maintain adult emotional bonds
Process of arousal (4)
- Release of neurotransmitter NO onto smooth muscle (penis)- Increase of NO and cGMP- Blood vessels in penis relax and dilate- Erection
full-term delivery
40 weeks LMP, 2 weeks prior to due date to 2 weeks after due date-only 4% of deliveries occur on the actual due date-neonate survival-almost 100%
genital tubercle and slit
Male=fusion of the urogenital slit and elongation and swelling of tubercleFemale=slight elongation and swelling of tubercle and partial fusion of slit
Skene's glands
In the female, a pair of glands on either side of the urethra that in some women may produce a fluid that is expelled during orgasm; also known as the paraurethral glands.
Full term pregnancy
40 weeks LMP, 2 weeks prior or after due dateonly 4% of deliveries occur on the actual dateneonate survival- almost 100%
sexual contact in family sphere
93% of total cases had perpetrator known to family5% parents/step parents15% siblings12% close family friends usually within the family sphere
What are the contraceptive methods? (4)
- Behavioral Methods- Barrier Methods- Hormonal Methods- Surgical (permanent) methods
Female labia minora equals male...
Male underside of penile shaft equals female...
differences in rearing boys and girls
females have more cuddling and baby talkmales receive more active stimulationboys receive more vehicles, girls more dolls
New view of women's sexual problems
A model of female sexual response incorporating a larger variety of factors than previous models, including physical, cognitive, social, and relationships issues.
A. How is the internet changing dating? Describe and discuss the article.
 
B. Adam Green interviewed homosexual and heterosexual men about how having the option to marry might influence sexual decision-making. What did he find?
40% of American adults are single, and half of them visit social dating websites in hopes of finding a companion, either for just a fun night on the town or for life. Young adults are no longer relying on traditional dating venues like college to meet their partners, but rather websites like eHarmony.com and match.com to find them people who suit their liking, based on questionnaires. Websites have psychologists to delve into what makes people good companions for one another. The internet has made more data available for research and online dating can find your companion better than before when you had to depend on luck and a chance of meeting "the one." Profiles serve as first impressions that instantly reveal "Where I'm from, what I do, and what I'm looking for."
 
Adam Green found that as heterosexual men grow older, they gradually reduce their number of sexual partners and adopt the norm of monogamy and start thinking of commitment to being a couple. Homosexual men felt that sexual exploration was encouraged and monogamy was discouraged. Some believed that there would be no children in the future, so there was no point.
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