Comm TEST Flashcards

Terms Definitions
CG
Computer Graphics
odor
sends out signals
Media conglomerates
1-Gen electric2-News Corp3-Disney4-Bertelsman
Bill Gates
Who is created Microsoft?
Withdrawal
disassociating from life, creating buffer between yourself and others
Lindloff
Constructivism: the realities and social worlds are actively created, maintained and transformed. Meanings of words are prolific, ever-changing and subject to negotiation. Our concepts, language, and methods help create the knowledge that we generate.
Communication Contexts (7)
interpersonal. intercultural. interviewing. small group. public. organizational, mass media
1844
Morse invented the telegraph in ______
Gibbs Categories
Defensive v Supportive
Evaluation v Description
Certainty v Provisionalism
Strategy v Spontaneity
Control v Problem Orientation
Neutrality v Empathy
Superiority v Equality
intragroup conflict, (family,team) interpersonal conflict (husband and wife), and intergroup conflict (2 nations, manager and employee, 2 political parties)
Levels of conflict
creates imaginative worlds that defy all physical laws
animation
Which frequency capabilities do not include Ship-Plane?
UHF
SHF
EHF
cohesion
sense of attachment, solidarity, and camaraderie that binds a group together
Applied Research
-type of research
-examines specific practical issues, used to solve a problem
Coca-cola
What is the second most recognized word in the world?
natural nervous 
provides the speaker with the necessary energy to give successful presentations 
INTRACULTURAL COMM
COMM B/W PPL W/IN SAME CULTURE
Channel
Means through which the message is transmitted and recieved
internal noises
thoughts and feelings that compete for attention and interfere with the communication process
-31% of internet activity occurs simultaneously with tv-27% of people that see an ad on tv go to the internet for more information-Men watch video on phones more than women, and women watch more tv and internet more than men.
Thomas Edison
Escalation
conflict gets worse (not always but sometimes)often will escalate until you reach stalemate
Purpose (Inform)
achieving a purpose and understand what were talking about
connotation
meaning of words based on individual or cultural experiences or values (implied meaning-"underwear" vs "lingerie")
SOUNDBITE
a portion of an actuality interview chosen for a story.
media literacy
The ability to understate and make productive us of a media is known as ______ _______
Where does much of the internet's content come from?
Other sources
action model
 
one speaker, one listener, one channel (worst)
______ is the mutual understanding of a message between a speaker and audiencea.decodingb. shared meaningc.channeld. self-concept
shared meaning
subsidiary rights
rights given by a publisher to others, allowing them to reproduce certain content
Procedures
the rules or guidelines acc. to which argumentation will take place
Cognitive dimension of media literacy
-intellectually process info communicated by media
Integrating
from \"you and I\" to \"us\", people start seeing you as a unit
IP (Definition)
when something asks you about that person you give them your response
Individualism-Collectivism
Extent to which a culture values a group over an individual or vice versa
ACTUALITY
the term for audio or video field recordings of interviews or events. Portions may be used in a newscast.
○ Factual Claims
■ Relatively easy to prove because the needed info is generally available and clear. Ex. Marry weighs more than john

claims require clear definitions and strong supporting material because they include terms that may be ambiguous

Claim are generally one
ASCAP and BMI
Which two companies work on music licensing fees and paying back members in royalties?
Style Approach
Individs Differ n the way that they lead
a culture should be judged by its context rather than measured against another culture
Cultural relativism
Liaisons
connect two or more groups but are not members of the groups
6 the statement "the class of all classes which are not members of themselves" is an example of what type of paradox?
Logico-mathimatical paradox
privacy
the need to be or have others be restrained, circumspect, adn distant
What are the 3 forms of organization/structure?
sequence, topical, logical
The Ed Sullivan Show
On which television show did The Beatles make their television debut?
There are two styles of episodic dramas - what are they?
1. Chapter Shows2. Serial
Private acceptance vs. Public compliance
whether people change their thinking as a result of hearing opinions different from their own or whether they say they agree with the group when in fact they disagree
5 Characteristics of Scientific Method
1) Scientific research is public
2) Science is objective
3) Science is empirical
4) Science is systematic and cumulative
5) Science is predictive
self-fulfilling prophecy 
happens when we tend to live up to the expectations of others have for us
6 Take the statement "Chicago is a Midwestern city and a tri-syllabic." If we were to make this an object-language only statement how would it go?
Chicago is a mid-western city
What is a treatment?
It's when you write down all of your proposal ideas in a narrative, present tense format, so that the reader can visualize your film idea.
Descriptive Analysis looks for what two things?
purpose of goal and does discourse achieve it
Gravity Equation of Bilateral Trade
Fij = G [ (Mi Mj) / Dij ]
Listening Types
-pleasurable-discriminative-critical-empathetic
Hearing what process?
Physiological
Predictability Novelty
Wanting new things
NBC
General Electric, Westinghouse, and AT&T are owned by
The socially constructed behavior, beliefs, attitudes, and values of a particular community or population.
Culture
Kinetics
-nonverbal communication by movement, either of an element of the body or the body as a whole-facial expressions (universal= happy, angry, sad, fear, disgust, surprise)-ovulesics-body movement-hand gestures
Intimate Distance
6 inches or closer
Bill Bernbach (1911-1982)
Doyle Dane Bernbach (DDB)
Functional Words
These are conjunctions, prepositions, articles, and pronouns which express relationships and have only one meaning.
libel
written defamation that tends to injure a person's reputation or good name or that diminishes the esteem, respect, or goodwill due a person
________ describes a person's relatively consistent evaluations, feelings, and tendencies toward an object or idea. a. Motive b. Perception c. Habitual behavior d. Lifestyle e. Attitude
Answer: e
Pictures, gestures, likeness are an example of what type of comm....D or A?
Analogue
rejection
others contradict the presentation of ourselves and act inconsistently with the image we are displaying
READER
the most frequently used broadcast format, it is a story--usually shortand under 40 seconds--read by the newscaster without accompanying sound, actualities, or videotape. also called a read, a live, a live-er, or a copy story.
Rap
The 1990s are characterized by the rise of what kind of music?
credo 
code of ethics to guide our communication behaviors
The main points, in an informative speech, are the key argument in favor of your position:T/F?
False
surveillance
the news and information function of the mass media
intelligibility depends on 4 factors
articulationpronunciationoveruse of stock expressions (ok, like, you know, um, uh)substandard grammar
Chris Thomas
-A British Record producer who produced bands like the beetles
assuming without specific proof that if objects are similar in one way, then they are similar in other ways as well
false analogy
IP (Accentuation)
emphasizing those things that stand out in that person
Paralepsis
making an indirect argument by saying you’re not going to talk about it)
Consensus requires
Time, active participation, skills in listening, skills in conflict resolution, skills in facilitating group activities, creative thinking, open-mindedness
Benjamin Harris
_______ ______ started the first news paper
What is HBO
Home Box Office (1975), premium service.
situation contexts
enivronments limited by a number of issues, including people, space, and feedback
Anxiety experiances by a speaker just before delivering or while delivering the speech is termed:a. pre-pperformance anxietyb. performance anxietyc. preparation anxietyd. pre-prepartion anxiety
performance anxiety
environmental noise
sources of noise external to the communication process but that still interfere
Percentage Response Rate
Method of measuring direct marketing effectiveness. It is the number of prospects that respond divided by the number who received the message.
Categories of magazines
-General consumer mags- audience of like minded consumers targeted-Business or Trade mags- particular industry or business- Literary Mags- focus on serious essay and short fiction-Service Mags- How to do things in a better way-Literary Reviews and Academic Journal- -Public Relations Mags
the assurances upon which a warrant or argument is based
backing
derived credibility
the credibility, or belief, in a speaker that is created by the content of the message and the manner in which it is presented.
Freedom of Information Act
instructions for getting information must be available
PERT steps
1. determine what the final step should look like
2. specify any events that must occur before the final goal is realized
3. put the events in chronological order
4. if necessary, construct a diagram of the process to trace the progress of implementation
5. generate a list of activities, resources, and materials that are needed between events
6. develop a time line for implementation
7. match the total time estimate for implementation of the solution with any deadlines
8. specify which group members will have which responsibilities
○ Role Behaviors
● Ability to be functionally flexible in different settings and situations and to know when it is appropriate to act as an advocate or recipient
Other current trends in TV
Forensic cop shows, reality shows
What are the 3 basic colors in the "RGB Color Space" that when mixed create varying colors?
Red
Green
Blue
 
consent order
FTC in which the advertiser agrees to halt a certain advertising practice without admitting any violation of the law
A problem with using the BCG matrix centers around the fact that it is ________ oriented instead of ________ oriented. a. now; market b. customer; supplier c. now; future d. financially; customer e. future; now
Answer: c
Market Penetration Pricing
low initial price to penetrate market (ie display) attract large number of buyers quickly and win a large market share, highly price sensitive, must keep out compeition, or effects are only temporary
Restricted Freedom
if someone tells you you cannot have something you want it more
cathedral model
The cathedral model is a species of social organization (rule bound administration) that is very hierarchical, and "top-down" in its structure. It is subdivided, ubiquitous, traditional, and wholly owned by a single organization.
Larry Page and Sergey Brin
Which two Stanford students invented Google?
first step is to recognize and define the problem next step is problem analysis, when the group gathers facts surrounding the problem third step is to generate criteria to assess solutions.
Problem solving process
mistakenly inferring that because one event follows another they have a casual relation
Post Hoc of Doubtful Case
cohen vs cali
he said F the draft, even though offensive its abuot gov and political so it is protected
What types of "works" can be copyrighted?
literary works
musical works (incl. lyrics/words)
dramatic works (incl. music)
choreographic works
pictoral/graphic/sculptural works
motion pictures
sound recordings
architectural works
Social and sub factors (influence consumer behaviour)
reference groups, family, roles and status *** family is most important - socialization
What kinds of control does the example of commercial broadcasting demonstrate?
External allocative and operational controls.
What does the FCC require all broadcast political ads to disclose?
The source of funding for the ad.
What were the copyright duration laws in 1909?
95 years from the date they were copyrighted
Stereotyping
defensive projection
Charlie Chaplain
DIrected Gold Rush
UHF SATCOM Capabilities
SS
SSh
VD
see note
Non Profits
Promotional campaigns, image, political lobbying, press relations, rarely sales.
Philo Farnsworth
first to invent television
Knapp's Phases of Relationship Building
InitiatingExperimentingIntensifyingIntegratingBonding
Management Studies
-type of research/study
-determines Job satisfaction, management structure, and the impact of (consolidation of) ownership on content and quality
press release
brief document containing the information needed to write a news story; also called a news release
THAT'S NOT ALL
KEEPS ADDING TO PRODUCT
Gutenberg
moveable type, changed PR forever because of limited literacy
Alien and Sedition Acts
-1978-war as well
Personal Selling
custom made product, expensive, technically complex, few customers, concentrated, high value
stereotypes
specific kinds of labels that characterize people based on the assumed traits of others in their group.
Decision making problems
-confirmation bias
-false dichotomies - either or thinking
-inferences
Footprint
The area covered by a particular satellite
semantic noise
linguistic influences on reception of message
- slang, jargon, specialized language
in an interview, ______ questions are particularly useful for probing beliefs and opinions:a. fixed alternativeb. scalec. closed-endedd. open-ended
open-ended
Edward Bernays
wrote 1st PR book, "crystalizing public opinion"taught 1st college course in PR, ligitimized PR as a profession
Contests
A type of price-off that involves skill.
Types of circulation
-Subscription-Single copy sales- 12% of revenue-Controlled Circulation
"pragmatics of human communication"
○ Affects of ______ of communication on_____
○ Focus is on ________ NOT the ________
○ Contrast w/ _______
"pragmatics of human communication"
○ Affects of signs of communication on people
○ Focus is on communication NOT the communicator
○ Contrast w/ psychology
demographic characteristics
the age, sex, socioeconomic status, ethnicity or nationality, level of education, and professional interests of the audience
Culture Shock
feeling uncomfortable when you enter another culture
menu
the interface by which the user controls the virtual world/environment
Citizen Kane
_______ ________ was a movie about hurst and his wrong doing with the Spanish American War and other issues.
percentage-of-completion method
recognizing revenues and expenses on a job in proportion to the costs incurred for the period divided by total costs expected to be incurred for the job
precedent
the doctrine that requires a rule of law stated in a prior appellate case to be applied in subsequent cases involving the same issue
tv gets house much programming from the network?
30-90 %
the enactment of a behavior which requires performance, role taking is the projection of oneself into the viewpoint of another to help understand the other persons view better
role playing
Pulsing Timing Strategy
Low level of continuous advertising with periods of heavier emphasis.
1922-WEAF sold ten minute spot for 50$ to real estate guy for an apartment
FDR
using irrelevant proof to buttress a claim.

"it does not follow"
non sequitur
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
top-self actualization, love and esteem, belonging, security, and basic needs
Commitment
if we make a statement of commitment its going to create too much cognitive dissonance to act against it
case reporter
book containing a chrono collection of the opinions rendered by a particular court for cases thta were decided by the court
Alan Freed
The payola scandals led to the down fall of the father of rock and roll _____ _______
accounts receivable, Gross Account
claims against a debtor before adjustments are made for uncollectable accounts and bad debt expense
Symptoms of groupthink
1. group overestimates its power and morality2. group becomes close minded3. group members feel pressure to conform
Target Market
those who are most likely to buy, people who the advertising is directed to
emotional dimension of media literacy
-feelings created by media messages
Breakeven pricing
price at which company breaks even on the product
Intergroup Contact Theory
for optimal contact between groups you need - equality, support from authority, shared goals, cooperation, friendship
bisect
to cut or divide into two equal or nearly equal parts.
Advertising research is done on...
target audiences. Most advertising is tied to demographics and psychographics.
A group of individuals who belong to a non-dominant cultural group, which has unique experiences that foster distinctive patterns of communication
co- culture
Woolf:
G&M engage in meta communication when they refer to their behavior as acting within a game. What's wrong w/ this? Why doesn't it help?
• Meta communication between george and martha
○ Even their communication about they
communication is subject to the rules of their game.
○ Their meta communication still has this "one-ups-manship" quality
--Their metacommunication still is performed within the rules of the game/system of their interaction.
prima facie
A prima facie case is one that at first glance presents sufficient evidence for the plaintiff to win. Such a case must be refuted in some way by the defendant for him to have a chance of prevailing at trial.
What does external control focus on?
Focuses on advertisings attempt to shape the media environment in which the advertisement is embedded.
why do a longitudinal study?
most studies look at right now(short term).
which one of the following sentences is an effectvely and declaratively stated main point?a. "don't you think we should fix the educational system?"b. The educational system must be fixed"c. "i thin
the educational system must be fixed
Details on the changing face of daytime TV
soap operas are not being replaced with soap operas.
you should use a phrase outline when:'a. you are not confident in presenting your speechb. you are very familiar with the po;ints of your speechc. you think a key word outline will be to lenthyd. none of th
you are very familiar with the points of your speech
Assertion Conflict Management
Compromise
Collaboration
Nature of Language
Language is...
 
...symbolic
...rule-governed
...arbitrary
...subjective
Arête
good character/virtue. Displaying traits that the audience admires
Static Evaluation
Use/Abuse of Language
 
Unchanging eg. always, never, is
Traditional authority
orders justified by tradition
disconfirming
changing the subject without transition
1456
Gutenberg invented the printing press in ______
competent communication 
knowledge, skill, motivation, and judgement 
Verbal of nonverbal listener response to a message is termed:a.decodingb.feedbackc.sourced.encoding
feedback
Relationship evolution process
1. escalation2. navagation3. deterioration
social capital
the influence potential political leaders develop as a result of membership or participation in social groups
nonverbal codes
distinct organized means of expression
Perceived Efficacy
self efficacy & response efficacy
conspiracy
an evil, unlawful, treacherous, or surreptitious plan formulated in secret by two or more persons; plot.
days receivables outstanding
accounts receivable turnover ratio divided by 365 days a year
How many digital theaters exist today?
around 150
Authoritarion media theory
-governments are quasi-democratic to authoritarian and "paternalistic"-media "privately owned" but usually licensed-media cover anything as long as they are "responsible" and don't "criticize the king"-best describes Daily Universe and administrative relationship
Shaping how the audience sees reality "Frame it"
Framing
Wind, smoke, rain, snow, fire, explosions, gunshots
Physical effects
Agenda-setting
the creation of public awareness and concern of salient issues by the news media; the media do not necessarily tell us what to think, but rather what to think about .
Horizontal Conflict
retailer to retailer disagree on roles, activities etc.
ad populum
appeal to the people/popular opinion, listener shoudl think/act the same way as a group of people
High Context-Low Context
where meaning lies in culture
admonish
to caution, advise, or counsel against something.
Campaign Spending Issues
􀁹 TV's increasing importance 􀃆 increases in $
􀁹 600% increase in ad spending from 1952 to 1974
􀁹 Pros
􀁹 More info/access to candidates
􀁹 Earlier campaign coverage
􀁹 Cons
􀁹 superficial and/or negative info
􀁹 mainstream media sets the agenda
health savings accounts (HSAs)
tax-deferred savings accounts linked to low-cost, high-deductible health insurance policies
On-record FTAs
known as: DIRECT Think Simone from American Idol.
"media are not so successful in telling people what to think as what to think about"
Bernard Cohen
gestures
movements of the hands and arems to communicate ideas
22. (Blake and Mouton) Name the management style that has low concern for task and low concern for people.
Impoverished management
Political Advertising
Ads on TV: presenting candidate images or key issues that could influence voting
What flows through distribution channel?
Customer Relations, transactions, information, products, channel functions
cultures
everything that makes up our way of life, including shared values, knowledge, behaviors, and symbolic expression.
Not devoting time
sends message that you are unimportant
interpolated
With the different forms of media and the massive expansion of digital media, there is now more room for readers/viewers to interpret/interpolate different texts.
AOL TIme Warner
The top grossing magazine is people owned by _____ _______ _______
trial balance
summary of all the financial data in the account ledgers that ensures the figures are correct and balanced
Prime Access Rule
Designed to encourage local news and public affiar type programming forbids network owned or affilated stations from broadcasting more than 3 hours of network programming during primetime
individuals
when we are aware of our selfs as such, with particular needs, goals, experiences, and qualitys that affect what we look for in others and relationships. *** first stage of relationship***
Balaji and Worawong
Assumptions about White male and Asian female relationships as created by advertising. Discourses about the \"Other\", orientalism, and assimilation as created by media.
Message (Feelings)
how you feel about the topic your talking about (in or unimportant)
Importance of COMM
keeps you alive
impacts every level of life
top priority for employers
○ Predetermined Claims
claims that precede and guide an extended argument
■ Claims and propositions that initiate argument
■ ex. Joe does is guilty of murder, an appeal should be granted because the evidence was tainted
What are Gestalt Laws?
patterns of human perception that will help you in composing elements of a screen so that the elements suit human perception
Drugs in cyberpunk fiction
In both Neuromancer and Snow Crash, drugs played a major role in helping us to understand how technologies work and how they are interpreted in these novels. The cyberworld in Neuromancer is not a replication of the real world (as it is in Snow Crash) and is described as sort of a drug trip. In addition, recreational drug use is common in Neuromancer and seems to be necessary for Case to perform well. In Neuromancer, dealing with things in a “real” or non-drug altered state does not exist because everyone has been altered in some shape or form (e.g., enhanced reflexes, artificial organs, etc.) In Snow Crash, snow crash is both a drug and a virus. The drug is one that affects the computer and the person using the computer biologically. The drug symbolizes an eruption of chaos in a computer-dominated world – humans are infected with virus, hallucinogen, religion, and infection. Computers and machines become drugs in and of themselves. Humans cannot live without them and they alter or human state. The Matrix, for example, is a drug in and of itself.
Communication Style
developing a habit in the way in which you are comfortable with communicating with others
○ Ethics For Recipients
1. Recipients should be aware of attempts to influence them
2. Receivers should be informed
3. Recipients should be aware of their own biases
4. Recipients should understand how fallacies persuade
public speeches are classified according to what three general purposes?a. current events, controversial issues, and local issuesb. objects, people, and eventsc. inform, persuade, and mark a special occassion
inform, persuade, and mark a special occassion
Buying and Selling Advertising Time
-Use of media research
-price of ads related to audience size and composition
-due to rating and share
benefits of good body movement
catches the eye of the listener and helps hold their attentionconvenient way of punctuating your message so the listener will know when you are moving from one idea to anotherhelps relieve nervousness in the speakercan place the audience at ease
When the topic is of a causal nature:a. causes should usually be desbribed before effectsb. a geogrphical pattern of arr should be usedc. the speaker should laways focus on one cause onlyd. the speaker shou
causes should usually be described before effects
What problems has the fragmentation of the media and consumer audience caused for advertisers?
It is tough to find the ideal strategy for placing ads that maximizes both reach and frequency.
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