Igneous Rock Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
basaltic
mafic
Basalt
Gabbro
plutonic,slow,basic magma
vesicular
vesicular basalt
laccolith
looks like blister
Peridotite
Phaneritic, Olivine, Pyroxene
lava
magma on earth's surface
Obsidian
Extemely Cooled, No crystals
fined grained
lava cools rapidly
partial melting
produces all of magma
Intrusive (Plutonic)
Formed underground (hardening underground); phanoritic texture
Ultra mafic Ig
Volcanic: Komatiite
Subvolcanic: Kimberlite, Lamproite
Plutonic: Peridotite
magma
molten rock beneath the earth's surface
fragmental igneous rock types
tuff, volcanic breccia
Magma Mixing
when magma intrudes another body
intrusive/plutonic
Igneous rocks that form at depth
Veins
Igneous intrusions that can contain valuable ores such as gold, silver, lead and copper.
How hot is the mantle?
~1450 degrees
viscosity
the resistance of liquid to flow
Aphanitic Basalt
mafic, aphanitic, extrusive, looks like common rock
bioclasts
pieces of once living material (plants and animals)
order of rocks
obsidian, granite, basalt, scoria, rhyolite
Phaneritic
Rocks cooled a kilometer or more beneath the surface will have noticeably visible crystals
Mafic and Ultramafic compositions are?
Dark colored rocks
granodiorite
a light colored rock that looks something like granite. an intermediate igneous rock
Magman
Forms deep underground - lower crust and upper mantle where temperatures are high enough to melt rock.
kimberlite
rare, ultramafic rock that can contain diamonds and other minerals formed only under very high pressures
Mount Saint Helens
Composite, Andesidic Volcano that erupted in May, 1980]
-predicted through monitering earthquake activity (magma moves, causes tremors)
-also monitered through flying over with cospac (measures gas concentration)
-Ash spread over the entire country
-Global temperature dropped 1 degree celcius after the eruption
Batholith
large mounds of igneous rock beneath the surface
Pumice
Vescular, Si, Al, O, Fe, K, Na
Densely welded tuff
-Dark color, glassy luster
-Pronounced draping of vitric pyroclasts
-Marked parallelism and flattening
felsic/granitic
a compositional group of igneous rocks indicating the rock is composed almost entirely of light-colored silicates
Felsic
igneous rock that is rich in feldspars and silica and that is generally light in color,low density
andesitic composition
igneous rocks having a mineral makeup between that of granite and basalt
Sedimentary
What type of rock are sandstone and limestone?
Carbonate rocks
Form is basically composed of CaCO3. E.g. limestone, dolomite
tuff/pumice
are debris that come out of volcano (they look pink)
Ignimbrite
• Genetic name = tuff from a pyroclastic flow
Glassy Texture
Rapid cooling of very viscous magma can produce igneous rocks comprising of volcanic glass, which have said to have a \"glassy texture\".
decrease in pressure
prevents atoms from breaking free of the solid mineral crystals
Magnetic Differentiation
the formation of one or more secondary magmas from a single parent magma.
igneous rock
type of rock that forms when molten rock cools and minerals crystallize
detrital sedimentary rock
rock formed from the accumulation of material that originated and was transported in the form of solid particles derived from both mechanical and chemical weathering
magna cools slowly
make large crystal and have rough textures
caldera
The large hole at the top of a volcano formed when the roof of a volcano's magma chamber collapses. (larger than 1km across, you can have a crater inside a caldera)
vesicular texture
igneous rock that has holes in it like swiss cheese, made when gases become trapped in magma (as bubbles)
Igneous rocks form from the cooling of ________.
melted rock (magma)
What are the most common classifications used for igneous rocks?
magma composition, cooling rate and crystallization history
What four classification schemes have been proposed for igneous rocks?
Based on eruption style, based on chemical composition, based on mineral present and their relative proportions, based on grain size and texture
What causes porphyritic texture in rocks?
minerals in the magma form and cool at different rates
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