Important 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Behavioral techniques
o Shapingo Chainingo Discrimination Learningo Generalization
Walter Mischel
\"If...then\" theory
conceal feelings of insecurity
boundary/limit/context of existence shaped by situation at birth (ex sex, culture, time)
re-channeling into socially accepted activity
Hierarchy of needsPhysiological
eating, drinking, sex,
Sigmund Freud theroy,strives to balance the desires of the id and the realities of the objective, outside world,Reality principle“Executive” of personality
observational learning (bobo doll), reciprocal determinism
an enduring personality characteristic that tends to lead to certain behaviors
kids incorporate parents values into their super ego
thoughts, feelings, urges, and wishes that are difficult to bring to conscious awareness
Construction Corollary
people anticipate replications of events
functional analysis
frequency of behaviorssituations in which the behavior occursreinforcement associated with the behavior
results when a construct successfully predicts an experience
best society creates the most happiness for the largest number of people
1850, "Snellen E," defined visual acuity as distance when just identifiable/distance which normal vision can identify
Existential Psychodynamics
•The existential model postulates that basic conflict is between the individual and the “givens,” the ultimate concerns of existence
                      is replaced with
             AWARENESS        →     ANXIETY → DEFENSE   
 OF ULTIMATE                               MECHANISM
Most primitive part of personality, entirely unconscious & present at birth and strives to satisfy sexual & aggressive drives
You can convince yourself that something is seemingly causable, but you know on some level that it's not rational
Oedipus Complex
Freud says, a unconscious process where boys displace an erotic attraction toward their mother to females of their own age, and, at the same time, identify with their fathers.
ego defense mechanisms
largely unconscious distortions of thoughts that act to reduce anxiety
Sociality Corollary
understanding one another is necessary for health relationships
Wide open--> XSlightly open--> Y
X- IntroversionY- Extroversion
observational learning
learning new responses by observing behavior of othersall behavior can be learned without reinforcement
Ego responses to to repressors
Conscious: social supportConscious:cognitive coping strategiesUnconscious/involuntaryall defense mechanisms
case study
an in-depth study of one individual.
Free Association
-Relax-Say Whatever comes to mind regardless of how embarrassing or trivial it may be.
each disorder is viewed as being comprised of characteristics that range in a continuum. degree on continuum= abnormal vs normal
freud says accidents are:
The diversion of an unacceptable thought or impulse from its actual target to a less threatening object or person
the doctrine that all actions are determined by, or at least take place for, the benefit of the individual, not of society as a whole
Neo-Analytic Approach
Concerned with the individual's sense of self (ego) as the core of personality
Pleasure Principle
The psychic force that motivates the tendency to seek immediate gratification of any impulse.
Transcendent Self
focuses on the shared experiences of people, it is not limited by their individual separateness
Fully Functioning
Roger’s term for a mentally health person (they follow their innate process)
operant behavior
operates on the environment as changes it
Positional Power
The authority that goes with the position.
Positional power is difficult to take away, but can easily be subverted.
*relience on positional power is not enough to control an interpersonal process
criterion validity
the degree to which the measure correlates with a separate criterion of the same concept.
Accessability Hypothesis
People in positive feeling state more likely to retrieve positive material from memory
self-determination/ free will
people have choice for their actions
can't be proved true
it can only be supported by empirical evidence
Evolutionary Theory
Some emotions may be universal because they are necessary for survival.
Locus of Control
A person's tendency to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the environment.
Self Actualizing CharacteristicCreative
always present in a self actualized person
adrenal cortex
the outer layer of the adrenal gland, atop te kidneys, that secretes several behaviorally important hormones
CPC Cycle
series of activities engaged in by a person confronted with a novel situation.(Circumspection,Preemption,Control)ex. youre in a car accident1. ponder several constructs ..its my fault-his fault, injury-no injury, damage-no damage,etc.. (circumspection phase)2. choose from the constructs pondered. you choose the my fault construct (preemtion phase)3. choose the pole of the chosen construct. i give the driver my insurance info, apologize, etc (control phase)
the activation of a concept or idea by repeatedly perceiving it or thinking about it. the usual result is that this concept or idea comes to mind more quickly and easily in new situations
Lazarus' Appraisal
and FOLKMAN - 1) primary appraisal - is relevant to me? is dangerous?2) secondary appraisal - coping, what can i do?3) reappraisal - still relevant? still dangerous?
diagnostic heterogeneity
2 people with same disorders may have different symptoms
the built-in motivation present in every life-form to develop its potentials to the fullest extent possible 
Carl Rogers' Actualizing tendency
Kaitlin is a personality theorist who believes that a person's conscious thoughts in a particular situation are likely to influence his or her goals and behavior. Kaitlin is most likely to agree with which of the following perspectives on personality?A)th
A)the social cognitive perspective
gender differences peak in:
20's and then decline in later years
chronic accessibility
the tendency of an idea or concept to come easily to mind for a particular individual
•    The most important, the goal of developing this (individuation) is incorporating archetypal energies into the conscious self (ego).
One of Jung's Concepts:
Carl Jung Personal Unconscious
material which one has repressed or forgotten from personal experiences
how many defenses are there?
repression as a process underlies all defense mechanismsrepression also appears as a singular defenseA degree of overlap in how defenses are conceptualized, definedSome argue: more mature defense mechanisms are cognitive coping strategiesconscious
Existential Psychology
Sources of Anxiety and Conflict
•A certain amount of anxiety is a normal, inevitable, aspect of every personality
•Aspects of freedom include responsibility, willing, impulsivity and compulsivity
•Relationships showcase perils of merger and isolation, using and relating; people may react with fusion or compulsive sexuality
•Living necessitates meaning and values
•To cope with the terror of death, we erect defenses against death awareness

-belief that we’re not going to die (defense mechanism), somehow we’re special and the rules don’t apply to themselves ex. diabetics
The field of behavioral genetics studies the:A)behaviors that are determined solely by genes.B)influence of genes and heredity on behavior.C)effects of behavior on genes and heredity.D)influence of traits on genes and behavior.
B)influence of genes and heredity on behavior.
Fromme's theory of love was that it allowed humans to
overcome our isolation while mantaining our individual integrity.He believed love was an art.Modern society encourages existential alienation
Many of Freud’s ideas have been dismissed as culture and time-bound, not as truths about personality. Describe one of these and account for its falling into disfavor.
His opedipal crisis theory, which has never actually been proven wrong however there is no proof for it at all so...
Example of id, ego and superego thought process exp: you see a yummy cake through the window of closed
shop, id says "take it, i'm hungry!" ego says "no, be a good girl", superego says "if you take it you will be arrested"
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