Individual and Society Exam 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Prejudice....
Is increased by frustration
Studies of isolated and institutionalized children indicate that children can and do develop their full human potential without exposure to social interaction and culture.
false
property
material possessions: animals, bank accounts, stocks, bonds, buildings, businesses, cars, furniture, land, etc.
rumor
unfounded information spread among people
`Gender
Results from socialization aided by cultural messages from family, peers, and the mass media
Archaeology...
Studies human artifacts and writings from the past
Capitalism
An economic system characterized by the private ownership of the means of production, the pursuit of profit and market competition.
corporation
a business enterprise, often jointly owned, whose assets, liabilities, and obligations are separate from those of its owners; as a legal entity, it can enter into contracts, assume debt and sue and be sued.
democracy
a government whose authority comes from the people; the term, based on 2 greek words, translates to "power to the people"
state
a political entity that claims monopoly on the use of violence in some particular territory (country)
anarchy
a condition of lawlessness or political disorder caused by the absence or collapse of government authority
postmodern society
another term for postindustrial society; a chief characteristic is the use of tools that extend human abilities to gather and analyze information, to communicate and to travel
Gender...
results from socialization aided by cultural messages from family, peers, and the mass media.
Language...
Allows culture to develop by freeing people to move beyond their immediate experiences. provides a social, shared past and future. and shapes our perceptions of the world.
Preparing college students for the real world of work by requiring them to get to class on time and be in attendance for every class is a good example of....
anticipatory socialization
The regents also believe that the great state University of Wisconsin should ________ inquiry.
Encourage
Roles..
Are studied in both micro- and macro-sociology. Were analyzed by Goffman using a stage metaphor. Involve actual behavior by people based on the statuses they occupy
Which of the following rejects looking at the subjective states of people in the study of human psychology?
Behaviorism
Gestures...
are shorthand ways to convey messages without using words
The explanation about older adults and memory that says "As the brain ages, connections between neurons break down..." illustrates which perspective?
Biological
pluralism
the diffusion of power among many interest groups that prevents any single group from gaining control of the government
propaganda
in its broad sense, the presentation of information in the attempt to influence people; in its narrow sense, one sided information used to try to influence people
Gender roles...
are the social and cultural expectations associated with a person's sex
public opinion
how people think about some issue
fashion
a pattern of behaviors that catches people's attention and lasts longer than a fad
discovery
a new way of seeing reality; identified by William Ogburn as one of the three processes of social change
The basic needs that the functionalists say that social institutions must meet DO NOT include...
entertaining members
status
the position that someone occupies in a social group
circular reaction
Robert Park's term for a back-and-forth communication among the members of a crowd whereby a "collective impulse" is transmitted
industrial revolution
the third social revolution, occurring when machines powered by fuels replaced most animals and human power
stockholders' revolt
the refusal of a corporation's stockholders to rubberstamp decisions made by its managers
social change
the alternation of culture and societies over time
The largest ethnic group in the United States today are those people of ______ background.
German
For Mead, the stage where children most fully learn to "take the role of the other" is....
team games
Wilhelm Wundt
is regarded as the "father of psychology" and established a psychological laboratory
Auguste Comte...
wanted to study society using the methods of science and is regarded as the "Father of Psychology"
minimax strategy
Richard Berk's term for the efforts people make to minimize their costs and maximize their rewards
underclass
a group of people for whom poverty persists year after year and across generations
When servers stay on the job, helping their customers during, say, a fire in a restaurant, it is called role...
extension
society
people who share a culture and a territory
postindustrial (information) society
a society based on information, services, and high technology, rather than on raw materials and manufacturing.
politics
the exercise of power and attempts to maintain or to change power relations
panic
the condition of being so fearful that one cannot function normally and may even flee
public
in this context, a dispersed group of people relevant to a social movement; the sympathetic and hostile publics have an interest in the issues on which a social movement focuses; there is also an unaware or indifferent public
rational-legal authority
authority based on law or written rules and regulations (bureaucratic authority)
representative democracy
A system of government in which citizens elect representatives, or leaders, to make decisions about the laws for all the people.
Reference groups...
provide a yardstick with which we measure our behavior
noncentrist party
a political party that represents less popular ideas
milling
a crowd standing or walking around as they talk excitedly about some event
domestication revolution
the first social revolution, based on the domestication of plants and animals, which led to pastoral and horticultural societies
horticultural society
a society based on cultivating plants by the use of hand tools
global superclass
a small group of highly interconnected individuals in which wealth and power are so concentrated that they make the world's major decisions
corporate capitalism
the domination of an economic system by giant corporations
Anthropology...
is the study of humanity, its origins and its diversity AND was actually being done by researchers centuries before the academic discipline was created
class system
a form of social stratification based primarily on the possession of money or material possessions
convergence theory
the view that as capitalist and socialist economic systems each adopt features of the other; a hybrid (or mixed) economic system will emerge
collective mind
Gustave Lebon's term for the tendency of people in a crowd to feel, think and act in extraordinary ways
coercion
power that people do not accept as rightly exercised over the (illegitimate power)
A small peasant village in the middle ages would be an example of...
A Gemeinschaft
A position that a person occupies based on qualities they are born with is what we call...
An ascribed status
World population
is roughly 6.8 billion and has nearly tripled in the lifetime of our professor
Ethnocentrism...
is the tendency to use our own culture as a yardstick for judging other cultures
social mobility
movement up or down the social class ladder
social movement
a large group of people who are organized to promote or resist some social change
democratic socialism
a hybrid economic system in which the individual ownership of businesses is mixed with the state ownership of industries thought essential to the public welfare, such as the postal service and the delivery of medicine and utilities
routinization of charisma
the transfer of authority from a charismatic figure to either a traditional or a rational legal form of authority
When our "world taken for granted" is contradicted by something we experience, we feel...
cultural diffusion
Wealth...
is not the same as income AND is highly concentrated in a small group at the top of the US society.
acting crowd
an excited group of people who move toward a goal
In the Demographic Transition,
population growth explodes in Stage 2
Horatio Alger Myth
the belief that due to limitless possibilities anyone can get ahead if he or she tries hard enough
power
the ability to get your way, even over the resistance of others
reactive social movement
a social movement that resists some social change
Concerning race and ethnicity,
Individuals in ethnic groups share a cultural heritage that is socially defined as significanct and individuals in racial groups share physical traits that are socially defined as significant.
In "The Decisive Moment,"
The British Naval radar operator acted on knowledge that his conscious mind wasn't awar of and it is pointed out that the best way to learn is to study and learn from your mistakes
relative deprivation theory
in this context, the idea that people join social movements based on what they think they should have compared with what others have
The constitution of the US is an example of...
rational legal authority
urban legends
are hard to verify AND have a moral message
Further, the video states that...
the teenage brain develops many connections but those that are not used are pruned AND the complete development of the mature decision making parts of the brain generally takes into the 20s
contradictory class locations
Erik Wright's term for a position in the class structure that generates contradictory interests
For Kohlberg, the postconventional stage...
is a stage most people don't reach
Also according to the video,
at one time, African Americans were thought to be on their way to biological extinction
the feminization of poverty
refers to the situation that most poor families are headed by women
The "globalization" of capitalism...
means that we depend on workers around the globe for goods
the works of Piaget and Kolberg
deal with the stages children go through in cognitive or moral development and indicates that by college, students should be able to reason abstractly and question conventional morality
Henslin states that the "sociological perspective"...
Helps people understand how they are influenced by groups and society and enables people to see the connection between history and biography
According to Henslin, the goals of science include...
to explain, to generalize, to predict
The report about counting the homeless showed that there were...
NOT fewer homeless than government officials said there were and NOT more homeless than advocates for the homeless said there were.
The works of Piaget and Kohlberg
deal with the stages children go through in cognitive or moral development AND indicates that by college, students should be able to reason abstractly and question conventional morality
According tot he reading in Henslin about social science research, a random sample...
enables the researcher to generalize from the sample to the population AND is generated by giving everyone in the population an equal chance to be in the sample
The video further pointed out that...
Many of the racial ideas of Hitler's Germany were based on what was then called American race science. Skin color seems to be related to the amount of sunlight available for creating Vitamin D. Diseases such as sickle cell trait are not race based
Of all the genetic variation between individual humans,
85 percent is within local groups (such as Swedes or the English) and humans are more alike genetically than penguins
Women's Studies in colleges and universities
grew out of the Women's Movement and has had the goal of changing society and gave birth, as it were, to explicitly feminist Men's Studies
Henslin reports that working class and middle class parents socialize their children differently;
the parents are anticipating the adult life of their children and preparing them for it AND the type of jobs the parents have is more important then is their class position.
According to the "culture is key" theme in Anthropology...
culture consists of learned and shared ways of living and thinking AND individuals learn culture through enculturation
When the term "minority" is applied to racial or ethnic groups,
such groups always have less power than the dominant group in their society
According to the 1894 report of the UW Board of Regents, "sifting and winnowing"....
Should be fearless and continual. And is the only way that the truth can be found.
The supply of food in the world today is such that...
There is more food per person today than when there were half as many people in the world.
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