Inside Earth 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
super continent
rock and dirt
revolution around sun
365 days
Where earth's mightiest winds are...
Plates slide past each other
a boundary between two air masses
convergent boundary
plates move toward each other
The surface atmospheric pressure of Venus is about _____times the pressure of Earth's.
what are landforms
shapes on earths surface
or combustion is a controlled process in which mixed garbage is burned at very high temperatures
examples of renewable resources
wind, solar, water, geothermal
Structure that grows upward from the floor of the cave
Destructive process in which water or wind loosen and carries away fragments of rock
A number that geologists assign to eartquakes based on its size
inner core
solid, dense center of the Earth
Earth's crust is very ________ when compared to the other layers.
A break in Earth's crust where masses of rock slip past each other.
any several types of mineral that form long, thin microscopic fibers- a structure that allows asbestos to insulate buldings for heat muffle sound and resist fire when inhaled and lodged in lung tissue asbestos scars the tissue and may eventually lead to lung cancer
What does the O in BOLTS stand for?
A cluster of species that share a common ancestry
The temperature trend as you go deeper in earth
a large area of flat land elevated high above sea level
rift valley
a mid ocean ridge widen the gap
the largest rates of natural increase and thus shortest doubling times are occuring in
developing countries
The mantle is the ________ layer of Earth's interior.
The layers in the mantle are separated based on what?
physical charicteristics
A layer of rock in which water is found.
Apparent Magnitude
How bright an object appears to the observer.
The soft layer of the mantle on which the tectonic plates move
Transform Fault Boundaries
When rocks move horizontally past each other at faults along plate boundaries. These cause earthquakes.
solar system
a system of planets rotating on an axis around the sun
erosion mountains
formed by erosion of a thick pile of sedimentary rock
volcanic gas analysis methods (5)
Direct sampling, remote sensing of plumes, soil gas measurements, chemical sensors at fumaroles, and leachate analysis.
oceans would disappear
what would happen if we were closer to the sun
Compare and contrast the asthenosphere with the lithosphere
Both: part of the mantle, are solid, Difference: Asthenosphere: softer/more flexible, thicker, hotter; Litho: rigid, outer part of the mantle, thinner, cooler
el equipaje
vertebrates, lancelets, tunicates
scientists that study fossils
pesticide drift
airborne transport of pesticides
Renewable energy sources have received far less in subsidies, tax breaks, and other incentives from governments than have conventional sources.
reptiles without visible ears, live only on islands near New Zealand
historical map
shows information about the past
Term used to describe metamorphic rocks whose grains are arranged in parallel layers or bands.
continental drift
all present-day continents originally formed one landmass (Pangaea) that broke up into smaller continents
the conversion of organic waste into mulch or humus through natural biological processes of decomposition
all the living and nonliving things that interact in an area
rock formed by hardening of melted earth
scientists who study forces that make and shape planet earth
radioactive decay
Spontaneous process by which unstable atoms lose particles from their nucleus
metamorphic grade
intensity of metamorphism that formed a rock; max temp and pressure attained during metamorphism
a large chunk of rock orbiting the sun
the ozone layer protects people from too much
ultraviolet radiation
3 types of tetonic plate boundaries
convergent, divergent, transform
body of water with land all around it
anamalous sample
a sample tested by the radiocarbon dating method that gives a wrong date.
As the amount of CO2 inceases, CO2 _____ in the oceans.
The central part of the Earth below the mantle
a substance that forms a special kind of solid, flat surfaces and sharp edges
sea-floor spreading
the process by which new oceanic lithosphere forms as magma rises toward the surface and solidifies
Mid ocean ridges
Molten material rises from mantle then spreads out pushing older rock further from the ridge
*New ocean crust is formed where?
Divergent boundary, midocean ridges
chemical rock
rock that forms when minerals that are dissolved in a solution crystallize
hot spots
heated rock rises in plumes and stay in one place while plate move therefore ca help monitor
Continental Shelf
The part of a continent that extends underwater
map scale
the proportion that a map bears to the thing it represents, for example, a scale of one inch to one mile
what are the most abundant elements in the crust of the earth
oxygen and silicon
is a measure of how much matter is in something
In a municipal water treatment plant, the primary treatment step consists of ________.
removing large debris and allowing suspended solids to settle
Understand the basic global energy budget: What happens to the solar energy as it hits the Earth? What happens to the heat that is re-radiated as infrared radiation?
Some of the radiation is absorbed by clouds and some of it is bounced back into space. The infrared radiation is captured in the atmosphere and that generates more heat and increases global warming.
to board
Cenozoic Marine
Phytoplankton diversification
Inverterbates diversify
Marine mammals diversify
fish diversify
Megaladon Shark 10 20 meterswaters became cooler
Sides of the river
Recycling aluminum cans saves ________% of the energy needed to make the same amount of aluminum from virgin bauxite.
most geologists rejected Alfred wegner's idea of continental drift because he could not identfiy the force that could continentals
source -
punto donde empieza un rio
hole in the ozone
created by chloroflourocarbons
medium wave
substance through which light travels
liquid water
has more energy that ice
Breaking rocks down slowly into smaller pieces.
Which of the following cannot be composted?
animal with a backbone; also the largest group of chordates
a low place between hills or mountains
look and feel of a rock's surface
A type of mechanical weathering. Plant roots and animals burrow and break rock apart.
relative age
approach to measuring geologic time based on the order in which events occurred, not measured in years
continental-continental collision
causes earth to buckle and pushes crust upward causing mountains
a stress force that pushes two masses of rock in opposite directions
the result of things acting upon or with one another
a type of body fossilthat forms when crystals fill a mold or sediments wash into a mold and harden into a rock
convergent boundry
A boundry along which two tctonic plates push together, characterized either by subduction or a continental collision.
saving of resources to make them last longer
chemical remediation
treatment of a contaminated area by injecting it with a chemical compound that reacts with the pollutant to produce harmless products
industrial minerals
rocks or minerals that have economic value exclusive of metal ores, fuels, and gems
a mixture of gases that surrounds a planet or moon
When a planet is on the opposite side of the earth (from the sun). You could see this planet directly overheard at midnight.
Hutton & Lyell: the present is the key to the past (actualism)
organic rock
rock that forms where the remains of plants and animals are deposited in thick layers
what would happen if the ocean was to close to the sun
Outer Core
3rd major layer of the Earth
Made up of metal- iron and nickel
crude oil or petroleum
tends to form under temperatures and pressure conditions often found below the surface
formula for volume of irregular object
measure the volume of liquid
strike-slip fault
a fault in which the two fault blocks move past each other horizontally
Proofs of the Big Bang Theory (3)
There is background radiation left over from the big bang, galaxies are clumped, as would be expected in an explosion, and the heat is not uniform in the background radiation.
samples brought up from sea floor showed that the
farther awway from ridge samples were taken the older the rock
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