Interest Groups 7 Flashcards

Advocacy
Terms Definitions
Catholics and Jews vote...
Democrat.
Types of campaigns...
a. party-centered
b. personality-centered
c. issue-centered
public relations
direct advertising, speakers bureau, charitable activities
lobbyist
An organization or individual who attempts to influence legislation and the administrative decisions of government.
Lobbying
Communication directed at a government decision-maker with the hope of influencing decisions.
incentive
something of value one cannot get without joining an organization
Revolving door
Employment cycle in which individuals who work for governmental agencies that regulate interests eventually end up working for interest groups or businesses with the same policy concern.
foriegn governments
send lobbyists to represent their trade concern with the U.S.
public interest lobbies
according to Jeffrey Berry, organizations that seek "a collective good, the achievement of which will not selectively and materially benefit the membership or activities of the organization."
Issue Network
an informal and relatively open network of public officials and lobbyists who have a common interest in a given area and who are brought together by a proposed policy in that area. disbands after the issue is resolved
actual group
the part of the potential group consisting of members who actually join
527 organization
is a type of American tax-exempt organization named after a section of the United States tax code, 26 U.S.C. § 527 (section 527). A 527 group is created primarily to influence the nomination, election, appointment or defeat of candidates for public office.
Material incentives
Money or things valued in monetary terms.
Political Cue
a signal telling a legislator what values are at stake in a vote, and how that issue fits into his or her own political views on party agenda
Solitary Incentives
The social rewards (sense of pleasure, status, or companionship) that lead people to join political organizations.
The first president of the modern Republican Party was..
Abraham Lincoln.
tipping
a phenominon that occurs when a group that is becoming more numerous over time grows large enough to change the political balance in a district, state, or country
free rider
an individual who does not join a group representing his or her interests yet receives the benefit of the influence the group achieves.
Government interest groups
efforts by state and local governments to lobby the federal government have escalated in recent years. The federal government has lobbied in individual states too.
free rider problem
The difficulty interest groups face in recruiting members when the benefits they achieve can be gained without joining the group.
National Education Association (NEA)
Under what interest group does it belong:
Brief Summary:
- Public Interest Group
- A nartionwide organization of about 2.8 million teachers and others connected with education. The NEA lobbies intensively for increased public funding for education.
material incentive
a reason for joining an intrest group having to do with the benefits gained
the "revolving door" syndrome
those who leave positions with the federal government often become lobbyists or consultants for the private-interest groups they helped to regulate
solidary incentive
A reason or motive having to do with the desire to associate with others and to share with others a particular interest or hobby.
political action committee (PAC)
An interest group that gives money collectd from members to political candidates or parties. PAC's have revolutionized campaign finance.
The American Pet Products Manufacturers
Under what interest group does it belong:
Brief Summary:
- Business Interest Group
- Works for the good of manufacturers of pet foods, pet toys and other pet products, as well as for pet shops. This group strongly opposes increased regulation of stores that sell animals and restrictions on importing pets.
the pluralist theory of American democracy focuses on..?
the participation of groups in a decentralized structure of government
to have success in gaining members and influencing policy, an interest group must have patrons
people or organizations willing to finance the group
The lobbying act was very limited and did not succeed in regulatin g lobbying to any great degree for several reasons
1. The S. Court restricted the application of the law to those lobbyiest who seek to influence federal legislation directly 2. required that only those who intended to influence legislation need register 3. did not cover lobbying directed at agencies in the exec branch or lobbyists who testified before congressional committees 4. public was almost totally unaware of the info in the quarterly reports, and Congress created no agency to oversee interest group activities
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