International Politics Test Flashcards

Politics
Terms Definitions
Bureaucracy
The collection of organizations-including military, diplomatic corps and intelligence agencies-that carry out most tasks of goverance within states
intangible interest
1. religious2. ideoloical3. ethnical
Realism
-power motivates all political actions
-States want to survive
bilateral aid
government assitance that goes directly to the third world governments to state-to-state aid
• Supranationalism
the subordination of state authority or national identity to larger institutions and groupings such as the European Union
hegemony
the predominance of one nation-state over others
Tangible Capabilities
Steel, Tanks, Weapons, Effectiveness of soldiers, Machinery
Theorizing
Watching cycles of recurring phenomena and try to identify reasons that influence that phenomena
stability-instability paradox
an international relations theory regarding the effect of nuclear weapons and mutually assured destruction. It states that when two countries each have nuclear weapons, the probability of a direct war between them greatly decreases, but the probability of minor or indirect conflicts between them increases. This occurs because rational actors want to avoid nuclear wars, and thus they neither start major conflicts nor allow minor conflicts to escalate into major conflicts—thus making it safe to engage in minor conflicts. For instance, during the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union never engaged each other in warfare, but fought proxy wars in Korea, Vietnam, and Afghanistan and spent substantial amounts of money and manpower on gaining relative influence over the third world.[1]

More recently this effect can be seen in the India-Pakistan relationship
green revolution
the massive transfer of agricultural technology, such as high-yield seeds and tractors, to third world countries that began in the 1960s
import substitution
a strategy of developing local industries, often conducted behind protectionist barriers, to produce items that a country had been importing
Industrial policy
the strategies by which government works actively with industries to promote their growth and tailor trade policy to their needs
UN Secretariat
executive branch led by the secretary-general
State
A central authority with the ability of make and enforce laws, rules and decisions within a specified territory
Democracy
A political system in which candidates compete for political office through frequent, fair elections in which a sizeable portion of the adult population can vote
Structural Realism (Neorealism)
State behavior and international outcomes are all driven by the structure of the international system.
Which President cautioned about the “military-industrial complex
Dwight Eisenhower
When a firm subcontracts a business function to an outside supplier, it is referred to as
Outsourcing
Backwards Induction
If we assume people operate rationally, we can look at a decision situation and work backward to try and understand the rational calculations that could lead to the decision under examination.
disaster relief
the provision of short-term relief in the form of food, water, shleter, clothing, and other essentials to people facing natural disasters
Uruguay Round
a series of negotiations under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) that began in Uruguay in 1986, and concluded in 1994 with agreement to create the World Trade Organization. The Uruguay Round followed earlier GATT negotiations such as the Kennedy Rounds and the Tokyo Round
• European Parliament
– a quasi-legislative body of the European Union that operates mainly as a watchdog over the European Commission and has little real legislative power
World Health Organization (WHO)
provides technical assistance to improve conditions in the third world and conducts major inmmunization campaigns in poor countries
Permanent Five
France, USA, China, Great Britain and Russia
NATO
A military alliance created in 1949 to bring together many Western European nations, the US and Canada, forming the foundation of the American-lead military bloc during the Cold War
Neorealism Assumptions
1. No clear patterns of authority.
2. States are most important actors.
3. States are reational and unitary actors.
4. Security Trumps all other issues.
5. Military is an effective and useable policy instrument.
cooperation and deterrence
cooperation- an interaction in which two or more actors adopt policies that make at least one actor better off relative to the status quo through the threat of force
deterrence-an effort to protect the status quo through use of force
Westphalian State System
Principle of each states sovereignty within its territorial boundaries
Functional Equality
Governments and their societies do not take advantage of specialization in the international arena in terms of the activities of government
foreign assistance
money or other aid made available to third world states to help them speed up economic development or meet humanitarian needs. Most foreign assistance is provided by government and is called official development assistance (ODA)
Service sector
the part of an economy that concerns services (as opposed to the production of tangible goods); the key focus in international trade negotiations is on banking, insurance, and related financial services
• Maastricht Treaty
signed in the Dutch city of Maastricht and ratified in 1992, the treaty commits the European Union to monetary union (a single currency and European Central Bank) and to a common foreign policy
Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) (1968)
a framework for controlling the spread of nuclear materials and expertise
Crisis Bargaining
An interactions in which at least one of the actors threatens to use force in the event that the demands are not met
Treaty of Versailles
The peace treaty between the Allies and Germany that formally ended WWI in 1919
Power
the ability to get another actor to do what it would not do; influence.
What is trade liberalization?
reducing barriers to trade between countries
Realpolitik / Realism
Reliance of government on their own means rather than on international treaties and law. This is a self-help strategy for constructing public policies to address a world of what is, not a world of what ought to be
World Trade Organization (WTO)
an organization begun in 1995 that expanded the GATT’s traditional focus on manufactured goods, and created monitoring and enforcement mechanisms
Three stimuli for IO's
1 - Universal concern for the condition of humanity2 - Big Power peace keeping concerns3 - Functional cooperation.
Collective Security System
The formation of a broad alliance in the IR system for the purpose of opposing aggression by any actor.
What is bandwagoning
A strategy in which states join forces with the stronger state in an alliance/ conflict
• European Court of Justice
a judicial arm of the European Union, based in Luxembourg. The Court has actively established its jurisdiction and its right to overrule national law when it conflicts with EU law
Which of the following statements accurately describes the “bargaining range”?
Possible outcomes that states can agree to without going to war
Characteristics of a Nation
- A form of collective identity or community identification based on some common or shared knowledge
- A nation is a grouping but not all groupings are nations
- Most people self identify their attachment to a group called nation
- Individuals may have hierarchy's of group identification making it possible to rank our group associations in terms of their importance of our individual identities
- nation is one of the few identities that large numbers of people are willing to kill and die for
- not necessarily tied to physical geography
- states can exist without nations
What are Stanley Hoffman's three criteria for change and continuity?
1) What are the systems basic units?2) What are the policy goals of the primary units, in relation to one another?3) What are the capabilities of the units?
What are the 3 types of Levels of Analysis?
Individual, State, and Systems.
All of the following are examples of solutions to coordination problems except
Peacekeepers separating two armies in a civil war to stop the conflict
If war is costly, why would domestic actors be willing to risk a conflict?
The costs and benefits are not evenly distributed among domestic actors
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