Interpersonal Communications 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Reflected Appraisal
Communications with peers, how others see us
Reflected Appraisal
Peers
proximity
physical closeness
Memberships
 
 
 
 
Organization:perception process
YMCA
Politcal party, religion
 
 
which percepual shema do you rely on first?
I'sn't this stereo typing? Difference?
Content Meaning
Literal meaning
Symmetrical
 
 
 
 
 Types of relational messages
 
 
50/50 Control
Stereotypes
o Stereotypes: a predictive generalization about a person or situation. Based on the category in which we place someone or something and how that person or thing measures up against the personal constructs we apply, we predice that he, she or it will do.
Relationship Meaning
Relationship between communicators
Noises
Physiological = From our body
Physical = Bright lights, temperatures, actual noise
Psychological = Prejudice, culture
Semantic = Words themselve not understood
Noises
Phy, Phy, Psy, Sem
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Physical, Safety, Belonging, Self-Esteem, and Self-Actualization
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
P,S,B,SE,SA
Extremities
overkill, never forget/forgive, unrealistic threats, irrelevant weapons
interview
process of dyadic (2 parties-interviewer and interviewee) relational comm w/a predetermined & serious purpose designated to interchange behavior & involving  Q/A format
 
-have restricted subject-only whats pertinant
-face to face and purposeful
positiveness
expressing positive thoughts and feelings about and to the other person . express satisfaction with the interaction.
Interaction
 
 
 
Organization: perception process
Social Behavior, friendly jerk
Speaking Powerfully
Direct requests
Bargaining or Promising: doing something only if other person agrees to do something too
Ingratiation: sucking up so you get what you want
Manipulation: making other person feel bad until they give you what you want
Threatening
Kitchensinking
Unproductive form of conflict communication in which everything except the kitchen sink is thrown into the argument
Downers
When people communicate negatively about us and our self worth.
Examine Possible Solutions
Look for win-win
Prototypes
Most representative of some category
Person-Centeredness
Adapting messages to certain people
advisor
regularly and consistently gives advice; whether you want it or not
other-orientation
a quality of interpersonal effectiveness involving attentiveness, interest, and concern for the other person
CLOSING of interview
1)feedback-positive comments, summary, clearing house Q (do you think there was anything else i should have asked?)
2) verbal/nonverbal techniques to end
empathy
put yourself in someone elses shoes.
focus on the persons feelings and reflect back to them the feelings you think they are expressing
Eros
Attention focused on beauty and physical attractiveness
Idealized image of beauty that is unattainable in reality
Sensisitve to physical imperfections
Conflict Strategies
- Avoidance: distract attention from conflict- Integrative: take both parties needs into account (mediation)- Distributive: competitive & aggressive, win-lose
Norms
standards for behavior in the groups.  Two general types:
 
1) Individual norms-standards that apply only certain roles
2) Group norms-standards that apply to everyone in the group.
Types of Relationship Violence
Verbal or Emotional
Physical
Sexual
I-You Communication
Majority of our communications. Engage them as people, but not too personally. Not just a faceless communication.
Self-Serving Bias
Bias to favor our opinions
Autonomy
autonomy = freedom, completely by yourself, power/control of self
Interpersonal Communications
Selective, systemic, unique, and ongoing process of transaction between people
emblems
substitutes for words; they have rather specific verbal translations
cooperation
an interpersonal process by which individuals work together for a common end
anger
a generally unproductive emotion of strong feelings of displeasure, annoyance, or hostility
meaningfulness
principle of perception that assumes that the behavior of people is sensible, stems from some logical antecedent, and is therefore meaningful rather than meaningless
depenetration
when a relationship begins to deteriorate, the breadth and depth will, in many ways, reverse themselves
disconfirmation
communication pattern in which you ignore a pesrons presence as well as that person's communications
selective perception
selective attention and selective exposure
provisionalism
an attitude of open-mindedness that leads to the development of a supportive relationship and atmosphere
Information giving - sd
ex) Doctor visits
functions of leadership (leaders)
1)prepare members and start interaction-leader organizes and stimulates interation b/w members
2)maintain effective interaction-make sure everyone is getting opportunity to express themselves
3) guide members through agreed-on agenda-keep them on track by asking relevant Qs, summarizing discussions and transitioning from one topic to the next
4)ensure member satisfaction-allow personal comments and be supportive
5)empower group members-raise self-esteem,compliment, reinforce, constructive criticism,encourgage growth
6)encourage ongoing evaluation and improvement-always room for improvement
7)manage conflict effectively
8)mentor-provide learning
Characteristics Of Competent Communication
Wide range of behaviors/responses
Ability to choose appropriate behavior
Skill at performing behavior- awareness, awkward, consciously skilled, intergrated.
Instrumental Needs
practical, everyday needs; helps us get through our daily lives. ex. raising hand to talk in class or scheduling a haircut.
Contact
Perceptual Contact: a person sees, hears, reads a message, or smells another person
Interactional Contact: two people exchange basic information, and a first impression is formed
Flirting occurs here
Passion
One of three secondary styles of loving made up of eros and ludus. This sometimes obsessive love includes emotional extremes.
Mindfulness
Concept from Zen Buddhism that refers to being fully present in the moment, the first step of listening and the foundation for all others.
Courtship/Flirtation
- Sex motivation: to engage in sexual relations- Relationship motivation: to increase intimacy in an existing relationship- Exploring motivation: to test whether another is interested in starting a romantic relationship- Fun motivation: to have fun- Esteem motivation: to enhance one’s own self esteem- Instrumental motivation: to gain rewards from another
o Vultures:
Extreme Downers → they not only communicate negative images of us but also attack our self-concepts just as actual vultures prey on their victims.
In the Jahari's window, if something is known to others and not to you, it is ________.
Blind
Relationships Violence
A relationship which consists of verbal or emotional abuse, physical abuse and sexual abuse
Standpoint
Point of view shaped by material, social, and symbolic conditions
Dominance-
The need for control over othersIn dyads, on usually has more dominance over others, but they can coexist with affiliation
the capacity to influence the behavior of others and to resist their influence on oneself
self-disclosure
Implicit Personality Theory
Unspoken and unconscious assumptions about qualities in labels. Outgoing means fun, friendly…
Implicit Personality Theory
Labels
Transactional Models
Combine many factors, such as experience, cultures, religions, etc... Says everyone is communicating and not just a sender and receiver.
Noise
Anything that causes a loss of information as it flows
beltlining
hitting below a person's threshold of criticism
ambiguity
occurs when words can be interpreted differently
interruptions
verbal and nonverbal attempts to take over the role as speaker
expert power
seen as having expertise or knowledge
monlogist
gives speeched rather than engaging in dialogue
sexual harassment
unsolicited and unwanted verbal or non-verbal sexual messages
direct request
simply asking someone to do something
Functions of Self-Disclosure
a. expressiveb. Seeking validationc. Clarificationd. Relationship Developmente. Information givingf. Impression managementg. Seeking advice
quality circles
groups of workers (from area being studied) whose task is to investigate and make recommendations for improving the quality of some organization.
 
*aim is economic:improve quality and profitability
*improve worker morale
Nature Of Interpersonal Communication
Interpersonal = More in depth
Impersonal= Less depth (just name basis)
Qualitative versus Quantitative
Unique-roles and rules
Irreplaceable because they're unique
Interdependent- fate connected<impacts others
Disclosure -share personal information
Intrinsic Rewards- develop relatioship 
 
Cognitive Complexity
the ability to understand a given situation in multiple ways;One of the 5 Characteristics of Competent Communication
Affirmation Needs
Someone who will affirm your personal value and help you recognize your attributes
Moral Appeal
It involves revealing that you have high and good character as well as enduring values.
Passive aggression
Attacking while denying doing so, a means of covertly expressing conflict, anger or both.
Then she found Me
 
CURRENCY
Currency: Change to restroom attendant
Disclosure between mom and daughter
Boyfriend - helped investigate Bette Midler in exch for relationship points
Woman - traded help with kids in exchange for time
 
 
Networking
Proces of using other people to help solve your problems
Informal and Formal: people you know, people who know people you know, people you don't know
Identify Scripts
Defines our roles, how we play them
Linear Models
A one-way process. Had problems, like they portary communication as a one-way process
Disclosure-Liking Hypothesis
more you disclose to someone, more they'll like you
I-Thou Communication
Each person affirms the other as cherished and unique. We open up in these communications.
protection theory
you establish a body buffer zone around yourself to protect against unwanted touch or attack
impression formation
process by which you perceive another person and ultumately come to some kind of evaluation or interpretation of that person
self-serving bias
taking credit for the positive and denying responsibility for the negative
eye avoidance
can allow others to maintain their privacy; can signal a lack of interest; shutting eyes is used even to avoid auditory stimuli
inactive responder
gives no reaction regardless of what you say
argumentativeness
willingness to argue for a point of view, your tendency to speak your mind on significant issues
Skills training
"I am shy, therefore I avoid communication events."
belongingness hypothesis
why do we need relationships? people are motivated to seek/join other humans
brainstorming
 
2 stages:
processes of analzying a problem by a process of generating as many ideas as possible.
-most often used in small group settings
-encourages all to participate
-builds pride and ownership with final solution because all contributed
`1)brainstorming period-avoid "idea killers"
more ideas, more likely solution can be found wild ideas are allowed
2) evaluation period-allows for criticism 
Arguing & Never Solving the Cycle
 
 
 
Organization:perception process
Punctuation impacts organization
Cause & Effects - punctuated your own
Nagging / withdrawl
Organismic view of emotions
Theory that external phenomena cause physiological changes that lead us to experience emotions, also called James-Lange view of emotions.
Relationship Filtering Model
- Sociological cues: where we live or work- Preinteraction cues: information gained before interactions (looks)- Interaction cues: things we notice during interaction (scent, clothing, smile)- Cognitive cues: judgments about people based on their personality and how it matches ours
This term says that even in larger groups, communication breaks down to interpersonal
Dyadic Primacy
Effects of Mentoring on College Students
Higher GPA
More Credits
Higher retention
What is interpersonal communication?
communication that occurs between at least two interdependent parties
Secure Attachment Style
Most positive, caregiver responds in a consistant and loving way
Secure Attachment Style
Loving
relationship dialects theory
argues that people in a relationship experience dynamic tensions between pairs of opposing motives or desires
thought completer
knows exactly what you're going to say and so says it for you
selective attention
you attend to those things that you anticipate will fulfill your needs or will prove enjoyable; daydreaming for example
Productive Exchange
both give, both benefit from the same reward
Behavioral sequences (SET)
a series of actions designed to achieve a goal.
Misconceptions Of Communication
Meanings are in words (meanings are in people)
Internet and Social Isolation
Overall, for some users the Internet strengthens social connections with friends and family, but for others it substitutes face-to-face social interactions and connections
Loyalty response
1 of 4 ways to respond to conflict; consist of silent allegiance to a relatioship and a person when conflict exist. Passive and tends to be constructive.
Explain Relationship Currency
This is something of value we trade for something else.  We use it to give and receive in a relationship.
Perspectives of the Generalized Other
Views that others in society generally believe
Explain the distinction between expected and enacted roles.
expected roles are what society expects of you in that role and enacted roles are what you actually do in that role
cultural time
the meanings given to the ways time is treated in a particular culture
Social Exchange Theory (SET)
rewards and cost in terms of relationship, why ppl stay in a relationship.- We think of relationships in economic terms- we tally up costs and compare them to rewards
Deaf vs. hard of hearing
deafness is a hearing impairment serious enough such that the person's sense of hearing is not functional for ordinary purposes of communication, even with a hearing aid
Attribution Bias #3: Underestimating the situation
make assumptions based on the person and leave out the situation
What is the biggest advantages of online dating?
Opens your circle of possibilitiesDisinhibition
What are some reasons for dissolution?
Loneliness, decrease in interest, 3rd party, relational changes, undefined expectations, financial, or inequitable distribution of rewards and costs
What is known self?
things we know and things others know about us
information or persuasion power
others see you as having the ability to communicate logically and persuasively
Impression Management - sd
we assume secrets aren't lies, used as a way of manipulation
Selection of Data We Attend to
 
 
Perception processs
Factors that cause us to notice messages:
Intense Stimuli
Repetitious stimuli
Contrast or change
Motives (what kind of mission are you on?)
What is the difference between Comparison Level and Social Exchange Theory
 
Comparison Level looks at what you think you should be getting versus what you are actually getting out of the relationship.
Why are autonomy &amp; connection poles
because you cannot be autonomous and be completely connected to one person at the same time
6 ways to screw up a group
1) no purpose
2) no plan  (decision making)
3)dont say anything
4)say too much
5)dont prepare
6) dont think of others
 
List and explain the 3 frames of attractiveness
1. Physical
2. Social (can you take them out in public?)
3. Task (can they help you do something you cannot do yourself?)
What are the four quadrants of the Johari Window?
1. Known self2. Hidden self3. Blind self4. Unknown self
Things people do or say to show their commitment to their partner:
- provide affection- provide support- maintain integrity- share companionship- make effort to communicate- show respect- create relational future- create positive relationship atmosphere- work together on relationship problems- express comittment
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