Intro. to Physical Anthro. pp Flashcards

Terms Definitions

carnivore--meat              gen/spe

omnivore--everything       gen

herbivore--grasses          gen/spe

insectivore--decayed       gen/spe

fruitivore--fruits            gen/spe

folivore--foliage             gen/spe   
Living Apes
chimps/bonobos          Great apes
gibbons                       Lesser apes
Pouched mammals

Infraclass Metatheria


born extremely immature

complete development continues in pouch of mother.
Phylogenetic Tree


chart showing evolutionary relationships determined by evolutionary systemics

contains a time component and implies ancestor-descendant relationships.
Phylogenic classification

charles darwin introduced

Cladistics--closely related species, no time

Evolutionary Systematics--identifies relationships between organisms, time and constructing phylogenetic tree, or phylogram measure

No time;

chart showing evolutionary relationships determined by cladistic analysis;

based solely on interpretation of shared derived characters;

contains no time component and does not imply ancestor-descendant relationships.
Similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancester.
researchers claim that speciation occurred frequently during hominid evolution, often identify numerous fossil hominid species in a sample being studied--inclined to split groups into many species.
Blending Theory
18th century, Europe; parental characteristics were combined to produce intermediate expressions in offspring.
Homoplastic Features/homoplasy
homo=same and plasy=growthThe separate evolutionary deveopment of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms.
Sexual dimorphism
physical characteristics between males and females.
species defined from fossil evidence, often covering a long time span.
Subclass Protherian Mammals
Subclass Therian Mammals

Monotremes or egg-laying mammals

Mammals that produce live young
Mammals are and have

Endotherms--metobolic, heat w/in

Heterodant--4 kinds of teeth--insisors, canines, premolars, molars

Diphyodant dentition--milk teeth, permanent teeth and if you have health care dentures.
225 mya - 200 mya
Paleozoic era
single, colossal mass
Derived/modified traits

referring to characters that are modified from the ancestral condition

and thus are diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages.
Biology species definition
largest natural population of organisms has the potential to mate w/in the population but NOT in a separate population.
divided into 6 classes: bony fishes, cartilaginous fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals; animals w/segmented, bony spinal columns.
In biology, evolution is change in the genetic material of a population of organisms from one generation to the next. Natural selection has alot to do w/evolution.
Reptiles are and have

Ectothermic--exposure to sun, east side.

Homodant dentition--all teeth same, simple, pointed structures.

Polyphyodont dentition--teeth fall out, break, grow back.
Systematic variations
age changes, overall body size, shape, number, size, shape teeth--in mammals, but applicable to biological populations
Rates of Evolutionary Change
Punctuated equilibrium

The concept that evolutionary changed proceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change

that an additional evolutionary mechanism is required to push the process along.

speciation major influence in bringing about rapid evolutionary change.
3 pts. of Natural selection

a trait must be inherited. 

has to be heritable trait variation. 

fitness relative measure that changes as environment changes.
Sources of Variation
source of all variation must be mutation recombination, immigration of genes.
Balanced Tx Acts
Acts that were passed giving the creationist ways of getting around the constitution.
Rates of Evolutionary Change
Phyletic gradualism

that change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages.

complete fossil record, would display a series of forms w/finely graded transitional differences between ea. ancestor and its descendant

Great Chain of Being
is a classical conception of the metaphysical order of the universe in which all beings from the most basic up to the very highest and most perfect being are hierarchically linked to form one interconnected whole.
Bacteria (disease causing pathogens)
some bacteria are immune to some antibiotics; some bacterium have inherited resistance and will pass this inherited resistance to new generations and eventually will be drug resistant.
Biological species concept
A depiction of species as groups of individuals capable of fertile interbreeding but reproductively isolated from other such groups.
Circumnavigating the Planet and "Discovery" of the New World
earth no longer flat, as Europeans began to explore they began to see diversity in the human population, plants and animals.
Homoplasy shows up as a result of
Analogy--traits exist due to function.Parallelism--a close related common ancestor direct change.Convergence--adapted to the same environment so they have the same characteristics.
What is meant by individuals do not evolve; individuals are selected for or against; populations evolve
important--unit of natural selection is individual; the unit of evolution is population because individuals don't change geneticall, but over time, populations do.
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