introduction to cells Flashcards

Terms Definitions
smooth ER:
rough ER:
_____________ are small, membrane-enclosed vesicles that provided a contained environment for reactions with Hydrogen peroxide.
Peroxisomes
What membrane bound organelle contains hydrogen peroxide used in various chemical reactions.
Peroxisomes
Thickest filaments are called ____________.
Microtubules
chromosomes:
tightly wound DNA and protein
What membrane bound organelle modifies proteins and directs proteins to other locations in the cell or to the outside.
Golgi Apparatus
Cytoplasm
Clear liquid that holds the organelles.
recieves material from the ER, modifies it, and ships it away again in a vesicle
vesicle:
solution w/higher concentration of solute
hypotonic solution:
Virchow
all cells come from preexisting cells
ribosomes
organelles that build proteins using instructions found in DNA and dump them into ER to be transported from 1 sect. of cell to another
centrioles
what structures do eukaryotic cells have that prokaryotic cells dont?
A network of filaments giving the cell shape and form is called____________?
Cytoskeleton
The process for which cells are engulfed into the cell is called?
Endocytosis
The external membrane is called the______________.
Plasma Membrane
provide support for the cell, movement, anchor cell to its surroundings
motor molecule:
when both solutions have the same concen. of solute
equilibrium:
Schwann
determined all animals are made of cells
This type of microscope scatters electrons off the sample and is used to look at surface details of cells and other structures___________.
Scanning electron Microscope
Van Leeuwenhoek
1st person credited with seeing living cells under the microscope
membrane bound sac filled with enzymes that break down toxins.
secretory vesicles:
What is the only document that provides an explanation to the origin of life?
The Bible.
a state at which there is no net movement of particles
osmosis:
Schleiden
all plants are made of cells -> all living things are made of cells
What is nucleolus?
The small, dark structures within the nucleus of a cell. They are thought to make r-RNA to construct the ribosomes.
What is matter?
That which occupies space and has mass.
Who was the first man to study cells?
Robert Hooke.
membrane bound bubble that ships/carries things
things the golgi can make: (3)
What type of classification of some organisms is still uncertain?
The basic kingdom classification.
What are humans according to the Bible?
Distinct creations of God.
energy from carbohydrates is converted into ATP
what metabolic processes are the chloroplasts involved in?
classic cell theory:
all organisms are made up of one or more cells.cells are the fundemental functional and structural unit of life.all cells come from pre-existing cells.
What separates the philosophy of Aristotle from the science of today's classrooms, hospitals, and factories?
Recognition of the need for observation and experimentation.
What was man given in addition to life?
The breath of God.
chages shape and walks along microtubual when ATP is added. can make it bigger/ smaller
how do the cillia and flagella move?
What is organismal theory?
The basic unit of life is the organism itself, which may be divided into cells for efficiency.
(salt water) water diffuses out of the cell and it shrivels up
animal cell in hypotonic solution ->
What is a unicellular organism?
An organism that has only one cell for its body.
how does metabolism relate to the volume and surface area of a cell?
when the volume grows, the cell needs a faster metabolism, thus it needs more surface area.
Why is the Caulerpa able to support the organismal theory?
It is large enough to be seen without a microscope, but is not split into cells.
What does Prokaryotes lack?
Nucleus
chromation:
unwound DNA and protein
__________ have the simplest structure and come closes to showing us life stripped down to its essentials.
Bacteria
Robert Hooke
coined the term cell
What large green membrane bound organelle is the site of Photosynthesis?
Chloroplasts
Stacks of flattened membrane-enclosed sacs are ____________.
Golgi Appratus
Membrane surronding the organelles are called____________.
Internal Membrane
membrane bound sac filled with digestive enzymes
peroxisomes:
simple diffusion. protein mediated transport
simple diffusion:
facilitated diffusion: proteins form channels that allow specific substances to pass through the membrane.gated ion channels: protein channels that can open or close in response to stimmuli (when open, acts like facilitated diffusion)
active transport:
membrane bound sac filled with material that will be shipped out of the cell
expcytosis:
_____________ are the most diverse of cells.
Prokaryotes
Located outside the nucleus and other organells this concentrated aqueous gell of large and small molecules is called.
Cytosol
What filament serves to strengthen the cell mechanically?
Intermediate filament
cell membrane:
seporates the external envirnment from the internal environment
structure and support
permeability of the phospholipid bilayer
the solution w/lower concentration of solute
isotonic solutions:
microtubuals, intermediate filaments, micro filaments, centrioles, cillia, flagella
funtions of the cytoskeleton:
What large membrane structure is the site of protein synthesis and modification and membrane synthesis?
Endoplasmic Reticulum
nucleus
why do plant cells need a central vacuole and cell wall?
A continual exchange in materials takes place between _______________,________________,______________ and the ________________.
Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Lysosomes and Outside cell
the diffusion of water, usually in the opposite direction of the solute
osmotic pressure:
What do plants need cell walls for?
Structure and rigidity.
What is the epidermis?
An outer covering of animal cells.
cell wall. central vacuole.
what structures do animal cells have that plant cells dont?
What is the nucleus?
The internal spherical structure in a cell which serves as the central control.
the eukaryotic cell - endomembrane sys - is composed of: (organelles)
nucleus. endoplasmic reticulum. golgi complex. peroxisomes and lysosomes. varios vesicles. food vacuoles
levels of organization in a multicellular organism:
cell. tissue. organs. organ sys. organism.
How is the cell theory demonstrated?
The life cycle of slime mold.
the water pressure created by the diffusion of water
plant cell in hypotonic solution ->
What is the life cycle?
The stages of a plant or animal's life.
plasmolysis: water diffuses out of the cell and causes it to shrivel up
the movement of materials across a cell membrane w/o the use of energy - down the concen. gradient: (2)
How do animals and man exhibit life?
Through the physical medium of the brain and central nervous system.
What qualities of life did God give the animals?
They are able to reproduce, grow, obtain food, defend themselves, and show capabilities of thought.
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