Introduction to Psychology CLEP 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Two-word stage.
Telegraphic speech
Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
Ability to learn vicariously
Measure of reliability.
Cronbach's alpha
Self-report inventories
Objective personality tests
Influence judgments of depth.
Texture gradients
The understanding that some quantitative aspects of objects don't change just because the object's appearance has been transformed in some way.
The collection of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors associated with a person
Presenting the conditioned stimulus (CS) repeatedly without an accompanying unconditioned stimulus (UCS) generally results in
Gland that secretes Melatonin
Pineal Gland
Psycologically or physically demanding events or circumstances
Client-centered, or person-centered therapy was developed by what psychologist
Carl Rogers
Unable to remember personally relevant info.
Dissociative amnesia
Occurs when the repeated or long-lasting presentation of an intense stimulus increases the response to a weaker stimulus.
Rules for combining morphemes in meaningful ways.
Sigmund Freud's theory of psychoanalysis collectively
Psychodynamic Theories
Machine that records brain waves
Electroencephalographs (EEGs)
Different ______ are involved in different emotions
Different emotions have different patterns of
Brain Activation
Psychologist that believes that genetics are the primary determinate of personality, although he thinks conditioning also play a role
Hans Eysenck
People tend to interrept familiar, incomplete forms as complete by filling in gaps.
Papaer-and-pen tests that require people to answer questions about their typical behavior
Self-report inventories
A humanistic psychologist that proposed a theory called the person-centered theory
Carl Rogers
A typical example of a concept
Founder of the Dissonance Theory
Leon Festinger
The concept that recalling a particular word becomes easier if another related word is recalled first
Another phrase for short-term memory
Working Memory
The procedure in which reinforcement is used to guide a reswponse closer and closer to a desired response
gradual weakening and disappearance of a conditioned response
Combines small bits of information into bigger, familiar pieces
Involves having the client role-playbehavior that could be used in social situations
Behavioral Rehearsal
The process of distinguishing among disorders
Characterized by disturbances in consciousness, memory, identity, and perception
Dissociative Disorders
Characterized by patterns of behavior or thinking that are clearly and substantially inconsistent with the expectations of one's culture.
Personality disorders.
Describes the strength of a relationship.
Correlation coefficient.
Involve comparing people of different ages at the same point in time.
Cross-sectional studies
The social part of our personality that allows us to get along with other people.
About the direct and indirect pressures exerted by others to change someone's attitudes or behaviors.
Social influence.
The inability to rememeber important personal informatio, usually about something traumatic or painful
Dissociative Amnesia
Compliance with commands given by an authority figure
A seemingly charming, candid, generous person who lies freely, forms no close ties, and is selfish and remorseless, is probably a(n)
antisocial personality
The transfer of information into the long-term memory
The cause or origin of a disorder
Most effective treatments for specific phobias
Systematic Desensitization
Contains universal memories of the common human past
Collective Unconscious
With this disorder the subject experiences reccurent unexpected panic attacks which cause worry or anxiety
Panic Disorder
Published the first system for assessing intelligence in adults
David Wechsler
The ability assessed by intellingence tests
Compotential Intelligence
Reversible figures also illustrate the concept of_____ ______ the ability to focus on some bits of sensory information and ignore others.
Selective Attention
When people see interrupted lines and patterns, they tend to perceive them as being continuous by filling in gaps.
The brain's relay station which receives incoming sensory messages and passes them on to the cerebral cortex is the
basal ganglia
The neuron's "senders" are the
axon terminal buttons.
People tend to group similar objects together
Neurons that respond to specific features of the environment such as lines or edges.
Feature Detectors
When reinforcement happens after set number of responses
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
Drugs also called opiates; drugs that can relieve pain
_______, or the particular quality of a sound, depends on the _______ of a sound wave
Travels away from home or work suddenly and unexpectedly, can't recall his or her past.
Dissociative fugue
Refers to whether scores on the questionnaire are related in expected ways.
Construct validity.
Rely on drugs or surgery.
Biological or medical therapies.
Take in information from body tissues and sense organs, and transmit it to the spinal cord and brain.
Sensory Neurons
Junction where the end of one neuron meets the beginning of another.
Thinking, or the logic of science, can think abstractly.
Formal Operational
Three types of Biological Rythms
Circadian, Infradian, and Ultradian
When people stop breathing many times during the night and each time they stop breathing, they wake up briefly gasping for air
Sleep Apnea
Another theory on dreams is the ________ Theory proposes that neurons in the brain randomly activate during REM sleep . Dreams are basically brain sparks
Activation-synthesis Theory
An implicit rule in many societies that tells people they should return favors or gifts given to them
Reciprocity Norm
Performed a famous study on conformity in the 1950's
Solomon Asch
When people meet they form impressions of each other based on their
Cognitive Schemas
Requires subjects to respond to ambiguous stimuli, such as pictures and phrases that can be interpretted in many different ways
Projectuve personality tests
A procedure that opens people to the power of suggestion
In classical conditioning, the unconditioned response occurs when the
unconditioned stimulus is presented.
term dissociative identity disorder is synonymous with
multiple personality disorder
Hypnosis has enabled some people to go through surgical procedures without anesthetic. TRUE/FALSE
The psychologist that showed that in classical conditioning, pairing two stimuli doesn't always produce the same level of conditioning
Robert Rescorla
The process by which a particular conclusion is drawn from a set of general premises or statements
Deductive Reasoning
Researcher who has shown that people's experience of emnotion depends on the way they appraise or evaluate the events around them
Richard Lazarus
The inability to remember events that occur after an injury or traumatic event
Anterograde Amnesia
The tests ability to yield the same results when the test isw adminstered at different times to the same group of people
When reinforcement happens after a particular average amount of time
Variable- Interval Schedule
When reinforcement happens after a set amount of time
Fixed-Interval Schedule
We're obligated to help people who need our help.
Social responsibility norm.
What other people do simply provides info. about how to behave.
Informational social influence.
The part of the brain that seems to be most important for monitoring hunger-related signals.
Think logically but only about things that are "concrete"
Concrete operational stage
A way of making statements so that they will evoke specific emotional responses
Semantic Slanting
A major proponent of th idea that language depends largely on environment was the behaviorist
B.F. Skinner
The major proponent of the view that biological influences bring about language developement
Noam Chomsky
When people first remember a rhyme that associates numbers with words
Peg Word Method
The hormones that plays an important role in regulating hunger
Insulin and Leptin
The sex hormone in females is _____ and the sex hormone in males is _____.
estrogen; androgen
Four main classifications of recreational drugs
Stimulants, narcotics, sedatives, and hallucinogens
A type of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences
Operant Conditioning
The removal of a stimulus after a response so that the response will occur more often
Negative Reinforcement
Has to do with how the behavior of individuals is influenced by other people.
Social psychology
Led the school of behaviorism in the 1910's, studies only observable behavior
John B. Watson
Jim is able to accept his friend despite the fact that he doesn't approve of some of the things his friend does. Carl Rogers would say that, in accepting his friend regardless of his flaws, without closed-minded judgment, Jim is displaying
unconditional positive regard.
Behaving in a way that is opposite to bahavior, feelings, or thoughts that are considered unacceptable
Reaction Formation
When the dominant point of view in a group often tends to be strengthened to a more extreme position after a group discussion
Group Polarization
Often used as an example of this approach.
Carl Roger's self theory
The speech sounds made by infants
include speech sounds used in virtually all languages.
The five distinct stages of sleep
1, 2, 3, 4, and REM
Our goal in life is to maximize our rewards and minimize our costs according to this.
Social-exchange theory. (Minimax principle)
You have met and seen Juan Perez only in your psychology class. You are MOST likely to recognize Juan if you see him
studying in the library
Drugs that block.
Releases Catecholamines
Adrenal Medulla
State of being aware
Circumstances that threaten well-being, or the response people have to threatening circumstances
Senselessly repeating back words someone else has just said.
Deliberate, though sometimes automatic and unconscious, methods used for getting info. into long-term memory.
Mnemonic strategies.
Attributing one's own unacceptable thoughts or feelings to someone else
Using incorrect but self-serving explanations to justify unacceptable behavior, thoughts, or feelings
Channeling unacceptable thoughts and feelings onto socially unacceptable behavior
A disorder involving symptoms of psychosis.
Short, bushy fibers that take information in from outside the cell.
Pathways for communication of sense receptors.
About how well you solve problems.
Most effective treatments for depression
Cognitive Therapy
An environmental stimulus that pulls people to act in a particular way
Most important feature of personality, whcih includes feelings, thoughts, and beliefs that people have about themselves
Realization of a persons true potential
A social-cognitive theorist, his research showed that situations have a strong effect on people's behavior and that peoples responses to situation depend on their thoughts about the loikely consequences of their behavior
Walter Mischel
Contain no articles or prepositions
Telegraphic sppech
Smallest distinguishable units in a language
Involves making an attractive proposition and revealing the downsides only after a person has agreed to it
Lowball Technique
The recall of general facts
Semantic Memory
The recall of personal facts
Episodic Memory
Have psychological effects, meaning that they change sensory experience, perception, mood, thinking, and behavior
Psychoactive Drugs
Provide information about how a person's test score compares witht he scores of other test takers
Reinforcers: food, water, and caresses, are naturally pleasing
Primary Reinforcers
Creative people tend to think independently and have relatively little concern for what others think of them
Intelligence in skill in understanding the natural world
A delivery of consequence that increases the likelihood that a response will occur
Characterized by marked disturbances in emotional state, which affect thinking, physical symptoms, social relationships, and behaviors
Mood Disorders
Involves anxiety about losing control in a public place
Expectations and the ability to represent events mentally.
Cognitive factors
Influences the release of hormones from other glands
Pituitary gland
How people think about themselves and their relations with the world around them.
Exhibit delusions of grandeur or persecution.
Paranoid Schizophrenics
The individual has physical symptoms usually associated with some sort of disease or physical disorder.
Somatoform disorders.
Deals with types of explanations people generate for others' behavior.
Attribution theory
Brain's neurons fire randomly during sleep in this theory.
Activation-sythesis theory.
Involves continuing to use drugs despite persistent physical or psychological costs, also called drug addiction
Substance Dependence
Interference that happens when newly learned information makes people forget old information
Retroactive Interference
A prediction about the probable course and outcome of a disorder
The smallest meaningful units in a language
First developed cognitive therapy to treat depression
Aaron Beck
Also, developing during the phallic stag, this refers to a male childs sexual desire for his mother and hostility toward his father
Oedipus Complex
Illogical, Irrational, and motivated by a desire for the immediate gratification of impulses
Primary Process Thinking
Measures the Big Five traits
NEO Personality Inventory
The experience of being thwarted when trying to achieve a goal
Characterized by impulsive behavior and unstable relationships, emotions and self-image
Borderline Personality Disorder
Beliefs about people based on their membership in a particular group
Typically more stressful and quite common, occurs when people must decide whether to do something that has both positive and negative aspects
Approach-avoidance conflict
The chronological age that corresponds to a particular level of performance
Mental Age
Skill in understanding and relaing to others
Proposed the Triarchic theory of intelligence
Robert Sternberg
Involve efforts to directly alter biological functioning through medication, electric schock, or surgery
Biomedical Therapies
A persons confidence in their own ability to meet challenges effectively
The internal process that makes a person move toward a goal
The maintenance of a state of physiological state
People in different cultures categorize emotions differently
Categories of emotions
A parent who deliberately ignores a child's temper tantrum is attempting to discourage tantrums by
When reinforcement happens after an average number of responses
Variable-Ratio Schedule
Drugs used to stimulate the central nervous system
A "fill in the blank" type of examination would usually measure
Theory that explains how people discriminate high-pitched sounds that have a frequency greater than 5000 Hz.
Place Theory
Person that believed that dreams allowed people to express unconscious wishes they find unacceptable in real life
Sigmund Freud
The reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response when the conditioned stimulus returns after a period of absence
Spontaneous Recovery
Stage child enters after oral and anal stages.
Phallic stage.
Electrical currents in the brain as shown graphically on an EEG.
Brain waves
Includes the sensory and motor neurons.
Peripheral nervous system.
A child understands the world in one particular way and then sees something happen that can't fit into that understanding.
Needs for esteem which include the need for respect from oneself and others
Third level
The awareness we have of ourselves and our environment
Theory that states that pain signals traveling from the body ti the brain must go through a gate in the spinal cord.
Gate-Control Theory
Physiological needs, such as the need for food, water, safety, and security
First level
Nonverbal Expressions of emotion differ across cultures, due partly to the fact that different cultures have very different display rules
Differences in nonverbal expressions
The stage of sleep when dreams are most frequent and most vivid
A school thought that arrose in Germany in the early twentieth century, explored how people organize visual information into patterns and forms.
Gestalt Psychology
The ability to recognize that an object remains the same even when it produces different images on the retina.
Perceptual Constancy
A way of describing and explaining disorders as if they are diseases
Medical Model
The Cilia are embedded in the _________ _________
Basilar Membrane
Most effective treatments for Obsessice-Compulsive Disorder
Behavior therapy or medication
People who enjoy being the center of attention
Proposed the idea of eight different types of intelligence which are relatively independent of each other
Howard Gardner
Howard Gardner's eight different types of intelligence
Linguistic, Logical-Mathematical, Musical, Spatial, Bodily-Kinesthetic, Interpersonal, Intrapersonal, Nature
A system of rules that governs how words can be meaningfully arranged to form phrases and sentences
Part of the memory that holds information for about 20 seconds
Short-term Memory
When Reinforcement happens only at a certain time interval
Interval Schedule
People's performance on IQ tests has improved over time in industrialized countries, it is attributed in environmental influences
Flynn Effect
A strategy of labelingpeople on order to influence their thinking
Name Calling
Brain waves cycle through a series of ___ stages every ___ minutes or so.
Five, 90
Whether the test looks as though it's measuring what it's supposed to.
Face validity.
The inability to see new uses for familiar objects.
Functional fixedness.
Involves a belief that one is being oppressed, pursued, or harrassed in some way
Persecutory Delusions
The spinal cord is part of the
Central Nervous System
A mental model of an object or event that includes knowledge as well as beliefs and expectations
Type of coping that avoids the real problem at hand, drinking or drugs
Maladaptive Coping
Type on encoding that focuses on what words look like
Structural Encoding
The thought that a person is more likely to agree to a hard request if they first agree with an easy one
Foot-in-the-door phenomenon
When a person keeps taking the drug because of cravings
Psychological Dependence
Theory that suggests that people act in order to reduce needs and maintain a constant physiological state
Drive Reduction Theory
When reinforcement only happens on some occasions on which the response occurs
Intermittitent of Partial Reinforcement
Refers to the apparent movement of stable objects as we ourselves move.
Motion parallax (relative motion)
Refers to how well scores on the test predict actual behavior.
Predictive validity.
Freud's five stages of development
Oral, Anal, Phallic, Latency, and Genital
People infer that a persons behavior is die to situational factors
External or Situational Attributions
Consists of a series of pictures containing a variety of characters and scenes. The subject is asked to tell a story about the picture
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
The way of remembering in which people may imagine themselves walking through a familiar place, they may imagine each item on their list in a particulat place as they walk along
Method of Loci
When people believe that other people are in control of their circumstances
External Locus of Control
Relies heavily on the idea that tension is necessary for change.
Erikson's theory of psycho-social development
Four elements involoved in persuasion
The source, the receiver, the message, and the channel
The three types of intelligence in the Triarchic theory of intelligence
Compotential, Experiential, and Contextual
When the viewer is moving , stationary objects appear to move in different direction and at different speeds depending on their location.
Motion Parallax/ Relative Motion
Says that the quality of an emotional experience depends on how arousal is labeled.
Stanley Schacter's Two Factor theory
The experience of emotion is accomanied by activation of two major areas of the nervous system
The brain and the autonomic nervous system
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