Islam Unit Test Study: Important Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
schism
split
religion
din
Umma
Islamic Community
Halal
Permitted Foods
Madrasas
Islamic schools
Ali
fourth caliphate
saum
5P; observe ramadan
fighting phycically
Lesser Jihad
sultan
a Muslim ruler
Ilm
special spiritual knowledge
Hajj
Pilgrimage to Mecca
Mawlana Mawdudi
occupied a pivotal position in the movement for Islamic rebirth in the 20th century

Published The Meaning of the Qur'an, and intended to give the Qur’an a practical contemporary interpretation.

also believed that Islam required the establishment of an Islamic state
Mawlana Mawdudi
Influential book
majlis
council of Muslim men
Mecca
Holy city in Islam
Quran
Holy book of Islam
Mihrab
prayer niche, keeps discipline
Mehmet II
conquered Constantinople 1453
Bedouin
Nomadic Herder aka Arab
"Ashura
Events of the Karbala
Hasac al-Banna
founder of Muslim brotherhood
Imam
The priest in a mosque
Iman
spiritual insight for shi'i islam
Mi'raj
ascension especially Muhammad's into heaven. Also the goal of muslim pilgrim to transcend self-centeredness
Sharia
islamic law. created by Ulama
mufti
a jurist issuing religio-legal decisions of fatwas
Okhan
The emperor that conquered Adrianople
Nabi
in islam, term for prophet
Abbasids
a family of Muhammad's Hashimites clan, but not one directly related to him
no limits except religous ones
Emperors Authority
salaf
ancestors; first generation of the Muslim community whose beliefs and practices are considered authoritative
Muslim
a believer or follower of Islam
Shari'a
body of law for muslim life
abraham
the first of the hebrew people
Haram
Disallowedor Forbidden Acts in the Koran
Caliph
Islamic rulers, regarded as successors of muhammed.
Hashim
clan of Quraysh which Muhammed descends
Monism
Hinduism: all reality is ultimately one
Early muslim education was founded by
Madrasas
ulema
legal scholars. includes faqih and mufti
emigration
622 from mecca to medina become political leader affected his religious message
False
Christians and Jews were allowed to convert other people to their religion
True False
Role of Women
Economic roles: milking camels, weaving, Matrilineal culture, Bride price.
Kabah
"cube"; the square shrine at the center of the great mosque of Mecca.
Shi'a
grouup of Muslims that believed the caplih needed to be a relative of the Prophet
sawm
fasting, esp. during the month of Ramadan
shi'ah
person, not quran is the intercessor between god and believers
that Moses was a prophet of Allah
true
Din
Religion- Sum total of faith and practice under Islam.
Omar Khayyam
12th century poet; wrote "Rubaiyat" and "Tales of 1001 Nights"
salat
praying five times a day facing Mecca
umayyads
Members of the Sunni dynasty of caliphs that ruled a Muslim empire from 661 to 750
Ulama
trained scholars of Islam who apply Sharia to daily life, not ordained
islamist
a person seeking to establish islamic states in which the rule of God is supreme
TF mohammed met many christians and jews on the caravan routes
t
hijrah
Muhammad's flight from Mecca to Medina in A. D. 622; this event marks the beginning of the Muslim calendar
oasis
fertile or green areas within a desert
le trahison
le déloyauté à son pays (treason)
Muezzin
Individual who gives the call to prayer
hal (pl. ahwal)
states (gift god bestows. Transitory)
Uthman
(r. 644-656) , Third caliph and member of Umayyad clan; murdered by mutinous warriors returning from Egypt; death set off civil war in Islam between followers of Ali and the Umayyad clan
Women's rights provided by the Koran were reduced through...
later interpretations.
Shihabuddin Suhrawardi
(1153-1191) A mystic who combined many currents of Islam with spiritual ideas from the Zoroastrains of ancient Iran and Hermetic tradition of ancient Egypt. Emphasizing that the same Voice is spoken through all prophets.
One of the most effective opposition groups was the
Muslim brotherhood
Tamerlane
leader of Mongols who was Muslim but gained much more territory for the Mongols in the late 1300s
sawm (siyam)
"fasting" from dawn until dark during Ramadan
Medina
city in Arabia where Islam was first accepted
shiis
one of the two main divisions of muslims who trace succession to the Prophet's authority through imams in the lineage of ali. Today they make up about one sixth of the world's muslims.
thobe
long, white garment worn by men in Saudi Arabia
modesty, removal of footwear, women wear a head scarf, women avoid jewelry, particularly any that depicts people, animals, etc.
regulations concerning dress
Twelvers characteristics
The mainstream Shiites who believe in the Twelve Imams: Ali , Hasan, Husayn, Abidin, Al-Baquir, Ja’far al-sadiq, Al-Kazim, Al-rida, Al-Jawad, Al-askari, and Al-Muntazar
Fatwa
a law made by a religious scholar that judges controversial problems according to Mohammed, and Koran
Allahu akbar
Allah is most great" or "God is greater than"/ a part of the daily call to prayer sounded from minarets around the world
caliphate
one of the the three parts of the split of muslim empire
Constitution of Medina
recognition of muhammed by Umma as political leader
Sunni Muslim
did not agree with Umayyad rule but accepted the Umayyads as rulers
Wallace Muhammad
Took over leadership of the NOI from Elijah Muhammad.
hajji
a Muslim who has gone on a pilgrimage to Mecca.
May 16, 1916 Skyes Picot
between britain, france, and russia. obliterate ottoman empire, protect arab states. britain gets jordan, s. iraq. france get n. iraq, syria, lebanon, turkey. palestine-international "on paper"
Four classes (Muslim society)
first is born Muslim, Second is converted Muslim , Third are the protected people - Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians, Fourth is slaves and cannot be Muslim
pillars of islam
the five bases of the Islamic faith: shahada (confession of faith), salat (prayer), zakat (almsgiving), sawm (fasting, esp. during the month of Ramadan), and hajj (the pilgrimage to Mecca).
Hijra (also spelled Hegira)
the movement from Mecca to Medina of Muhammad and his followers; could be compared to the Hebrew Exodus.
night of power and excellence
visited by angel Gabriel were he told Muhammad, to recite, embraces him four times after the fourth time he tells Muhammad were Muhammad writes down what he says and makes those writings the Qu'ran
How many wives can a man have, on what conditions
Five, all treated equally
Can be 1,000 to 12,000 feet high, the temperature is different in the mountains, it gets 20 in of rain.
What are the mountains like on the Arabian Peninsula?
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