Islamic Studies Terms Flashcards

Terms Definitions
sunnah
"custom"
Hijab
veil
imam
prayer leader
Qadi
Islamic judge
Shar'ia
Islamic Law
Khalsa
"the pure"
 
initiated people
 
they were willing to give up their heads for the tradition
nafs
...fill in later?
jihad
strive/strugge, holy war
Khadijah
first wife of Muhammad
Amritsar
capital of the Sikhs
Tusi
politician, poet, philosopher, Shiite theology, wrote Kitab al-Tajrid
Twelver-Shi'a
Followers of Twelve Imams
dhimmis
non-Muslim religious minorities accorded tolerated status in Islamic society. Jews and christians, referred to as "people of the book"
Tafsir
'Commentary' on the Quran.
mufti
A jurist issuing religio-legal decisions or fatwas.
Umma
The worldwide community of Muslims
Guru Arjan
established the Golden Temple(Gurdwara)
was tortured and killed for giving a blessing to someone
put together the Adi Granth
Imr al-Qays
poet in pre-Islam Arabia
Ijma
source of Islamic jurisprudence; consensus; interpretive source of Islamic law; the agreement of Muslim scholars of a given matter
Zakat
Islamic tax paid by Muslims
Qur’an
Islamic sacred textWritten in ArabicCompiled by Uthman, 3rd Caliph
haram
forbidden, as in action, taboo.
 
another pronunciation means reserved.
Isnad
'Support'; chain of authorities transmitting a hadith, thus guaranteeing its validity.
Ijtihad
The process of developing legal opinions.  References to "closing the gate of ijtihad' imply a fixing of the legal system, hence restricting the scope of change.
dhikr
'Remembering' God's name.  In group devotional exercises, Sufis repeat it in rhytmic chant.  The devotees often dance in a circle.
Hadith
Traditions concerning the sayings or actions of Muhammed
Al-Ghazali
great thinker who synthesized orthodox Islamic thought and Sufism. established the first Sufi order or brotherhood.
Shari'a
The all-inclusive legal code of Islam.
Islam's religion is one that recognizes women as having rights TRUE/FALSE
TRUE
muruwwah
virtue, honor, manliness, bravery in battle
Mu'tazilite School
free will, cause and effect
Sahaba
companion (the people most closely associated) to the Prophet Muhammad
Al-Azhar
Oldest Islamic University, founded in Cairo in 970
iman
faith; affirmation and confirmation in the heart
Shahadah
A saying professing monotheism and accepting Muhammad as God's messenger
Qibla
direction of mecca, believers orient themselves in this direction during prayer, are modern iPhone apps to help with this
Hajj
Muslim pilgrimage to Mecca. All Muslims are required to go at least once in their lifetime.
Tariqa
'Path' of mystical and spiritual guidance; a term which also came to be applied to the organization through which a tariqa extends itself in Muslim society.
Wahy
'Inspiration' or 'revelation' of the Quran.
Shi'a
"Shi'a" means "follower" or "faction." Originally, Shiites were followers of Ali, a cousin of Mohammad. They believe religious leaders are guided by the previous imam, and that imams and those related to Mohammad have spiritual and political power in the community. They are sometimes criticized for their almost-worship of Mohammad's family line and the 12 imams. Succession is hereditary in the line of Mohammad, and they believe the 12 imams have complete authority, appointed by God. The caliph *does* make religious interpretations.
Three main shia groups
fivers, seveners, twelvers
shaykh
Arabic for a senior master, especially of mystical devotion.  In Sufi contexts in Persian and Urdu, the shaykh is also referred to by the corresponding term pir.
Caliph
Representative of God or leader of Muslim World. abolished by Ataturk
Sufis
Mystic group who tried to recapture Muhammed's experience of oneness with deitySome become asceticAmong Sunnis and Shi'itesFamous example are the Whirling Dervishes
Kaaba
"Cube" is a cuboidal building in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, and is the most sacred site in Islam.[2] The building is more than two thousand years old,[citation needed] and according to Islamic tradition the first building at the site was built by Abraham (Ibrahim). The building has a mosque built around it, the Masjid al-Haram. All Muslims around the world face towards the Kaaba during prayers, no matter where they are.
fana
"extinction"; the sense of loss of self in mystical experience 
The largest and most prosperous city of the Arabian peninsula was____.
Baghdad
ijma'
"consensus" of the ummah (community of Muslims or followers of Islam)
Ascension to Heaven
Gabriel appears with beast-like creature with a covered face, prophet sat on it and rode it from Mecca to Jerusalem, vertical journey started and went through seven heavens with former prophets, Gabriel took him two elbows away from the throne of god, Five Pillars of Islam resulted from this, whole thing took place outside time and space
629
The first pilgrimage by Muhammad at Mecca
Dar al-Islam
Islamic territory or abode of Islam
din
"way" or "path"; living according to the laws of the Qur'an
1492 CE
Fall of Granada, last Muslim stronghold in Spain
The research and translation center founded around 840 CE was called:
Bayt Al-Hikmah
Shahada
confession, “there is no god but god and muhammad is the prophet of god”
Monotheism
A religion in which the followers believe in one god.
Sayyid
Descendant of 'Ali's son Husain. Sidi (local usage in the Maghreb) is applied to members of saintly lineages.
shariah
path, refers to laws guiding believers life
mu'adhdhin
The person whose voice from the mosque calls people to prayer.  The premodern caller ascended the stairs of a minaret so that his voice could be heard; today, the call is amplified electronically.
Ayat
Signs in nature and verses in the Qur'an that point to attributes of God
Sufi/Sufism
one who follows the mystical path of Islam.
Shirk
Heresy of believing in more than one deity.
Islam began in the years of _____.
610-632 CE
ideas of Sikhism
1)hard work
2)sharing wealth with the poor
3)remembering God's name
2. Salat
the formal prayer worship service 5 times a day
Kaffarah
make up the debt of not completing Ramadan.
Khaniqa
Sufi tavern or lodge, place of Sufi congregation
Muhammad is believed by Muslims to be descended from Abraham through Abraham’s son:
Ishmael
Jizya
Poll tax levied on dhimmis in a Muslim-ruled society.
Additional Source used by Shia to formulate Sharia
Imams' judgments
Shari’a
The duties that God has placed on the Muslim community. It is sometimes translated as “law.”
Minaret
Tower on a mosque from which the call to prayer is given
Which city is located on the Arabian peninsula? (a)Cairo (b)Damascus (c)Baghdad (d) Medina
Medina (d)
Ja'far al-Sadiq
is considered the sixth Shi'a imam by Twelver Shi'a Muslims. He was a theologian and jurist. His rulings are the basis of the Jafari school of Shi'a jurisprudence (fiqh); but he is well respected by Sunnis for his contributions to the Sunni scholarship as well. The dispute over who was to succeed him led to the split of the Ismailis from the mainstream Twelver Shi'a and the establishment of the Aga Khans' family line
The Book of Nines
very important philosophy book that was translated into arabic
Occultation
Idea that an imam went into hiding and will return to fill the world with justice
What are the five categories of humans?


Truth-concealers
The faithful
The friends of God
The Prophets
The Messengers of God
Arab mathematicians contributed to western civilization by using_____.
Arabic numbers, Algebra, geometry, and time as math.
When Muhammad was told by the angel Gabriel in the cave of Hira that he was a prophet of God, Muhammad was frightened by the event and he was later comforted by:
His wife, Khadija
What is Islamic art?


It is another of manifestation of ihsan.
The major counters of Islamic art are related to three aspects of the Qur’an:
The recitation of the Qur’an results in the arts of the voice
The copy or writing of the Qur’an results in the arts of the pen (calligraphy)
The embodiment of the Qur’an results in the arts of architecture
660-750 CE Ummayad Dynasty
Ummayad dynasty lived in Mecca. they are known for their reorganization of the Arab Empire. Borders of the Islamic empire were established. Known for accomplishments in religion, art, and architecture
Who are the women prophets?


The Mother of Jesus, Mary, because she received revelation from God via angel Gabriel
The mother of Moses who received revelation as well
Six articles of Faith in Islam
Belief in GodBelief in AngelsBelief in ScripturesBelief in MessengersBelief in the last dayBelief in Divine Destiny
The Muslim form of fasting involves:
abstaining from all food and drink from dawn until dusk
What are the five pillars of faith in english?
Prayer, profession of faith, pilgrimage to mecca, almsgiving, fasting during Ramadan
What are the differences between the two schools of thought?


Ash.:  Speech of Allah can be heard  Mat.: Speech of Allah cannot be heard; what is heard is that which points to it.
 Ash.:  If God wants, God can burden more than what is bearable Mat.: No, it is not possible
Ash.: Laws connected to human responsibility can only be received directly from the text.  Mat.: Some such laws can be grasped by intellect, without a reference to the text
 Ash.:  Possible for a believer to remain in hell forever and for a disbeliever to remain in paradise forever  Mat.: Not possible
Ash.:  Being a male is not a condition for being a Prophet  Mat.:  Being a male is a condition
What are the three Sufi groups of people?
 
The first group is known as the perfect ones who have reached the destination.  This group is made up of prophets and saints
The second group are the initiates, or those who are following the path of Sufism.   
The third group is known as the settlers or clingers. 
 
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