Communication In Society Flashcards

Terms Definitions
frame rate
gold rush
first broadcaster
Bob Schieffer
CBS News
Early films
Edison films
Image projector 1888
keystone studios
mack sennett
Local area Network
Free-distribution newspapers consisting mostly of ads
HyperText Market Language
measurements of audience characteristics that are difficult to observe and label, such as the psychological (and sometimes hidden) dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, values, interests, and motivations
Cable Fragments the audience
Travelling entertainment troups, brought Nickelodeons accross America
henry luce
TIME magazine creator
KDKA Pittsburgh
-Frank Conrad
-Early programming
-the farmers station
-snakeoil salesman
late 20th century
specialized magazine
printing press
Johannes Gutenberg (1456)
Time magazine
Henry Luce, 1923
Nellie Bly worked for ____________.
Film is a _________ art.
Bill Gates
Who is created Microsoft?
1970 Newspaper preservation act
allowed JOAs
Audit Bereau of Circulations
ABC (1914)
Owns: CBS
-paramount film
blockbuster video
radio networks
outdoor advertising
MSO- multiple system operators
Viacom/ CBS
Media Multitasking
simultaneously consuming many different types of media. i.e. listening to music and reading a magazine
comedy, drams, musicals, action/adventure, horro, sci-fi
Film genres
specific types of music
Format Radio
Broadcast Music Incorporated- makes sure artists get $ for their music played
The federalist papers
framework for government
During the Great Depression
movies were popular
announcements on single sheets of paper; flyers
Horizontal Integration
corporate growth through the acquisition of different types of businesses
consistent programming formula with a recognizable sound and personality
Tabloid Wars
The New York Daily News
General Magazine
Benjamin Franklin (6 issues); 1741
Birth of a Nation, 1915
D.W. Griffith
HD Radio
terrestrail rather than satellite delivered, no sub fee, requires special receiver, CD quality sound (maybe), text info., allows for "streaming" of multiple channels
Sponsored Magazines
AARP (the magazine), National Geographic, Kraft Magazine
High Definition Radio
Terresterally delivered, no subscription fee, ad supported; requires special reciever for CD quality sound and more diverse "streaming" of channels. Guilty of confusing consumers
3 component systems
production, distribution, and exhibition
Victor Talking Machine Co.
1901; became RCA
MTV "video killed the radio star"
owns ABC television, ESPN, Pixar, amusement parks, professional hockey & baseball teams, Marvel Comics.
america's largest newspaper
the new york times
Who invented the Phonograph?
Thomas Edison (1877)
"the birth of a nation"
DW griffith
Antitrust Laws
Laws that prohibit monopolistic practices in restraint of trade.
The Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act (2003)- helps control unwanted emails
Stephen Glass
"shattered glass" true story of-
the signs and symbold are interpreted-RECIEVER does this
_______during the 1920's and 30's controlled 90% of all film revenue
Charles Van Doren
was on many game shows
a subsidiary of Columbia Studios began producing programs for television.
Independent Label
any recording industry company not owned by one of the major labels
the gross dollar amount that an advertising agency's client spends
Young people spend about ______ per day using media
Paul Lazarsfeld
father of social scientific research, limited effects theories, effects limited by individual differences and other factors
60 Minutes
(1968 to present); longest running primetime show in history
Telecommunication Act of 1996
obliterated ownership constrictions; recent law to help newspaper > now partnerships between stations & newspapers keeping them alive
The area covered by a particular satellite
Vladimir Zworkyin
iconoscope tube 1st practical tv camera tube , 1923 and later kinescope in 1929
Administrative research
micro level of research, direct immediate causes and effects
1960's Effects of Violence on Children
contest analysis studies- watched programs and numerically evaluate each violent act
-for some children, under some conditions or some children under different circumstances it's positive- basically doesn't really ma
Wilbur Schramm
Rise of radio Networks
-NBC 1926
-CBS 1928
-William Paley
-mutual got the right to the world series
American Magazine
Andrew Bradford; 3 issues distributed (1741)
• Antitrust laws-
aws that prohibit monopolistic practices in restraint of trade
guglielmo marconi
developed a wireless telegraph system in 1896
developed in italy but it was refused a patent, took it to england
began to manufacture radio equipment for ships to use at sea to use morse code
american marconi in 1899
Joannes Gutenberg
development of movable type. Important because it allowed mass communication.
The western goes to the city
Film Noir
Messages that return from the receiver of a message to the source of that message.
When did the revamped Cosmopolitan hit the shelves?
Shawn Fanning
College student who invented Napster (1999)
launched in 1995, 2001 offered premium subscription non profitable, current model- advertising supported for free reading, premium subscription for ad-free reading
Diffusion of Innovations Theory
innovators/early adaptors, early majority, late majority, laggards
Peep show devices for the exhibition of kinetographs.
jazz journalism
styles of news presentation of the 1920s that paralleled the music of the era
The Studio Era
1930-1970-- the rise of major studios
Target Marketing
the process of breaking up the advertising audience into diverse segments to reach those individuals most likely to purchase a particular product
Frequency Modulation (FM)
transmissions created by changing the speed at which radio waves are generated.
Selective Perception
process by which people with different attitudes interpret the same messages differently
Sweeps Months
November, February, May, and July. use the ratings from these period to set the advertising rates for the coming three month period
Mass circulation magazines prospered in the post Civil-War years because of _________________________.
increased literacy, improved transportation, reduced postal costs, and lower cover prices
ARPA net efficiency
more efficient use of network bandwith, voice vs. computers, multiple computers can send/receive at same time
How many frames are shown per second in film?
Cyrus Curtis
Published the Ladies Home Journal in 1883
Classic Genre
"Stage Coach" 1938 John Ford starring John John Wayne
Edwin s Porter
"great train robbery" - 1st western
Agenda Setting
predicts the amount of attention given to an issue in the media affects the level of importance assigned to it by the public. A result of gatekeeping
Spot commercial sales
selling individual 60-second spots on a given program to a wide variety of advertisers
Wire Services
collect news and distribute it to different companies. Ex: New York Associated Press, 1848. Associated Press, 1900. Reuters, 1851.
yellow journalism
late 19th century
term comes from yellow kid comic strip
Internet Advertising
Leads to even narrower categories and users can be targeted by interests
Helen Gurley Brown
Who transformed cosmopolitan into a women's magazine?
"The great train robbery", "Phantom of the opera", "Frankenstein'
if it appeals then it will establish itself
Primative genre
vanity press
A publisher hat requires its authors to pay the full cost of producing their own books.
Bullet theories
Theory that implies that media effects flow directly from the media to an individual.
2001 (internet)
estimate: 1 bil music files downloaded illegally/month, over 400 mil users, 9.8 bil electronic messages sent/day, iPod debuts, wikipedia is launched
NBC universal
comcast is in the process of buying-
telecommunications act of 1996
relaxed restrictions of media ownership
- England=Board of Film Classification (rates and censors films and cuts any questionable scenes)
- The First Amendment only protects against government censorship
film studios now make more from movie theaters in other countries than US
-cultural differences can affect the film an its content
Channel Allocation
the placement of assigned spots on the electromagnetic spectrum to individual broadcast stations
The Paywall Method > charge a usage or subscription fee
Communication is a __________ and ___________ process; the process of creating shared meaning
reciprocal and ongoing process
What is the high definition aspect ratio?
16 by 9
Radio Act of 1927
Set the Federal Radio Commission (FRC), whose guiding principles are public interest, convenience, or necessity
Wireless Ship Act
1910 legislation that said any boat with 50 passengers or more was required a wireless
Defusion of innovative theories
new development of technology adopted into an identifiable chapter
"Uncle Tom's Cabin"
written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1851. Revealed the horrors of slavery.
Mechanical TV Systems
John Baird and Charles Frances Jenkins - Motion Picture Projection Pioneer
What book was used to create the Protestant Reformation?
The Bible
Mediated interpersonal communication
is the sharing of personal massages through some form of interposed device.
Assitant Chief Engineer at Westinghouse
What was Frank Conrad's job?
"The Clock"
lays out exactly what will be played each hour of every day on the radio
Controlled Circulation
A magazine provided at no cost to readers who meet some specific set of advertiser-attractive criteria.
Direct Broadcast Satellite (DBS)
systems that deliver tv programming to individual homes via satellite
Programming of the 1960s
reflected a changing society, wild mix of Westerns, Spy Shows, and Variety Series, color broadcasting, comedy shows (Smothers Brothers & Laugh-In)
Tim Burners Lee
Who is credited with the invention of the internet?
Movies after WWII
-attendance slumps (but TV is not to blame)
-24 hour film showings
-The Killers B's (baseball, babies, & bowling)
Internet to Public
1989 just under 1 million viewers Tim Burners Less @ CERN developes a new technique for internet called WWW
paper film process (calotype) - now called the negative
William henry fox talbot
David Sarnoff
Who was the man who relayed the names of the dead after the sinking of the titanic?
1984 (no, not the book)
DNS (domain name system) introduced- .com, .org, .edu. Mac is introduced
Platform Rollout
Opening a movie on monly a few screens in the hope that favorable reviews and word-of-mouth publicity will boost interest.
Artist and Repertoire (A&R) Executives
specialists in the music industry who discover and develop the groups and performers
Christian Pop Rock
The 2000s mark the rise of which type of music?
"The medium is the message"
A theory by Marshall McLuhan that states that the form of the message alters how we interpret the meaning and portray it
American Marconi, GE, AT&T, and Westinghouse in 1921
These companies emerged to create RCA
Chaos in the Ether
What was it called when the Radio waves were clogged with meaningless messages and programs?
Radio Act of 1912
Chaos in the ether. An effort to clean up frequencies
What was the first major sound motion pictures?
The Jazz Singer (Warner Bros)
Gov't Attempts to Restrict Press
Alien and Sedition Laws, 1789
The Espionage Act of 1918
The Smith Act of 1940
HUAC and Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations
* Gov't Attempts to Restrict Press
•Alien and Sedition Laws, 1789
- prohibited anti-gov't speech
- expired in 1801
•The Espionage Act of 1918
- prohibited anti-war speech in WWI
•The Smith Act of 1940
- WWII press censorship
•HUAC and the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations
- House Un-American Activities Committee
- Cold War congressional hearings
- hunting for communists
- discredited by news media
When did the stock market crash and what did it cause?
1929 and the Great Depression
What are the different definitions of censorship? What is the legal definition?
Technically. legally, only an agent of the state can censor. But the term has been loosened to mean that if you criticize somebody's work, and you imply in the course of the criticism that it should be done away with, people by and large would call that censorship. From a legal point of view, of course, criticism is not censorship. Legally, censorship is prior restraint or prosecution of communication activity by the government.
1. Image is everything 2. Perception is reality 3. Repetition, repetition, repetition
What are the three axioms of strategic communications?
* Filters and Chips
• U.S. v. American Library Association, 2003
• TV ratings imposed (1997)
know these?
• Monitoring Broadcast Indecency
* Filters and Chips
• U.S. v. American Library Association, 2003
- Congress may require Internet filters in publicly funded libraries
• TV ratings imposed (1997)
know these?
• Monitoring Broadcast Indecency
- "Bubba the Love Sponge"
- Janet Jackson at the Super
- Howard Stern
Executive Producer
printing press
online magazines
TBS, Ted Turner
"Poor Richards Almanack"
owned by disney
money to DJs
HyperText Transport Protocol
the director of photography
Director Genre
A "Hitckcockian" Thriller
Death of the actor
year jukebox was invented
2-sided disc
-Columbia Phonogrph Company
creator of salon
david talbot
"The little tramp"
Charlie Chaplin
general intrest magazines
golden age
LATE 1960's
studios were made-for-TV movies.
Top magazine by revenue...
People magazine
_________ froze network license applications in 1948-1952.
Thomas Edison
Who invented the phonograph?
makes creative decisions, primary vision, interprets script, creates the world of the film
boston publicity bureau
1st publicity agency
alexander bell
phone common in america 1920
The whole book of psalms
newspapers took over
Early 20th century
1994 (internet) launched, e-commerce and spam begin, 45 mil users of the internet
European cinema devastated by....
World War I
Sound Bites
Short, carefully crafted statements designed to be picked up in news reports
books that exist as digital files
measurements taken from a small percentage of the audience, chosen to represent the behavior of the rest of the audience; broadcast ratings are a form of sampling
___________ has more subscribers than any other multiple system operator ( MSO)
Film Genres (6)
comedy, drama, musicals, action-adventure, horror, sci-fi
Advantage of e-books...
portability, search, hyperlinking, backlighting
Mostly women's magazines like Cosmo, Good Housekeeping, O, Redbook, Seventeen
Boad op /DJ
Begining position in radio
Joseph P Maxwell
1924 - electromagnetic recording
john cameron swayze
father of network tv
united artists studios
1919 chaplin and griffith
Advantages of eBooks
portable, search capabilities, hyperlinking, backlighting- can read in dark.
the imitation of behavior from media
complementary copy
content that reinforces the advertiser's message--placing ads next to editorials that compliment each other.
MPPDA 1922
Motion pictures producers and distributions of america
Mediated Communication
Messages conveyed through an interposed device rather than face-to-face
animation software, Adobe owns the term
Swimsuit Edition
Sports Illustrated, moving beyond printed pages, 1964
Marshall McLuhan
"the medium is the message"
Time Warner
Philo T. Farnsworth
won patent battle against NBC
Kill Bill
Shakespeare in Love
On Spec
on speculation; in the publishing industry, finishing a work without a contract guaranteeing that it will be bought
Dime Novels
inexpensive fiction, popular in the 1860's, that sold for 10 cents; also called pulp novels
Mercantile Press
newspapers that provided news of business and shipping
local stations that have a contractual relationship with the network but are not owned by the network
Film Director
makes most creative decisions, primary vision, interprets the script, creates the world of the film
By the mid-18th century, the _______________ had become one of the engines driving the Industrial Revolution
printing press
News Corporation
(Rupert Murdoch): 20th Century Fox, New York Post, The Wall Street. Journal, Myspace, Harpercollins Publishing, National Rugby League
Variety Shows
Texaco Star Theatre (Milton Berle); Your Show of Shows (Sid Caesar, Mel Brooks, Carl Reiner, Larry Gelbart, Neil Simon, Woody Allen)
Audio Tape
What did the Germans introducein WWII?
Film Sub Genres
romantic comedies, teen comedies, slapstick comedies, and dark comedies
Muckracking Era
first decades of 20th century, targetted powerful and benefitted from the poor
public broadcasting act of 1967
set up PBS
non-linear TV
watching television on our own schedules, not on some cable or broadcaster programmer's
General Electric/NBC/Universal
started by Thomas Edison. Includes Telemundo.
information that is spread for the purpose of promoting a doctrine or cause
Demographics -
Characteristics such as age and gender
custom magazines
designed for a specific company seeking to reach a narrow audience
Invented the Image projector 1896
Charles Francis Jenkins
launched in 1981, music videos drove the music industry in the 80's
Hearst Magazines
mostly womens maggazines, cosmo, O, Good housekeeping, redbook, seventeen
media literacy
the ability to effectively & efficiently comprehend and use any form of mediated communication
became a film hotspot
-diverse film locations and open barns for studios
Vladmir Zworykin
invented the iconoscope in 1923-- the television camera
the percent of households USING the TV who are tuned into a specific program, station, or network in a specific area at a specific time.
Circulation Waste
that part of advertising received by people whom the advertiser has no interest in reaching
Digital Video Recorders (DVRs)
specialized computers with oversized hard drives on which signals are saved
Economies of Scale
savings that accrue with mass production
Citizen Kane
1941, co-written by, driected by, and starring Orson Welles, the greatest movie ever made, newsreel
1927, become popular in post WWII era, early form of "pay-per-view" concept
Cosmopolitan was taken over by __________.
Helen Gurley Brown
On average, how many ads are we exposed to per day?
"The Big Sleep"
Film Noir with a complex plot
Action Genres
John wayne style films, and Bruce Willis Style films(a la die hard)
L. Daguerre and N. Niepce
invented photography in 1839
First Modern ad agency
N W Ayer and Sons
Most writing in magazines is done by...
... freelancers
• Feedback
messages that return from the receiver of a message to the source of that message
Newspaper ADS
early papers sold no ads earliest newspaper were similar to classifieds
product placement
integration, for a fee, of specific branded products into media content.
Thomas edison sent him to make zooproxiscope better
William Dickson
Selective Retention
Process by which people with different views remember the same event differently.
United Fruit
What company in the conglomerate that started RCA really pushed its use?
1989 (internet)
internet access opens to the public (under 1 mil users), development of the world wide web
specialized magazines
appeal to certain interest, late 20th century, print version of narrowcasting
mass communication
creating shared meaning b/t the mass media and their audiences
-end of golden age of movies
-blind booking and block booking banned
- Paramount and MGM had to sell their movie theaters following a 10-yr lawsuit over vertical integration.
Second Unit Directors
movie directors in charge of shooting the scenes that do not require the stars
Network Affiliate
a local station that has a contractual relationship to air a network's programming
Rag Content
proportion of cotton or linen fiber in high-quality paper
Nellie Bly
around the world in 72 days, stunt journalism, investigative journalism
Situational Comedies
What type of program works to change the value system and is also a reflection of society?
Specialty Magazines
Opera News, D Magazine, Gun Dog, Watch Time, Model Railroading, etc.
sir walter raleigh
persuaded settlers to come to Roanoke in 1548
Early Majority
the next wave of consumers after early adaptors prices are starting to decline , more dependable
Top Magazines in Circulation
1- AARP The Magazine
2- AARP Bulletin
3- Costco Connection
AOL/Time Warner
Warner Bros AOL NETSCAPE CNN TIME and SI Magazine
ad-pull policy
demand for an advance review of a magazine's content with the threat of pulling the ad.
Group Ownership
The acquisition of the same type of business in more than one market area by one company.
casual readers
those who enjoy reading but find the time to read only a few books a year.
3.2 million
What is the average Circulaiton of a regular copy of Sports Illustrated?
2006 (internet)
over 92 mil websites, YouTube sold to Google for $1.65 bil, Twitter launched
Media Criticism
analysis used to assess the effects of media on individuals, on societies, and on cultures
*unduly harsh & unrealistic
Uses and Gratifications
theory that looks at the ways media consumers choose media to meet their needs
Broadcast Music Incorporated
(RMI) make sure artists are paid for the playing of songs
Benjamin Franklin
Who was the first to put pictures in newspaper advertisments?
5 major production companies
warner bros, mgm, paramount, rko, and 20th century fox
Early Sound Recording
Late 1880's is considered to be the beginning
4 axioms of Advertising
1) Image is everything 2) Perception is reality 3) Advertising only works through repetition 4) What's in it for me?
mandated how free press was willing to express themselves
Bill of Rights
an Editorial Board
What is a small thing that online magazines have that blogs don't?
Transition from analog to digital
2009- brings traditional TV and computers closer
Green Light Process
The process of deciding to make a movie.
Public Service Announcements (PSAs)
ads on public interest presented as a service to the community
Federal Communications Commissions (FCC)
One of the most significant pieces of legislature of the 20th century
Publick Occurences both Forreign & Domestick
1st newspaper by Benjamin Harris- Boston 1690. Only 1 issue
*Mass Media and Cultural Values
•"Spiral of Silence"
•No Sense of Place
-1985, Joshua......
- TV breaks down........
3 points
• TV and school performance
•Stereotyping Women
*Mass Media and Cultural Values
•"Spiral of Silence"
- establish Noelle Newman
- media forms a consensus
- Opposing viewpoints become fewer
•No Sense of Place
-1985, Joshua Meyerwitz
- TV breaks down distinctions
• b/w men and women
• b/w child and adult
• loss of childhood
• TV and school performance
- 1981 Cali study
- Students who watch more TV score lower (on standardized tests), more tv, lower tests scores
•Stereotyping Women
- Loving With A Vengeance
- Tanina Modleski
- Analyzed gothic novels, Harlequin romances and soap operas
- "Male-centered" meaning
- "Patriarchal myths and institutions" embraced
Who is the founder of Facebook?
Mark Zuckerberg. Taking talent from Google
Popular Stage (of media development)
phase of media evolution in which a truly mass audience takes an advantage of a particular medium
The Value System of the Western Genre
taming the american west, bringing order to chaos, the American Cowboy as an icon, rugged individualism, courageous seeker of justice, America as the world's policeman, masculine, white supremacy
Development of an Ethics Code
1930s press agents
PR Society of America (PRSA)
• 1930s press agents
- Phony stories
- Anti-trucking "front" orgs?
• PR Society of America (PRSA)
- established 1st Code of Ethics 1959
- Declaration of Principles, 1959
- voluntary guidelines
* Media Invasion of Privacy
Intruding on physical or mental solitude
Publishing embarrassing personal facts
False Light
Right of Publicity
* Media Invasion of Privacy
• Intruding on physical or mental solitude
- Galella v. Onassis
- Photographers must maintain distance
• Publishing embarrassing personal facts
- Information not in the public record is private
- Bartnicki v. Vopper
• Cell phone conversations not protected if criminal in nature
• False Light
- must portray subjects truthfully
• Right of Publicity
- may not use a celebrity's name for promotion without permission
How do impact issues, legal issues, and ethical issues differ? How are they related.
Impact issues deal with media effects: how the media affect society and how they affect individuals within society.
Legal Issues deal with media practices-such as those in the area of libel, invasion of piracy, and antitrust actions-that are governed by law.
Ethics takes a special importance in media studies because many observers believe that the media are at least partially to blame for the confusing state of today's morals.
Ad code of ethics crested in ____ by ____
1924 American Association of Ad Agencies
Death of the Compact Disc and the Album
U.S. CD sales have dropped 48.9% since 2000, worlwide total music sales dropped 17% in 2007
Laugh-In (date)
mechanical television
George Eastman
Carles Jenkins
mechanical television
National networks
-History Channel
Nipcow disc
Paul Nipcow
Penny Press
inexpensive, advertiser-supported newspapers that appeared in the 1830's
Leslie Nielson
actor passed away
Studio Era of Film
john wayne
the western actor
advertisements placed strategically across from a specific story that may mention or make reference to the product
east of the mississippi
Thomas Alva Edison, 1877
-Brian DePalma
Kevin Cosner- shootout in train station
Still Photography
Daguerre & Niepce, 1839
Very High Frequency, channels 2-13
James Arness
Who stared in Gunsmoke?
Film genres
comedy, drams, musicals, action/adventure, horro, sci-fi
Ted Turner
invented WTBS in 1976
feb 1964
beatles on ed sullivan
Early days of broadcasting-originally meant to deliver TV signals to rural areas CATV community antenna TV
post civil war
Mass Circulation Era
The merging of technologies, industries, and content.
Public Relations
"Advertising in Disguise", informational campaigns (ex: breast cancer awareness), promotional campaigns (sales, image, lobbying)
Edward R. Murrow
Broadcast news- live broadcasting
Press Release
brief document containing the information needed to write a news story, also called a news release
Online Publisher
one that provides "supported self-publishing" through a web site
internet users now illegally download over 1 billion music files each month, spam now accounts for about half of all emails, The Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicitated Pornography and Marketing Act is signed > help individuals & businesses control the amount of undictated email they receive
Evolution of Radio
technological determinance (hardware), programming (software), economic base (advertising), regulation
"Direct Broadcast Satellite) or DTH (Direct to Home)
Who is associated with electric television?
Oversees newspaper in very general way, very hands off
Western artist who always paints horses with 4 hooves off ground due to Muybridge experiments
Late 19th Century
rise of yellow journalism
first president to appear on TV
live drama, westerns, soaps, quiz shows
publishes Vogue, GQ, Lucky, Vanity Fair, Wired, New Yorker
J.L.R. Licklider
1962 MIT Professor "Galactic Network"
concentration of media industries into an even smaller amount of companies.
"first artist of the cinema"
George Melies
When was the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit issue first released?
Tim Berners-Lee
developed the World Wide Web
owner of Fort Worth star telegram
FCC freeze on...
license applications during 1948-1952 because there was an overflow. Slowed the development of TV.
-movies sold to individual stations on a market-by-market basis
Laboratory Experiment
scientific method of isolating and observing variables in a controlled environment
idea that watching violence in the media reduces people's innate aggressive drive
D.W. Griffith, Carlie Chaplin, Mary Pickford
United Artist
Visual Storytelling
Kuleshov Effect = the artful juxtapostion of images to convey meaning or evoke an emotion
Colombia Records
Which company started the beginnings of CBS?
Frank Conrad
Who founded the first radio station?
Colombia phonograph company
1905 first two sided disc
ladies home journal
early general interest mass circulation magazine
grandparents of society , refuse to adapt, defined by age
Public Broadcasting Act
-United the educational systems into an important network
-Public Broadcasting Service (PBS)
-has nearly 400 members
Vertical Monopoly
also known as vertical integration. One company owns many companies and has ownership of the production, distribution, and exhibition.
multistep flow
a complex interaction of media effects
various opinion leaders
Vladimir Zworykin
Electronic Systems Iconoscope - most fundamental TV technologies -- The eye of the TV Camera 1923
horizontal monopolies
owning several types of related businesses.
magazine price revolution made possible advertising circulation which drove ad rates
1870s price war
Catharsis Theory
The idea that viewing violence actually reduces violent behavior.
Opinion Leaders
Well-informed people who help others interpret media messages.
Sam Phillips
discovered Elvis, worked for Sun Studios
Thomas Edison's company Electric Light Company became what?
General Electric
horizontal monopoly
owning several types of related businesses
- shows experimental, avant-garde and foreign films
Kuleshov Effect
The artful juxtaposition of images to convey a meaning or evoke an emotion. EX: man with a smile, next shot, mom and baby = man is proud. same man with smile, next shot, girl in bikini = man is a creeper
- shows novelties such as IMAX films
Press Kit
a collection of publicity items given out to media gatekeepers
Trade Magazines
magazines that focus on a particular business and are usually essential reading for people in that business
Phil Record
43 years with Star-Telegram, mentor to Bob Shieffer, instructor at TCU
_____ sales were taking up the slack of past movie sales declining but sales been declining in recent years.
Nielsen Ratings
Used to rate television or radio viewing
Quiz Show Scandal
1959, ,revealed that results were fixed by advertisers
Radio in 1970s-1990s
Format wars, rise of talk radio
Lee Deforest
audion tube = vacuum tube that improved and amplified wireless signals, saw radio as a means of broadcasting
Mixed Effects Model
messages don't effect everyone the same way
William Randolph Hearst
newspaper publisher who adopted a sensationalist style. His reporting was partly responsible for igniting the Spanish-American War.
powerful-effects model
model that predicts that media will have swift and potent influence
Philo T Farnsworth
won patent battle against NBC, electronic system, Sarnoff paid royalties to him.
Home Box Office
1975 premium service originally sent NY Rangers and islanders games to retirees in Florida
Era of specialization
post WWII: invention of the television, more narrow interest magazines, lifestyle orientation, fragmented audience.
1939 New York World's Fair
1st Commercial TV Broadcast
A combination in which the whole is more than the sum of its parts.
Promoting a product in one form to sell it in some other form.
6 issues
How many issues of "General Magazine" were published?
What company screwed up and declined the offer to buy ARPAnet?
AT&T. 1973
popular stage
a truly mass audience takes advantage of them
New York Sun
Bejamin Day, 1833. 1st major daily
a tube invented by Lee de Forest that was designed to pick up and amplify radio signals; also know as a vacuum tube
Example of the Western Primitive genre:
The Great Train Robbery
What was the name of the first radio station?
Lee De Forest
Radio tubes (the audion or vacuum tube)
cultivation theory
idea that media defines the world for us
Dw griffith and charlie chapman
were in united artists together
Third Person Effect
the common attitude that others are influenced by the media messages but that we are not
reginald fessenden
was the first to facilitate a wireless voice transmission in 1906 shocking radio operators at sea
Warner Bros
"don juan", "jazz singer" , lights of ny" produced by
What's the difference between horizontal and vertical integration of media companies?
Vertical Integrations occurs when companies own both production and distribution facilities. Horizontal integrations occur when a company owns many different types of business.
Early 20th Century
When did Mudrakers appear on the journalistic scene?
Cable Television
originally a means to deliver TV to rural areas that could not receive signals
electromagnetic spectrum
a range of frequencies that could be used for transmitting radio waves with electricity.
- movies that have finished their initial run elsewhere
Required Readers
those who read only what they have to for their jobs or studies
Print media
Almost all mass media is based in the printed word (books, newspapers, magazines)
Final episode of M*A*S*H
Highest rated program in history with a 70+ share
AOL - Time Warner
warner bros, AOL, netscape, CNN, time, ppl, sports Ill.
Evolution of magazines
Elite- only for wealthy at first => popular- eventually for the masses => specialized- narrowcasting
1947 World Series
NBC 1st broadcast, seen in only 4 cities, only in bars and department store windows, 3.9 million viewers 3.5 million in bars
warner bros, mgm, paramount, rko, and 20th century fox
5 major production companies
Radio Act of 1934
What Radio Act Created the Federal Communications Commission?
Zero waste circulation
ideally every person that sees our ad likely uses that product, "build a better mouse trap and the world will beat a path to your door"
Motion Picture Patents Companies
-aka The Trust
-Moviemakers had to pay fees to the Trust
Radio station distinguishing:
W for the east of the Mississippi, K for the west of the mississippi
Trade Magazines and Professional Journals
AMA Journal, National Hog Farmer, PR Week, etc.
* Prior Restraint More
* Prior Restraint
- public v. private (can use for press, not an advertisement)
- photograph
- interesting end
TBS, CNN, Discovery Channel, TNT
The Weather Channel & USA Network are among the top cable networks in subscribers, all have about 100 million subs
The Music Box Memo, 1915
Envisioned the future of the radio as a household appliance. Marconi completely dismissed this memo, but it demonstrated that Sarnoff knew where the radio was headed
What are the reasons for corporate media growth and how does each reason relate to media products?
economies of scale increase profits, synergy lets parts work together, global competition favors larger companies.
* Regulating Broadcast and Cable
• Federal Communications Commission
• Federal Trade Commission
• Airwaves are a........
• broadcasters are...........
* Regulating Broadcast and Cable
• Federal Communications Commission
- regulates broadcasting
- 5 commissioners, 5-year terms
- appointed by President, approved by Senate
• Federal Trade Commission
- regulates advertising
• Airwaves are a "public trust"
• broadcasters are "trustees operating in the public interest"
How do the findings of media research differ from the conventional wisdom?
Media are malignant, cancerous force within society; that they have the power to reach out and directly influence the minds of average people and that they are capable of producing social problems on a vast scale. Conventional wisdom still believes in powerful, direct, and mostly negative media influence.
What were the primary findings of the People's Choice study?
The researchers found that the main effect of the campaign was reinforcement, in that media strengthened attitudes that were already held by voters. 53% percent of the voters were affected only through reinforcement.
Why was the Zenger case important to the development of press freedom?
His lawyer said that the truth should always be able to be published. This established the idea that as far as american settlers were concerned, newspapers had the inherent right to publish the truth about government actions. This idea became officially sanctioned in 1791, in the First Amendment to the US constitution, although it was not fully realized in practice for many years.
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