Terms Definitions
Great Learning
3rd Phase
practical/moral priciple
Sacred Book
The Analects
1st Phase
Mostly philosophical
love or goodness
faithfulness to oneself
(jen = humaneness)
The Founder
Confucius (551-479 BCE)
Human Relationships
Confucianism focuses on:
Four books
Ta Hsueh
Meng Tzu
Chinese philosopher, administrator, and moralist. His social and moral teachings, collected in the Analects , tried to replace former religious observances.
the arts of peace
Person who has Jen, "Saint"
Modern Era
1949-Communist party take over
1966-1976-Fight against religion renewed
1976-Mao dies
loyalty to one's true nature
Huang Di
semi-mythical, "earthly", yellow emperor. Model ruling king created war
Reciprocity between humans. Confucius developed a variation of the Golden Rule before Christ: "Do not do unto others what you would not wish done to yourself."
Mo Tzu
founded Mohists; criticized traditional Chinese religious rituals and ancestor veneration
When was Confucius's life?
551- 479 bc
Define yang
Positive, active, masculine, heavenly, light, strength
Teachings of Confucius
Advocated social harmony
Confucian canon composed of:
1. The I-Ching (Book of Changes)-is the book of the "5 Classics"
2. Analacts (Lun Yu)-is a major source for teachings-is the "4 books"
confucianism Tenants
filial piety, honor, respect, education
The city where Confucius was born
what is Confucius' real name?
Kung Chu
Police state, with a strict/strictly applied legal code (part of Hundred Schools)
ritual behavior that is internalized in life
Confucius's proposed solution
Know traditions
Read the classics
the collected sayings of Confucius, one of the Four Books of Confucianism
Book of Mencius
contains teachings of Mencius
Shang Ti
high god of Shang dynasty
"Heaven"; the supreme "deity" through much of Chinese history
Fair Mindedness
Ability to shift perspective and understand other people
The sage
There is a oneness to tao
5 k's
comb, uncut hair, bracelet, sword, shorts
Philosopher who wrote a book similar to the Daodejing
What was the most central virtue according to Confucius?
gentleman > small man; required to stdy the 6 classics
around 500 BCE, born into modest backgrounds, wanted to get into government but ending up teaching his philosophies. Wanted to restore Chinese society to the idealism of the Zhou dynasty
Like Jesus, he was only really significant after his death
His teachings would eventually be systematized by Mencius a couple hundred years later.
System of beliefs; taught that people need to have a sense of duty to family and community in order to bring peace to society
filial piety; the respect due to elders, parents, and superiors
Vitalizing Taoism
tried different methods to increase ch'i
Who wrote the Book of Mencius
Mencius himself
Chun Tzu
how someone should be in any relationship with another person (ideal host/hostess, the focus=helping and accomodating others
Kong Fu Zi
Confucius, a Chinese Philosopher who inspired many ideas
Confucian teleology
To create social cohesion
To become a deserving partner of heaven
1. Doctrine of the mean-man forms a unity between Heaven and Earth
2. Chun Yung-middle and constant way between balance and harmony
3. To become a Chun Tzu (a mature person)
path to enlightenment
4 noble truths + eightfold path
human heart
the development of this is Confucius essential concern
In his 20s, what did Confucius become?
a teacher
mandate of heaven
concerns the legitimacy of rulers. Heaven would bless the authority of a just ruler, and withdraw the mandate if displeased with a ruler and transfer it to another who is worthy
ancestor veneration
Honor ancestors, because they are wise and can help you commune with the spirits
Tudi Gong
local gods; go to magistrate, local leader who gives problems to TG to pass up chain
Where did Confucianism dominate the philosophy of education?
China Korea Japan
Pre-Axial Chinese Religion
animism: belief in spirits or animasaugury: fortune tellingsacrifices to please ancestors\"possession\" by spiritsancient mythsShang Ti: \"sovereign on high\"; originally the overseer of the ancestors
What do Confucianists think about laws
stern laws arent necesary
Realists, Mohists, and Confucius
Jeffersonian solution sought faith in reason
Chinese realists wanted to impose harsh laws (Confucius said this is too crude to inspire)
Mohists advocated love (Confucius said this is too utopian)
His solution was deliberate tradition
What is the name of the being that oversees the Heaven in Confucianism?
Shang Di
divine lord on high, embodies qi and does not deal with human trifles
Yin and Yang (in Confucianism)
• Yin=feminine, shadowy, soft, moist, passive (stays with body when you die)
• Yang=masculine, bright, hard, dry, aggressive,=po (kind of)
Five Relationships
1. husband and wife 2. parent and child 3. elder and younger brother 4. ruler and Minister or subject 5. friend and friend
The Analects
one of the Four Books; the most important source of material on his life and work
Who is Chi hsi
An interpreter who determined what the four books of Confucianism should be which are
1. Analects
2. Book of Mencius
3. Great learning
4. Doctrine
Rectification of Names
Knowing your place and doing what is expected
Activist Approach to Warring States
naturally god, so practice realizing our true nature
What was Confucians main concern
how people conducted themselves in everyday life
How to Confucianists View God?
Confucius spoke of Ultimate Reality as T'ien which had the less personal meaning of 'Heaven"
3 things that shaped confucius' adulthood
disfigurement, lack of love, single mother
Confucian scholars and their role during the Han dynasty
most of the Confucian scholars belonged to a new kind of landowning gentry. They had largely replaced the old aristocracy. As government officials, they oversaw the educational network; they also performed rituals in the court and on the local level. The Hans had built “halls of light” (also called “calendar houses”) throughout China for the worship of ancestors and all the major deities.
How to Confucianists View The World?
perceived as a place where one's purpose is to practice goodness, to love one another, and to work hard so as to nourish the earth. A person who actualizes his or her inner goodness will be a co-worker of "heaven." He or she will also be a person who is creative in bringing goodness to human beings and to other things. Such a person will then realize the harmony that is supposed to exist between humanity and nature
What are the four concerns of the enlightened person according to Confucius?
Family, Community, Nation, and Humanity
How do Daoists and Confucians differ from one another?
Daoists emphasized nature and its laws. Confucians found the secret of life in persons and their better relationships.
Daoists sought the harmony of individuals with the Dao. Confucius desired harmony between the cosmos order and the social order.
What are the 2 main ideas/virtues he taught?
1. Produce excellent individuals who could be social leaders; super men (Chun-tzu)
2. Create a harmonious society
What is the key concern of Confucanism?
That each of us has "Jen" which is our "humanity" or, we each have a "good nature" within us. This "hsin-hsing" (From the terms hsin "Heart Minded" and hsing "human nature" formed to make hsin-hsing "Heart-Minded Nature" by Mencius 372-289 BC) is the way to approach the Ultimate Reality (or heaven) Almost an inward 'heaven" achieved if the world would follow their "good nature" which according to Menicus is what comes naturally to us. More of a set of morales than a "Religious" experience.
daoism founder
self cultivation
fortune telling
buddhism founder
siddhartha guatama
Chun- Tzu
"mature person"
husband to wife
Analects/Lun Yu
Confucius' sayings
Wei Wu Wei
Motionless Movement
5 Relationships
ruler/subject, husband/wife, parent/child, elder brother/younger brother, friend/friend (age pref on last one)
Filial Piety
Respect for parents
li: propriety and ritual
Chinese philosopher, who studied Confucianism. He later refined many of the ideas and spread them across China. Also known as Mengzi, or Meng-tzu.
Moral virtue, establishing & maintaining a special relationship between the ruler & Heaven
Aqueduct, circular system of society
Confucius's Great Follower
Mencius (371-279 BCE)
Fu Xi
semi-mythical; domesticated animals, wrote Classic of Changes (I Ching), marriage w/ Nuwa
Confucianism, rituals, the social obligations/duties people had to perform (Propriety, Filial Piety,5 relationships, etc..)
Unlike before, these rites did not mean religious sacrifice
(aristocrat, sage, ideal person, gentleman)
examines the meaning of words
Let the government problems work themselves out
Heart-mind; enables people be both introspective and altruistic
evil spirits keep mortals from enlightenment
Mao Zedong
Leader of the communist party
human beings are?
teachable, improvable, and perfectible
A book of 'discussions' (or collections) of the teachings and writings of Confucius.
A political, social, and economic system based on bargains made between a sovereign and his vassals or noble subjects.
Lunyu (Analects)
the collections of Confucius' discourses with his disciples
In his discourses, he says that he believes the basic problem with society is the breakdown of morality and values from Zhou era.
What is the concern for Confucious?
Hsun Tzu
least orthodox interpreter of Confucianism; greatly influenced by Taoism; denied basic goodness of people
Ch'un Ch'iu
"Spring and Autumn Annals," chronicling the history of the state of Lu; one of the Five Classics
Master K'ung
also called Confucianism, the founder of Confucianism He was a teacher who wrote the Analects
Four Virtues
1. Humanism (concern with others)
2. Filiality (proper ordering of relationships in a family)
3. Propriety (proper ordering of all social relationships)
4. Fair Mindedness
a belief (or system of beliefs) accepted as authoritative by some group or school
one who "hears" the ways of heaven
chou dynasty
Longest ruling dynasty in Chinese history
Shang Dynasty
1766-1050 BCE began Confucianism b/c men decided to stay on to help (li)
han dynasty
unified china after collapse; rejected legalism; embraced confucianism as basic govt policies; capital became Xian
• Raise during Song dynasty (12th century)
• Influenced by Buddhism and Daoism and Confucius' disciples
• Follow "Four Books"
o Analects of Confucius
o Book of Mencius
o The Great Learning
o The Doctrine of the Mean
"The Way." For confucianism, the moral order that permeates the universe, the way that should be followed
Chu Hsi
Chinese philosopher who formulated the Confucian canon and established Neo-confucian thought
3 Kinds of Taoism
School TaoismVitalizing TaoismChurch Taoism
Two dominate Religions in China
Confucianism and Taoism
Spontaneous Tradition
The behaviors that contributed to the well being of tribes over thousands of years became natural, but when circumstances change, spontaneous tradition produces behaviors that are not workable
sikhism afterlife
soul goes through rebirth until human form
five ching
writings that include the wisdom and knowledge handed down by the early sages
li, zhong, shu, and xiqo together make?
outward expressions
yin and yang
polar aspects of the primal energy(female and male, dark and light, etc.)
Kong Qiu
The Chinese name for Confucius. Later changes for Kong Fuzi or Master Kong. Confucius is the European translation of this name.
Confucius is better known in China as...
Kung Fu-Tzu
Confucianism in Japan
In the seventh century CE, Confucianism’s influence began to be felt. In the seventeenth century the Tokugawa rulers saw to a more thorough Confucianization of society. It can be argued that Japanese companies are operated on the model of the Confucian family.
Taoist Traits
trust in human naturereverence for the natural worldwu weicorollaries to wu weithe relativity of values and identity of oppositespacifismcritique of civilization and of Confucianism
Golden Mean
belief that a good Confucianist is expected to avoid emotional and intellectual extremes
What is defined as Confucianism's central project?
Learning to be human
5 Constant relationships
1. Parents should be loving
2. Elder siblings should be gentle
3. Husbands should be good
4. Elder friends should be considerate
5. Rules should be benevolent
For Confucius, the worship of gods were?
of secondary importance
What is the ideal goal for human beings in Confucianism?
Chun Tzu
Xun Zi
born 298 BCE; people born evil and need li to reform human nature; legalistic
Central teachings of Confucius
• "Rectification of names"
• Five Relationships
o Ruler and subjects
o Husband and wife
o Parents and children
o Older bro and younger bro
o Friend and friend
• Filial Piety
o Showing respect for anyone older than you
• Li Reciprocity
o Notion that people have "their own" way to be and role
• Ren Empathy
o Human heartedness
o A feeling of neighborliness
o Openness
• Social harmony
o Most important thing in Confucianism
• Value of education
• "Mandate of Heaven"
• In you are two parts
o Hun--(body)
o Poe--(spirit) decends with you in your grave
Five Basic Relationships
- parent and child
- husband and wife
- elder and younger brother
- friend and friend
- ruler and subject
Analects (Lun Yu)
A collection of sayings of Confucius compiled by his disciples; one of the Four Books
What is popular taoism
Applies to Physical health ( good physical health is the goal) via yoga meditation, accupressure
what does confucius regard heaven as?
a positive and personal force
Naturalistic Approach to Warring States
return to nature, withdraw from society and live according to nature
The Great Learning
(Da Xue). The book deals with the education of gentlemen in general. In classical Chinese education, this was the first text studied by schoolboys.
Weaknesses of Confucianism
- holds to the unbiblical view that man is basically good
- does not recognize a supreme being
- gives no teaching on sin and salvation
- holds no promise of a hope after death
-offers no divine help for man while on earth
- emphasizes the ethical and ear
How to Confucianists View Heaven?
Heaven exists only as the foundation or the creativity that manifests itself in the whole world. Heaven is sometimes perceived as personal, but at other times it is simply a creative moral power and an impersonal principle.
side 1 of 5 relationships
rulers with virtue, must protect, they are not dominate though, they do not escape from reciprocity.
Doctrine of the Mean
teaches people how to follow a middle path
What is "The Mandate From Heaven"?
The moral order of things within nature. If there is to be harmony within a culture, humanity will strive to abide by this moral order.
What are three of the impacts of Confucianism on Chinese culture and religion?
Social effectiveness, Family centered, and Community involvement
Master Meng (4 beliefs)
(known as Mencius in the West – ca. 371-289 BCE)
* humans are by nature good. There are times when good feelings are not prompted by desire for reward. This natural goodness must be cultivated.
* like Confucius, he emphasized obligations to, and love of, family members
* rulers are obligated to help provide the material means for life to all citizens. They should adhere to a land distribution system to insure fair distribution.
* citizens have the right to revolt against a ruler who fails to live up to his obligations
the virue of li is the source of
good relations, involving love and self-denial
How was the Tao te ching formed?
He was preparing to go on a trip and he was asked to write down his wisdom
Daoism god
superior person
bad spirits
Sikhism god/founder
guru nanak
rectification of names
Confucius' family name
outward expressions constitue what?
A hereditary ruling house.
the rectification of names
scholars who taught Confucianism
sikhism tenants
purification, controlling freed, anger, pride
System of relationship
Older brother-Younger brother
Three bonds (Mencius): 1. emperor/minister 2. father/son (parent/child) 3. husband/wife
(social and ritual propriety) adherence to the proper way of doing things
Confucius thought this was one of the most important things that made society run smoothy. Respecting the 5 relationships and performing rituals the right way
the physical element of being
Confucius merged his ethics with
3 principles of sikhism
meditation, honesty, sharing
poems, saying and discourse of confucius
2nd Phase
Confucianism got more religious characteristics
What does ren mean?
humaness or benevolence
heaven (t'ien)
complements earth
plays an importan moderating rold in human life
fisherman's daughter died and helped town in afterlife, thus promoted to "Queen of Heaven"
The Book/Classic of Changes, written by Confucius.
This book is essentially a divination manual, filled with hexagrams, and broken lines meant to represent different levels of Yin and Yang
Cheng Ming
Literally, \"rectification of names\", accurate correspondence of words with objective reality
(Great Master K’ung or Confucius – Latin version of his Chinese name) 551-479 BCE- was born in the middle of the sixth century BCE at a time China was a group of small kingdoms, in the small feudal state of Lu (south of present-day Beijing). It was a time of political chaos. This period of time is called the Warring States period.- his family was of aristocratic origin but poor- at 50 years old, he was appointed to a high office in the state of Lu but his policies were not adopted. He resigned.- at 55, he began a thirteen-year period of wandering from state to state, teaching a program of political and social reform. Confucius * did not question tradition. Confucianism is based on the ancient Chinese beliefs in the Lord on High, the Mandate of Heaven, ancestor worship, spirits, and the efficacy of rituals. * However, he emphasized the cultivation of moral virtues * believed that political involvement can transform the present world * challenged the corrupt and autocratic leaders of his time. Peo
Ta Hsueh
"Great Learning" discourse on promoting order in society through self-cultivation of individuals. It is one of the Four Books and was the "primer" text in a classical Confucian education.
What is the Confucian doctrine which summarizes the proper ethical principle for each basic relationship?
T'ai Chi
The Tao "that has a name"
requires respect, part of the emphasis on tradition
tradition of the scholars "School of the Ru" -- opposite of realpolitik
What are Analects?
Sayings of Confucius, with conversations. Taught that society would function properly only if virtues were taught and lived.
"the son of heaven"
the emperor given the mandate of heaven to be the ruler
* Disciple of Confucius
o Human nature is evil
o Ritual and the arts
o Believed heaven was part of the laws of nature
Li Chi
\"Book of Ritual\" discusses the meanings of rituals. One of the Five Classics
Five Classics
religious and historical books during Chou dynasty
what is the name of its sacred tezts
Confucian methodology
Education helps to train people to cultivate the values in deliberate tradition
tall tale that searches for view of mans place in cosmos
What were the years of Confucius' life?
551-479 B.C.
What is Hsiao?
Filial piety, acknowledging shrine of family, what would make parents proud and caring for siblings/family
Li Reciprocity
Notion that people have "their own" way to be and role
4 elements (basically put)
no foregone conclusions, no pre-determinations, no obstinacy, "no ego"
Li (ritual)
the proper way in which relationships b/w people should be managed
School Taoism
very concerned with wu wei and conserving ch'i
Strengths of Confucianism
- encourages kindness to one's fellowman
- seeks to promote good government
- teaches a system of good ethics
- promotes good filial relationships
- embraces a Golden Rule similar to that of Christ
- appreciates the value of the family
Self-Cultivation of Virtue
⋅ To enhance, refine, or perfect some latent quality
⋅ Moral excellence and charisma of the morally excellent person
Becoming Chun Tzu
Expand awareness of one's heart (hsin) and expanding jen
when inward and outward expression are with good government, the end product is?
super human being
golden rule
a rulke or saying that is very important to that religion!!!
The 5 Relationships
o Ruler and subjects
o Husband and wife
o Parents and children
o Older brother and younger brother
o Friend and friend
Temples of culture
(called wen miao or “temples of culture”) dedicated to Confucius were built (one in each prefecture of China). These temples included images of Confucius and worship there included sacrifices to Confucius. Tablets to distinguished scholars were also placed in these temples.
I Ching (C)
"Book of Changes," containing keys to divination and the identification of materials and objects with their associated yin and yang properties; one of the five classics
Where was confucius born
Eastern china in the providence of Lu
how is confucianism characterized as?
highly optimistic view of human nature
Confucianism in Korea
Under the Yi dynasty (end of the fourteenth century-1900s CE) Mahayana Buddhism’s dominance gradually lessened. The Yi dynasty was thoroughly Confucian in court politics and elite culture. In the nineteenth century, the government tried to limit the economic power of monastic estates. Even today Confucian influence is felt in South Korea (in political behavior, legal practice, ancestral veneration, and village schools).
Who did much to extend the teachings of Confucianism in the third and fourth centuries BC?
Mencius and Hsun-Tzu
What are the "Confucian Canon"?
The canon of Confucianism begins with the Five Classics:
I-Ching (the book of changes)
Shi (the book of poetry and songs)
Shu (the book of documents)
Li (the book of rites)
Chun-Chiu (book of spring and autumn)
Since the book of rites and the book of spring and autumn contain three books of commentary each, the total number of classics is nine.
Adding another four books
The Analects
Meng-Zi ( ^ the books of Mencuis)
Erh-Ya (the book of ancient words)
Hsiao-Ching (the book of filial piety) makes a grand total of 13 classics.
What are the three steps to organizing society through tradition according to Confucius?
Reaffirmation, Reassessment, and Indoctrination
In what circumstances did Confucius value religion?
only for ceremony and ancestor worship
What are the attributes of a chun tzu
A. Respectful demeanor
B. Reverent with his lord
C. Generous towards the common people
D. Responsibility to be fair
Who do we make a harmonious society?
Personal excellence comes from the manifestation of 5 virtues, and individual uniqueness is often muted
Why was Confucianism rehabilitated in 1980?
Authorities came to believe that the revivalism of Confucianism might help to counteract the rising tide of individualistic consumerism and distrust of those in authority, especially among the youth.
How did Confucianism spread widely during the Han dynasty
by the use of Confucian textbooks in the school systme
what did Confucius say about honoring the spirits of the dead?
we need to do our duty to the living before we do our duty to the dead
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