Confucianism 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Tao
Way
Metaphysical
shengren
sage
li
propriety
Foudner
Confucius Mencius
Shintoism God
kami
xiqo
filial peity
tianming
heavens mandate
shen
good spirits
shintoism symbol
torii (temples)
Jen
"love" or "goodness"
Ru
weak or yielding
Shen Nong
semi-mythical; farming/medicine
hsiao
devotion to ancestors
Confucians
moral education of self-cultivation
benevolence
(ren) humaneness.
Confucius emphasized that this nobility of virtue was more important than nobility of birth
shu
reciprocity (analogous to karma)
Great Learning
about virtuous government
Legalists
Harsh punishments for strict laws
islam holy sites
mecca, medina (pilgrimmages)
Ren
The most important Confucian virtue
human-heartedness
Taiji
"Great Ultimate" -- ceaseless producing and reproducing of the universe -- produces Ying/Yang --> 5 elements --> combine to create everything
DELIBERATE TRADITION
ren (jen) and li
animism
belief in spirits or animas
Trunk of the tree
Yi Righteousness
Mencius
the second founder of Confucianism. Developed the teaching that human bengs are naturally good, and that they commit evil acts in violation of their true nature. Wrote the Book of Mencius, one of the central texts of Confucianism.
Major Teachings
Final Piety
Society starts at home
5 precepts
don't kill, steal, lie, drink
tenet
a principle, belief, or doctrine generally held to be true
Mohists
Thought humans were predatory, and needed to be taught to love others
Zhengming
rectification of names: knowing one's roles in the web of relations that create community, and behaving accordingly to ensure harmony
five relationships of confucianism
ruler-subject, father-son, husband-wife,older brother-younger brother, friend-friend!!!!
Song Dynasty
(960-1279 CE) revived confucian ideology in "neo" form that combo dao/budh/conf 4 a synchronized religion (holistic philosophical system)
chün-tzu
The term literally translates as "gentleman." A noble person who cultivates learning and the arts.
tian
the supreme god/heaven in Chinese tradition
this concept was introduced to justify the mandate of heaven
Neo-Confucianism
A major philosophic and relgious tradition that developed as a response challenges facing Confucianism from Taoism and Buddhism
Analects
collection of sayings of Confucius compiled by his disciples; one of the Four Books
zheng-ming
rectification of names; system for creating a moral society through proper social relationships
The Five Classics
sacred writings of Confucianism
Cheng Ming
Literally, "rectification of names"; accurate correspondence of words with objective reality
Chu Hsi
the developer of Neo-Confucianism. His interpretations have defined the nautre of Confucianism; he determined the 4 books of Confucianism.
What does hsin-hsing mean?
"Heart-Minded Nature" Through self-reflection and self-cultivation one can realize his or her good nature and discover "heaven" in the "heart-minded nature."
Confucian Ontology
No developed metaphysics (oriented to this world), accepted most traditional Chinese beliefs, believe Earth was more significant, didn't elaborate on eschatology
Wu Chi
The Tao "that has no name"
Suprapersonal
neo confucianism
mixture of confucianism with other philosophies, it was a rationalistic revival of conf philo. that had an influence on chinese thought, it brings back budd so mencius' views are now viewed
What is Ren?
Kindness, gentleness, nice ,concern, considerate
Confucius
Kong Fuzi, Kongzi, Master Kong, Kong Qi; born 551 BCE, died 479 BCE; maintainer of ritual, NOT creator
ZHOU DYNASTY
Confucianism was introduced at this time
Shu Ching
\"Book of History\" features sayings and doings of the ancient sage-kings, one of the Five Classics
feng shui
geomancy; interpretation of wind and water
Shih Ching
"Book of Poetry," containing song lyrics; one of the Five Classics and the seminal work of early Chinese poetry
What is the most important value in government
Honesty
Chou Dynasty
the imperial dynasty of China from 1122 to 221 BC
hinduism god
belief in many gods- manifestations of rahman
five tenets
the principles made by Confucius for the chinese people to follow
ecofeminism
conception of humanity is a part of the world, conception of the natural environment is a partner
What was the name of the philosophy that praised strict punitive discipline as the means to order society?
Realists
Rujia
school of Ru (weak, yeilding) men who stayed on after Shang collapse; came to mean "learned aristocracy"
STAYED FOR LI
Shang Ti
In ancient China, a deity with overarching powers. The Supreme Ancestor.
Death in Confucianism
*Every human being has two 'souls'
• The upper, or intellectual, soul called the hun, became the spirit (shen) and ascends to the world above
• A lower, or animal, soul, called the po, became the ghost (guei) and descended with the body into the grave
te
Virtue as show through the power of example
I Ching
\"Book of changes\" containing keys to divination and the identification of materials and objects with their associated yin and yang properties; one of the Five Classics
Branches of the tree
Li moral ways of acting
What was Confucius passionate about restoring when he set out across China?
The Ritual Music Culture
filial piety
respect elders and aspire to be like them
What is one of the main principles of Confucianism?
ren
What is Chun Tzu?
Superior Man, Education is key, they'll see order and follow it. (ruler)
Filial Piety (xiao)
One of the central Confucian virtues, it entails respect, devotion, and obedience toward parents.
Who was Chu Hsi?
The founder of neo-confucianism. One of the worlds greatest philosophers
Meng Tzu
\"Book of Menicus\" one of the Four Books, representing a compliation of Menicus' sayings and writings
Shu (negative)
Do not do to others what you don't want done to you
later developments of Han Dynasty
legalism fades and the three philosophies of china become: budd, confu, and doaism
THE FIVE CARDINAL RELATIONSHIPS
father and son, older brother and younger brother, husband and wife, older person and younger person, ruler and subject
The Book of Mencius
(third century BCE). It is a collection of the sayings of one of Confucius’s principal disciples. It systematized the teachings of Confucius.
Mencius (Meng Tzu) (390-305 B.C.E.)
Disciple of Confucius and influential interpreter of his doctrines
What became China's key "religion" after neo-confucianismim? And why the change?
In 1919 Chinese intellectuals blamed Confucianism for China's failure to modernize.
Mao entered the scene and in 1949, after a crazy revolution and the birth of the People's Republic of China, everyone embraced the new Communist ideology.
What is the right of the people to overthrow despotic rulers in Confucianism?
Right of Revolution
What did confucius teach
a system of ethics, a theory of government, and a set of social goals
5 Steps for Blueprint to a Good Life
1. Jen-human heartedness
2. Chun Tzu-mature person
3. Li-propriety and ritual
4. Wen-arts of peace
5. Te-power of moral example
What is Shu?
Do not do onto others as you would not wish be done to you
Confucianism in China (3 recent events and dates)
*1905 the Ch’ing rulers abolished the civil service exam in favor of a Western system of education
*1949 the communist government outlawed sacrifices to Confucius
*1980 Confucius has been rehabilitated
What do they thnink of leaders values
if the ruler is virtuous then the subjects will be virtuous too
Book
Analects
Relationships
Parent--Child
Ruler--Ruled
Husband--Wife
Elder SIbling-Younger Sibling
Friend--Friend
Philosophy
benevolence, reciprocity
shu
other info.
Moral Conduct
Basic Virtues
Ren
Righteousness
Li
Wisdom
Trustworthiness
the supreme virtue
jen
500 bce
time period
yin
negative, passive, receptive
Kao Tzu
Mencius' rival
Age of Confucianism
2,400 years.
Government
HONEST LANGUAGE
Mandate of Heaven
born in
551 B.C.E.
humble life
Parent-Child
very important
filial piety=respect for parents
parents provide education and moral training
bad rulers (MoH)
can be overthrown
Harmony
in society (li) brings success
Most Famous Deciple
Mencius 390 BCE
hsiac
virtue of wisdom and understanding
Han
in power for over 400 years
Duke of Zhou
was admired by Confucius
Spirituality
believed in spirits
not concerned with any kind of life after death
A person of perfect moral behavior
chun-tzu
natural sphere
unself-conscious person; governed by instincts, desires, emotions
entwined
metaphysics and ethics; our actions determine our reality
ethics
study of right and wrong action
Social harmony
Most important thing in Confucianism
Chaos
What is the concern for Confucious?
Confucionism
Based on the ideas of Confucius/Kung-Fu Tzu (born 551 BCE) (yang)
Ch'Un Ch'Iu
"Spring and autumn annals"; chronicling the history of the state of Lu; one of the Five classics
Integrity
What Confucius preferred to wealth or power.
Chun-Tzu
A Superior Person. Humanity at its best.
In every relationship
li, benevolence, duty and responsibility are expected of the superior
respect and obedience is expected from the inferior
Ruler-Ruled
Ruler is subject to Mandate of Heaven
Mandate
civil service system
-have to pass a test to become a gov. official
behaving properly from a right moral perspective, depending on your place in society
li
cultural arts; such as poetry and music
wen
Confucian virtues
realized through a maturing ethical character; if we are not virtuous, we ignore our duties
yi
jen
li
hsiac
Xunzi
* Disciple of Confucius
o Human nature is evil
o Ritual and the arts
o Believed heaven was part of the laws of nature
realists
- devised laws that established clear expectations, with severe penalties for disobedience.
- held a "low" view of human nature, assuming that "people are naturally lustful, greedy, and jealous" as well as short sighted.
The Analects
Collection of moral and social teachings of Confucius, including the concept of the Five Relationships
After gov.
Confucius left and travelled to other states
looking for a leader to help him realize his plans
C. helped Han
because C. taught respect for rulers
Han thought if people followed these beliefs, it would be easier to rule
----Confucianism flourished
worship clergy rituals
lacks objects of these 3 things
respect for elders
stressed in all relationships except friend-friend; elders have wisdom
Confucian Project
"the self is a center of relationships. It is a node, not an entity; it is a meeting place where lives intersect."
Ket text
The Analects (the collection of the saying and actions of the Master Kung)
The Warring States Period
C grew up at this time
instablility
divided into states, many wars
Warring States Period
time period when China divided into smaller states which fought and had their own lord each. It was violent and there was no peace
transcendent sphere
one who envisions society as part of the Great Whole; embodies tao; realization of the good of all reality
The 5 Relationships
o Ruler and subjects
o Husband and wife
o Parents and children
o Older brother and younger brother
o Friend and friend
five constant relationships
1. Parent and Child
2. Husband and Wife
3. Elder sibling and junior sibling
4. Elder friend and younger friend
5. ruler and subject
Chen Panch'iao
A man who wrote letters to his brother Mo advocating tolerance, forgiveness, and sharing wealth.
Golden Rule
Do not impose on others what you would not wish for yourself
"Do unto others..."
Confucius studied
the early Zhou dynasty and the Duke of Zhou
ethical code secular principles
it is an ____ based on ____
Question of God in Confucianism
• Traditionally, notions of divinity are impersonal, no creator God
• Immanent Transcendence
• Neo-Confucian influence reflects changing attitudes
o These people use Confucius as almost a diety, they pray to him for guidance
C. was unable
to find any willing to help him with his ideas
Confucius was born into
a noble family and was well educated but poor
moral sphere
a person who has a glimpse of a larger social and human totality; principles of duty
Li (rational principle in Neo-Confucianism)
Impels the vital physical force in every object toward movement or generation
Went home to Lu
at age 67 to write and teach his beliefs
died age 73
Death and afterlife in Confucianism
There is not really an afterlife, but filial piety is important even after death
Tian is 'heaven', or the divine
"The period of warring states"
includes the mass slaughter of tens of thousands of people. "how can we keep from destroying ourselves?"
confucius answer- tradition
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