Judaism 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
insider/outsider
Kosher
Talumd
Oral torah
Brit Milah
Circumcistion
oneness of God
1973
yom kippur war
1967
6 day war
Ketubah
COntract of Marriage
1000 BC
United Kingdom
(tribe)
-Saul, David(messiah), Solomon (first temple)
Ahura Mazd
God of Zorastrianism
Tref
Food that isn't Kosher
Midrash
Style of interpreting the Bible
prophet
a human spokesperson for god
4004 BC
Creation of the world
Akiba
most respected rabbis interpretations and arguments are preserved in the talmud. Died at the hands of the romans.
Parsiism
an Indian sect of Zorastriansim
Angra Mainyu
Destructive Spirit in Zorastrianism
Abraham
maybe 1400 bce or 1800
Neviim
The books of the prophets
Shechina
Another femine concept of nurturing.
Yahrzeit
Anniversary of persons death.  Mourner is to light a candle and recite Kaddish at synagouge.
Mitnagdim
Group of ultra-orthodoxOpponents of the Hasidim
Succoth
Feast of Tabernacles, commemorating diving protection of Israel during her wanderings in the wilderness
Halachah
LawPart of the oral Torah
6 Days War
1967
first major military attack
Egypt and Jordan were going to attack Israel, Israel attacked before they could, strong and swift victory
Nevilm
Prophet
any book by people that communicated with God
Southern Kingdom
587
conquered by Babylonian empire, destroyed temple. Sent people to Babylon.
Oslo Accords
multi-stage agreement between israel and palestine
Sukkot
1 of 3 pilgrimage festivals. Commemorates the wandering in the desert and the final harvest
Deuteronomistic 
one of the sources of the Torah postulated by the Documentary Hypothesis (DH) that treats the texts of Scripture as products of human intellect, working in time.Martin Noth argued that there was an underlying unity in language and cultural content of the books from Deuteronomy to 2 Kings (Noth 1943).
Theodicy
Theodicy is about attempts to vindicate God's goodness in the face of so much evil in the world.The book "When bad things happen to good people" by Rabbi Harold Kushner gave guidance of how to approach bad situations, but Kushner, as any other human, could not tell WHY bad things happen to good people. Jewish saying: If I knew God I'd be God.Theodicy tries to address 2 types of suffering: man-made and natural.In Judaism, much of this discipline deals with the holocaust.
Pessah
a Jewish holiday commorating the Jewish freedom from Egyptian slavery. The holiday is celebrated with a Seder dinner. During the eight days of the holiday, it is forbidden to eat leaven bread.
Gathas
written by Zoraster, five groups embedded in a larger collection liturgical hymns called the Yasna
the Hebrew Bibles
o Torah (teachings)o Nevi’m (early and later prophets)o Kethuwim (Miscellaneous writings or everything else)
Sinai
Mountain in wilderness of sinai penninsula, where torah was recieved.
Yavnah
city in palestine where rabbinical academy was established after temple destruction. the siddur and mishna were its products.
Zealots
The Zealots were basically a nationalistic movement, not a religious one. Committed mass suicide at Masada.
Yizkor
Memorial service for fallen martyrs and deceased parents said during Yom Kippur
Orthopraxy
Adherence to correct actions or practicesMore important in Judaism today than orthodoxy
Orthodoxy
Adherence to correct beliefs and doctrines
Hanukkah
Festival of lights, celebrates the Jewish victory over the Hellenization program of Antiochus IV
Eastern religions
primarily the religions originating in India (Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism) and China (Taoism, Confucianism)
Temple
first one built by King Solemon, temple becomes very much the identity and heart of the people
way of devotion-


cultivation of a personal relationship to “ultimate reality of wholehearted adoration, devotion surrender to its transforming grace and trust in its providential care
threshold


an entryway whereby one crosses the boundary from being outside the other world of a tradition to being inside it. 
Moses
Greatest of all prophets, lead jews out of egypt, leader through exodus
Zohar
Most important and influential book of Kabbalah. Composed by Moses de Leon. mystical commentary claiming to find profound esoteric meanings beneath every detail of the torah
eschatological 
Pertaining to the end of time. Apocalyptic
Revelation
communication by god to human beings that without this comm would not know about god. i.e. God and Moses and Sinai
Zion
the mountain on which jerusalem and the temple was built. Symbolic of the "promise land", where messiah is to begin his reign
Yavneh
Center of jewish learning after the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 CE
religion 


a system of symbols that functions religiously that participants use to draw near to and come into right or appropriate relationship with, what they deem to be the ultimate reality
Hebrew for: Hospitality
Hakhnasat OrkhimJews offer hospitality to one another. This extends to charity.(But don't stay longer that three days!)
Synagogue
After the destruction of the Temple, the synagogue became the main Jewish place of worship. Torah recitation and communal prayers were done here.
Ibn Gabirol
d. 1070Leader of the Rationalist movement
Mishna
a collection of laws covering every field in which rabbis have legal authority.
Sabbatians
a movement that believed that Rabbanic Judaism lacked religious depth. It had a strong messanic influence. They laid the foudations for later reforms.
Maccabees
were a Jewish rebel group who liberated Judea from Seleucid Empire. Their rule reasstered Jewish religion and they expanded boundaries reducing the influence of Hellenization.
Patriarch
Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are the Patriachs of the Jewish religion
Rabbi
after the Babylonian Diaspora, a new breed of religious intellectuals was formed. They were learned teachers who assembled to codify religious law
Numbers
The account of wandering of Jewish tribes at various places
Qumran
where the dead sea scrolls were found
Judaist
religious jew who identfies with and practices judaism as a religious faith
Essenes
The Essenes were an ascetic and mystical group devoted to strict discipline. They lived in isolation from the world. The Dead Sea Scrolls are believed to be the product of an Essene sect. Some scholars believe that early Christianity was influenced by the mystical and hermetical teachings of the Essenes.
Tanakh
Acronym for the three sections of  Torah, Nevi'im and Ketuvim, known as "the old testament" to christians.
Parve
Foods that are neither meat nor milk.  FIsh, eggs, vegtables and grains.
Pogrom
Organized riots which resulted in the murder of Jews and the pillaging of their homes and possessions
holiness of God
The awesome, infinite standard of righteousness, justice, and inward beauty that God in Western religions is understood both to set or establish and to be by his very being. This is a characteristic of "ultimate reality"
Jewish "Diaspora"
Religious people are spread out, don't have a central identity. 
Make own sacred space= passover
Ritual markers= circumcised 
David
the most loved and respected king of Israel.  2nd of 3 kings between 1002-962 BCE
scandal of particularity


the universal and eternal message of divine revelation is accessible only in and through the particular historical and culturally specific circumstances in which it is held to have originally been given.  Sometimes seems scandalous to outsiders 
Rabbinic Judaism 
Post destruction on 2nd temple. rabbis are masters of oral torah serve as religious leaders. Accept theory and practice of oral torah.  
threshold effect 


a change in the appearance and experience texture of religious symbols as one crosses the threshold of a tradition systems of symbols and enters the other world 
Aggadah
1 of 2 parts of oral torah. Specifically talks about 10 commandments, interpretation not as strict as Halakhah
Talk about circumcision
It is the oldest Jewish ritual.
Abraham was the first to be circumcised.
It is still current practice.
Benedict Spinoza said as long as Jews were circumcised, they would survive as a separate people.
During WWII, it was sometimes used by Nazis to determine Jewish identity.
Reform tried to abolish this during the 19th century, but this is no longer the case.
The symbolism is obscure. Maybe is symbolizes controlling the masculine sexual urge.
Apart form baby boys, male converts must also be circumcised. (If you're already circumcised, they just take a symbolic drop of blood.)
(Christianity doubtlessly gained more converts by dropping the requirement for circumcision).
There are many jokes about the mohel - the man who performs circumcisions.
Life Cycle, Telushkin section 320
Talmud
the Talmud is the commentary of the Mishna.
Exilarch
refers to the leaders of the Diaspora community after exile by the Babylonian Empire.
Jeremiah
one of the prophets of the Hebrew Bible and author of the Book of Lamentations. God appointed him to confront Judah and Jerusalem for violating the covenant.
Tenakh
a name for the Hebrew Bible in Rabbanic Judaism. The Tenakh consists of 24 books.
Haskalah
a movement in the late 18th century that advocated adopting englightment values, better integration into European society and increased education in secular studies. Marked the beginning of a wider engagment in secular world.
The Babylonian Talmud
• A large collection of material compiled by Babylonian scholars and specialists, the modern edition of which is complied by Rabbi Adin Steinsalz
Gemara
commentary on the Mishnah. Part of the talmud.
Bat Mitzvah
equivalent of bar mitzvah for girls, only in Reform and Conservative congregations
Chuppah
SImilar to wedding altar.  A tent to consimate.  Symbol of Jewish Home.
Shofar
The ram's horn, sounded 100 times on Rosh Hashanah and again to end Yom Kippur
Minyan
Ten males (if orthodox) or ten males or females (conservative/reform)This group is required for certain prayers
eschatological
Pertaining to the end of history as we know it, sometimes spoken as the end of time
 
cosmic judgment of persons in relation to the expectations of God
Northern Kingdom
1st to get conquered becomes the "lost tribes"
Sinai (Moses)
lead people of slavery from Egypt. God revealed to Moses the first 5 books of the Bible. Settled at Sidon, must follow 613 rules
Yom Kippur
We need God close, God preference is not permanent. Every time there is a sin in the community God is pushed further away
**Today, sacrifices are replaced by prayers. Trying to transform yourself into what will make God happy.
test of neutrality 


purpose is to twest how well one’s interpretation is disengaged from the expression of one’s own personal attitude, orientation and judgment toward the phenomena
Yom Kippur War
In october 1973 syrian and egyptian forces launched a surprise attack on israel on Yom Kippur.  
Pentateuch
the name of the first five books of the Old Testament
Thereafter comes David (1013)
o Considered a prototype king of Jewso Had great aspiration to build the temple of Jerusalem
Halakah
one of 2 parts of oral torah, having to do with commandments and their implications for jewish life
Modern Orthodox
Try to keep all the commandments while still living in the modern world25%
Biblical Patriarchs
God chose to communicate with only one nation, the descendants of Abraham.  Abraham is the father of Isaac, father of Jacob (Israel) who fathered 12 sons. 
Nomads who followed their flock
Worshipped one God
Worshipped by burning animal sacrifices
Circumcision of all males
way of shamanic mediation
reaching a high state of spritiual understanding through altering your state of mind and meditation 
test of empathy 
purpose is to test how well one’s interpretation has captured and conveyed an insider’s perspective
Hebrew: Human predilection for evil, good
Yetzer ha-tov, yetzer ha-raJokingly: "I have a real yetzer ha-ra for chocolate"
Dead Sea Scrolls
The Dead Sea scrolls consist of about 900 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves by the Dead Sea, include some of the only known surviving copies of Biblical documents made before 100 BC and preserve evidence of late Second Temple Judaism. They are written in Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek, generally date between 150 BCE to 70 CE.
Hashem
"The Name" used by some Jews as way of not saying the sacred name.
Jewish view of God?
God is a very sacred concept, don't even say his name.
No images of God can be made
God of Jewish bible is very dynamic.
public education religion studies  
the secular study of religion that does not endorse nor diminish the religion. An objective study about religion
Hebrew for: Mitzvot between people and God
Mitzvot bein Adam le-makom.Ritual laws. They regulate our behavior towards God.Example: Observation of the Sabbath.
Essentials of Jewish Belief
• Belief in one God and only one God.o He is the creator of the universeo The judge of human beingso Hi is justo According to Judaism, justice must prevail among human beings and we as humans must strive to establisho Belief in the message of prophets.o Belief that God gave law to Moses.o Belief that Messiah has yet to come. (Messiah means one whose hair is anointed by olive oil)o There would be a resurrection in the world to come.
The "Redemption" of a firstborn male
It is called "Pidyon haben",  i.e. "redemption of the firstborn."
A firstborn male (determined by the mother) is dedicated to God and is supposed to perform rituals
Life CycleTelushkin section 320
the Temple (first and second)
place in jerusalem where god chose to be worshiped by means of sacrificial rituals. center of jewish life until last destruction in 70 CE
Talk about Jewish Charity. What is the Hebrew term?
1. Hebrew: Tzedaka, feminine of Tzedek, "justice."2. One who does not give, is acting unjustly. His action is not only mean-spririted, but also illegal.3. It's better to give a tithe grudgingly than to give a couple of bucks with tears in your eyes.
Hebrew term: Legal cases where life is at stake.Name the three exceptions, when life is at stake, where the law is NOT suspended.
Pikuakh Nefesh.1. You are not allows to murder someone to save your life (except self defense).2. You may not commit idolatry to save your life.3. You may not commit perverse sexual acts to save your life.
Expand on the law in Lev. 19:14: "Do not put a stumbling block in a blind man's parth."
This does not only refer to the unlikely situation in the title, but also to all cases where one person has a means to "blind" someone other, for example by having insider trading information which gives him an unfair advantage over others.Or: Untruthfully telling a woman you love her in order to have sex.
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