Constitution Quiz Flashcards

Terms Definitions
instead of
or single-chamber
Article 6
Supremacy Clause
Jonathan Dayton
youngest delegate
Article VII
Ratification Procedures
amendment 7
civil trials
President citizenship
natural born; naturalized
us v salerno
preventative detention
Federalists and Anti-Federalists: arguments for & against ratification of Constitution
Amendment 26
voting age 18
who holds impeachment trials?
Article 2
Creates the executive branch
When was the constitution signed?
popular sovereignty
people rule the government
formalizes presidential succession
1. president
2. v president
3. speaker of the house
4. president protem
Executive Branch
Carries out the laws
guarantees the right to vote
a change (to our constitution)
Judicial Branch
-declares executive actions unconstitutional
-interprets laws and treaties
-declares laws passed by congress unconstitutional
Where was the Constitutional Convention held?
Philadelphia, PA
When was the first amendment written?
A constitutional arrangement in which sovereign nations or sates, by compact, create a central government but carefully limit its power and do not give it direct authority over individuals
process by which immigrants become citizens
Senators elected directly by popular vote
Gives State of The Union Address
what fraction of state legislatures must ratify amendments?
sixth amendment
the constitutional amendment designed to protect individuals accused of crimes. It includes the right to counsel, the right to confront witnesses, and the right to a speedy and public trial.
Has the power to declare war
Which section in the Constitution gives Congress the power to pass laws "necessary and proper" to fulfill its other duties?
elastic clause
an introduction to a constitution or legal document
Who is the Governor of Massachusetts?
Deval Patrick
fair and speedy trial
right to be notified of accusations
able to obtain witnesses
right to have council
when was the current IL. const. adopted
District, Federal, Supreme Courts
represents the judicial branch
make laws
job of legislative branch or senate
what plan at the Philadelphia Convention favored large states favored because it wanted representation based on population
Virginia Plan
Article 5
ammeding of the constitution, senate is equal representaion
delegated powers
powers specifically given to the federal government by the Constitution
Virginia plan
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
Articles of confederation
First constitution of the U.S.A.
The redrawing of a political district to favor a particular candidate or kind of candidate, e.g. an incumbent, a member of a particular political party or a racial minority.
Seperation of Laws
spilt authority between legislative, evecutive, and judical
electoral college
the body of electors who formally elect the United States president and vice-president
a group of people who differ racially or politically from a larger group of which it is a part
What part of government has to approve Justice appointments?
National Government
enumerated powers - can declare war, have an army, coin money, regulate interstate, and international trade
a division of power between the states and the national government
A prisoner cannot be detained long without a trial. that trial is listed under:
Habeas Corpus
Inherent powers
The powers of the national government in foreign affairs that the Supreme Court has declared do not depend on constitutional grants but rather grow out of the very existence of the national government.
Each state in the U.S. is guaranteed this number of senate.
Shay's Rebellion
an uprising in which farmers closed down the courts in Massachusetts. Showed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
limited government
government may do only those things that the poeple have given it the power to do
Founding Fathers
refers to the fifty-five delegates to the Constitutional Convention who drafted the Consitution of the U.S.
Domestic Affairs
events that occur with in the nation
living constitution
to make changes to the constitution and live by them.
alien of sedition acts
laws passed by the federalist-democratic congress to protect the gov from treasonous ideas, actions and people used against members of democratic republican party.
Expressed powers
powers that Congress has that are specifically listed in the Constitution
supremacy clause
laws made by national gov. override state laws
10th Amendment
Powers not delegated to the federal government or prohibited by the Constitution are reserved to the states
7 Articles
The Constitution is divided into this many articles?
Constitutional Monarchy
If the constitution of the ruler makes rules and dictates the land, what kind of government is it?
Richard Cheney
Who is the Vice President of the United States of America?
The purpose of the Constitution
What does the Preamble state?
What are the qualification requirements for the Supreme Court Justice? How long is the term?
Age: None, Citizenship: None, Residency: None, Term length: Life (Basically the requirements here are to be a well-respected and experienced enough judge to be nominated by the president for the position)
A2 S2 C2
The President can make treaties and appoint ambassadors and judges with the Senate's approval.
Amendment 20
Lame Duck -- shortened the period of time between presidential election and inauguration
Civil Rights Movement
What movement tried to end racial discrimination?
implied powers
powers that congress has that are not stated explicitly in the constitution
equal rights
The 14th Amendment was passed for the benefit of former slaves after the Civil War. Since the immigrants, women and homosexuals have used it to guarantee themselves what?
24th amendment
abolition of poll taxes (u dont have to pay to vote)
No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.
New Jersy Plan
William Paterson, a delegate from New Jersey, proposed an apportionment plan on behalf of the small states that would allow each state to have one vote in a unicameral Congress.
The Fifth Amendment...
Protects a citizen's right to not testify against themselves.
Unalienable Rights
Rights thought to be passed on nature and providence rather than on the preferences of people.
Election Restrictions
Not allowed to vote for president and vice president from the same state
Marbury vs. Madison (1803)
1st time court declared a law unconstitutional (judiciary act of 1789)
Checks and balances
Each branch can check or limit the powers of the others.
defire seperation of powers
powers of govt should be divided between & given to different branches
The Enlightenment
also known as the Age of Reason, a philosophical movement in eighteenth-century Western though based on a belief of reason and the capacities of individuals, a faith in a scientific approach to knowledge, and a confidence in human progress
is it illegal for a state to pass a bill of attainder?
4th Amendment
The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized.
Article I, Section 5(3)
neither house can adjourn for more than 3 days without approval of other house
Which branch of government is our system?
What are some of its main duties?
Interpret laws and administer justice
House of Representative
- 25 years old.
- Term is 2 years.
- Serves an unlimited # of terms (as long as elected).
When are General Elections held?
First Tuesday after first Monday each November
Commander in Chief
the president is the head of all armed forces
Rights guaranteed by first amendment
freedom of speech, religion, press and to assemble peacefully
Who is the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court?
John G. Roberts, Jr.
Raymond Motor Company v. Rice 1980
~ Wisconsin statute allows WI trucks of a certain length but not out of state trucks of a certain length to use the highways to promote safety and road quality.
~ SC says not much safety is increased and there is a substantial burden on interstate commerce, so the law is unConstitutional under the balancing test.
Vote and run for office
What are two rights only for U.S citizens?
What case decided Judicial Review?
Marbury v. Madison was the first time the Supreme Court declared something "unconstitutional," and established the concept of judicial review in the U.S
What does the Supremacy Clause mean?
the federal govt, federal laws, are supreme to any other law (supreme to state laws)
What was the quartering act
It was when the colonists HAD to host british soldiers at their house.
Early in our nation's history, why were some concerned about the presidential veto
Congress failed to override a single presidential veto until 1841.
What amendment limits pres terms to two terms?yr
22nd Amendment 1951, FDR served 16 years
What was the 3/5th Compromise?
It said that 5 slaves only count as 3 peoples for the population count
Why is it addressed to King George and not to Parliament?
They didn't feel Parliament had jurisdiction over them
How does Article One of the State of Illinois COnstitution protect its citizens?

Can not be discriminated agains because of race or religion
All people have basic civil rights
Police and courts must follow proper procedures
What do the President and Executive Branch make sure of?
They make sure that the laws are being enforced
Why was the system of Checks and Balances designed?
to ensure that no branch got too much power
Chief Justice?
a count
amendment 13
Slavery Abolished
right to vote
no titles of
Who/When/Where Created
Constitutional Convention
executive powers
appoints new justices
Borrow money on credit
legislative branch
makes the laws
Meaning of bicameral
Two houses
article 3
establishes the supreme court
Article 1
Legislative - Making Laws
Who approves appointments the President make to the Supreme Court?
relating to strongly critical, controversial, or disputatious writing or speech
House of Representatives
2 year terms
Article 3 Section 1
Federal courts
How many Justices are there?
Simple majority needed to conduct business
supporters of the stronger central gov't who supported the ratification of the Constitution
People who rule over court cases.
Bill of Rights
The 1st 10 amendments
a detailed, written plan for goverment
Amendment 19
Women's Suffrage: this amendment extended the vote to all qualified women in federal and state elections
Total members of the Supreme Court
Pertaining to a country's internal affairs
Article I, Section 10
limits on states
What does Article VII discuss?
Ratifying the Constitution
Where is our closest federal District Court?
15th Amendment
Civil rights amendment, former slaves have the right to vote.
5 amendment
dont have to testify against yourself
Amendment 8
Guarantees freedom from excessive bail and crul and unusual punishment
amm. 25
VP becomes president when president dies
What does the 3rd Amendment protect?
Quartering Soldiers
a legislature consisting of two parts, or houses
number of electoral votes needed to win for President
6 year term
2 senators from each state
30 years of age
9 years a citizen of united states
inhabitant of state represented
article 1
alexander hamilton
had served as washington's personal secretary. despised the articles of confederation and believed the only remedy was a strong, central government.
formally charge a public official with misconduct in office
Article II
deals with the presidency, outlining its organization, terms, qualifications, powers and emthod of selection
how many justices, includine the chief justice, are on the supreme court
27th Amendment
regulates pay raises for members of Congress
all tax bills must arise in which branch of the government- where specifically?
Illinois Constitution
Includes: Preamble, 14 articles, and a bill of rights
Powers of Executive Branch
Signs Laws; Enforces Laws; Commander-In-Chief of Military
Civil War Amendments
the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments
The number of representatives in a state is determined by?
the population
are there any term limits for the presidency
The Great Compromise
More populated states (Virginia Plan) wanted there to be proportional representation, but the smaller states (New Jersey plan) wanted equal representation
Solution: Made a bicameral congress3 where there is the house of representatives which has proportional representation, and made the senate which has equal representation
When a President disagrees with a bill that Congress has passed
Reserved Powers
Powers given to the state government alone.
True/False - all citizens of the U.S. have to vote?
9th Amendment
Citizens entitled to rights not listed in the Constitution (not part of notes)
Pocket Veto:
If the Congress adjourns before ten days have passed since the passage of a bill, the President can allow the legislation to die simply by failing to sign it
Connecticut Compromise
Compromise agreement by states at the Constitutional Convention for a bicameral legislature with a lower house in which representation would be based on population and an upper house in which each state would have two senators.
Who was the president of the Constitutional convention?
George Washington
Lewis and Clark explored new land west of the Mississippi River during his presidency
Thomas Jefferson
Consitutional Convention
• Met in summer of 1787
• All states represented—except Rhode Island
• Men of wealth (property owners) and experience
• Met in Philadelphia, Pa. for "... the sole and express purpose of
revising the Articles of Confederation"
• Took oath of silence, only James Madison was to take notes.
• Anti-federalists leaders refused to attend...this allowed federalists to
craft the document.
to take away the right to own property because the owner is unable to make payments
13. Who has the power to propose amendments to the U.S. Constitution? (answer is in Article 5)
The congress
who elects the president of the united states?
electoral college
What was the small States Plan referred to as?
New Jersey Plan.
How many members make up the House of Representatives
Confederation Congress
Most power rested here in the system of government created by the Articles of Confederation
Who has the power to remove the president from office?
the senate
Bills of Rights
added to state constitution that told the rights of state citizens
exec's check on judicial
can appoint judges and grant pardon
In the process of law making what power does the Judicial branch have over the other 2 branches?
Judicial Review
Nine states must ratify this for it to take effect.
judicial and executive branches:
members are expelled via impeachment by a separate branch of government (congress)
what does the justice department oversee?
enforces the US government laws
Treaty of Greenville
A treaty signed with the Indians in 1795 where the Indians gave up most of the land that is modern day Ohio.
Neutrality Proclamation of 1793
Shortly after the French and British fought, Washington claimed gov's neutrality and warned the citizens to be neutral too. The country was really weak and if they went to war, it would bring disaster. Enraged the Jeffersonians.
First Ten Amendments
Bill of Rights: civil liberties of the people
What is the length of term for Senate Officers?
6 years
Writ of habeas corpus
A court order requiring explanation to a judge why a prisoner is being held in custody.
Supreme Court justices are
APPOINTED by the PRESIDENT with 2/3 vote of the Senate
Congress and President approve of resolution:
to create a state Constitution
Short term in House:
ensures members of House must remain in close contact with people they represent
how is the membership of the US House of Reps determined?
by population
whats the main duty of the judicial branch?
to interpret the laws
the first govering document of the US was
the articls of confederation
___ protects the right to a trial by jury in a civil case
the 7th amendment
The state of IL has the responsibility for providing _____________ ____________ education and that that elementary school through high school is _________. This is based upon the ___________.
High Quality, Free, State
second group of senators:
will be up for re-election after 4 years
State of the Union Address
3rd week January, to a joint session of Congress, the president sets the legislative agenda and updates Congress and the country on the state of affairs
Who determines the time, place, and manner of holding elections for Senator and Representative?
State Legislature (Congress may alter as feels fit)
Brown v Board of Education
Case that overturned a case in which people are unequal?
In the Federalist, No.10. James Madison discusses his preference for a..
Republic form of government as remedy for his mischiefs of faction.
Article Two is about which branch of government?
the President -- Executive Branch
25 years old
how old do you have to be to be a representative
Federal courts try what kinds of cases?
ones that involve US laws, treaties with foreign nations, or interpretations of the constitution, bankruptcy, etc.
States are forbidden to engage in war unless:
actually invaded or in eminent danger
Amendment 22: Section 1: Terms of Office of the President
No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President, when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.
What does the word "appeal" mean?
To apply to a higher court to change the decision of a lower court
Art. 1 Sect. 3 Clause 4: President of the Senate
The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.
Who votes when there is a tie in the Senate?
Vice President (Main officer of the United States Senate)
Lived in US for 14 years and must be born in US.
How long must you have lived in the US and where must you be born to be President?
against Federalism
appoints ambassadors
Charles Schumer
NYS Senator
Makes laws
Legislative (1)
less expeditious debate
president pro tempore
Robert Byrd
Voting age is 18
JULY 4, 1776
Each Senator
has 1 vote
admiral Mullins
cheif of naval operations
president's ability to postpone someone's punishment
amendment 21
repeal of 18th amendment
must be at least 30
Focus of Article II
The Executive Branch
terms of office for house
2 years
Current number of representatives in the House of Representatives
Amendment 10
Powers Reserved to the States
Election of President and Vice President(Electoral college)
the ceremonial induction into a position
The constitutional convention was held where?
Amendment Thirteen
Abolition of slavery- Slavery is outlawed throughout the U.S. (Amendment Thi)
Wilderness Road
An early street across the Applications, between western Virginia and eastern Kentucky
Unwritten Constitution
Political practices that are followed, but are not part of the actual Constitution. Examples include political parties, judicial review, and the Presidential Cabinet.
Senate chooses its officers and its president pro tempore in the VP's absence
Montesquieu's separation of powers" theory
Checks and Balances
July 4
When do we celebrate Independence Day?
Americans who remained loyal to the British
A bill can start where (1 word)
3 branches of government:
Legislative, executive, and judicial.
someone who believes in a strong government
body of gov't must approve treaties made by the president
24th Amendment (1964)
prohibited states from requiring payment of a poll tax as a conditon for voting in federal elections
civil rights
rights to personal liberty established by the 13th and 14th Amendments to the U.S. Constitution and certain Congressional acts
Rhode Island
state that did not attend the constitutional convention
minimun # needed to do business
A quorum is
How many justices are there in the supreme court?
3rd amendment
people don't have to quarter soldiers in their homes
Shays' Rebellion
What rebellion took place after the revolution as a result of debts owed by farmers?
Article 4
Relations among states (full faith and credit and guaranteed rights to citizens)
Elastic Clause
a statement in the U.S. Constitution (Article I, Section 8) granting Congress the power to pass all laws necessary and proper for carrying out the enumerated list of powers.
the cheif justice is appointed for a term of
the thing that is set aside for someone, especially money
James Madison
developed the Virginia Plan which held the supremacy of Natural Rights.
eminent domain
what is power of governemnet over property that they plan to use for public service and must pay a fair price
Article I, Section 3(5):
senate chooses its other officers
individual rights
basic liberties and rights of all citizens are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights
Beard's thesis
The constitution was created in part by the framers in order to increase the economic gains of the personal factions to which they belonged.
Rule of Law
government and its officers are always subject to-never above- the law
Separation of Powers
basic principle of American system of government, that the executive, legislative, and judicial powers are divided among three independent and coequal branches of government
what was the government called which ran the country before the constitution was adopted?
articles of confederation
Northwest Ordinance
a plan to make the territories under the Treaty of Paris actual states
political whims
a constitutional gov. is a gov. of laws not of _______
Election of the President
Members of political parties vote for
Senators are elected by
all the people in the state
How long is a Supreme Court Justices term?
For life
How can an amendment to the constitution be proposed?
By national convention
7th amendment
civil suits -- jury trial in many civil cases
How many amendments are there to the Constitution?
27 amendments
Judicial Review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
artical 3 of the constitution is about the _____ branch
judicial branch
6th Amendment
Right to a speedy and fair trial and right to counsel
What is the main duty of the legislative branch?
To make laws
scherber v california
balance rights of society w/ those of individuals
all bills involving revenue must originate in the
house of representatives more spacificly the legislative branch
declarations passed in 1798 and 1799 that claimed that each state has the right to decide whether a federal law is constitutional
This body of government can impeach a president, supreme court justice or federal judge
House of Representatives
Rule of Law
That the law is followed by everyone and nobody is above the law.
How does Constitution stipulate vacancies in House of Reps be filled?:
Constitution's Article I, Section 2(4) requires vacancies in H.O.R be filled by election, all states require special elections to fill any House seat which becomes vacant during 1st session of a Congress
two shared powers
to lay and collect taxes & borrow money
Problems of the Articles of Confederation
state's money is worthless; states will not pay their taxes; debt amasses
Great (Connecticut) Compromise
Number of House of Reps for each state depend upon their population, Number of Senators = 2 for all states
What was the Virginia Plan?
Each state had their delegates based on population
What are the contents of the 15th amendment?
All races have suffrage
How is the president elected?
Vote of the people, ELECTORAL COLLEGE. There are 538 electors (100 senators + 435 representatives + 3 from D.C). NEED 270 to winn. WInner take all set-up
What type of men were NOT represented by the delegates at the constitutional convention?
common men + british men
Clause 7 - What happens to the convicted in cases of impeachment?
removal from Office; disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust, or Profit under the United States; liability to be subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law
What important issue was not settled during the convention?
Whether or not to outlaw slavery
How do state and local governments affect our lives?
they setup infrastructure such as fire, police stations, post offices
What is the nickname given to the Supreme Court?
" the court of last resort"
Why did Maryland refuse to adopt the Articles of Confederation?
wanted claimed lands between the Allegheny Mountains and the MIssissippi River be given back to Congress
Who has the power to propose a law to raise taxes?
The House of Representative
Article VII defines Constitution as:
law of the land upon ratification by 9 of the existing 13 states
Amendment 12: Clause 2: Choosing the President and Vice President (Electoral College Amendment)
The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;
What are two ways that amendments can be ratified?
approved by 3/4 state legislatures OR approved by 3/4 state conventions
Art. 1 Sect. 8 Clause 7: Post offices and post roads
To establish Post Offices and Post Roads;
What are the qualifications for being US Senator?
minimum age of 30, citizen of US for 9 years, must live in the state they represent, term of office is 6 years
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