Consumer Behavior 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Personality Traits
A person’s conscience
typical projetctive tests
picture interpretation
brand-as-person test
brand-as-an-animal-or-thing test
use-experience test
decision process test
brand-user test
how-brand-is-different test
performance risk
will the product perform?
Late Adopters
consumers are mainstream public
forgetting in conditional learning since the desired response decays or dies out if learning is not repeated and reinforced
Celebrity represents the brand or company over an extended period of time
Truth-in-Advertising Laws
protect consumers from false advertisements
cognitive age
an individual’s perceived age (usually 10 to 15 years younger than his or her chronological age)
Family Branding
an application of stimulus generalization when a product capitalizes on the reputation of its manufacturer's name
process whereby a product formerly associated with a specific ethnic group is detached from its roots and marketed to other subcultures
message execution
combination of strategies through which the message is implemented
Sleeper Effect
the tendency for persuasive communications to lose the impact of source credibility over time (i.e. the influence of a message from a high credibility source tends to decrease over time; the influence of a message from a low credibility source tends to increase over time
Gender Roles
behaviors considered appropriate for males and females in a given society
Projective Techniques
motivation research; designed to provide information on latent motives; ex: word associations, sentence completion, tell a story
process of leaning the beliefs and behaviors endoresed by one's own culture
Consumer-Action Group
provides consumers with assistance in their effort to make the right purchase decisions, consumer products and services in a healthy and responsibly manner, and generally add to the overall quality of their lives
Institutional Advertising
advertising designed to promote a favorable company image rather than specific products
choices made with little/no conscious effort
Transformative Consumer Research
promotes research projects that include the goal of helping people or bringing about social change
Associative Network
a memory system that organizes individual units of information according to some set of relationships; may include such concepts as brands, manufacturers, and stores
the desire to satisfy a biological need in order to reduce physiological arousal
Consideration Set
the products a consumer actually deliberates about choosing
the process of learning the beliefs and behaviors endorsed by another culture
a norm people handed down that controls basic behaviors, such as a division of labor
reinforcement schedule
schedule of rewards or punishments used for learning
dislike change, are suspicious of new products and ideas, and will accept innovations only when forced to do so
- usually older
Corporate Culture
the organizational culture of a business firm
Elaborative Activities
the use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information; serve to redefine or add new elements to memory
The Motivation Process
Need creates tensionTension creates drive to reduce/eliminate needDesired end state = consumer’s goalProducts/services provide desired end state and reduce tension
consumer behavior
the study of th eprocesses involved when indidviduals or groups select, purchase, use or dispose of products, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy needs and desires
Adoption Process
the stages through which an individual consumer passes in arriving at a decision to try to continue using a new product. the five stages of the traditional adoption process are awareness, interest, evaluation, trial, and adoption
Symbolic Group
a group with which an individual identifies by adopting its values, attitudes, or behavior despite the unlikelihood of future membership
combining a play on words with a relevant picture
nationality subcultures
subcultures in a larger society in which members often retain a sense of identification and pride in the language and customs of their ancestors
Autonomic Decision
when one family member chooses a product for the whole family
product information in the form of a story
Sock Puppeting
a company executive or other biased source poses as some one else to tout his organization in social media
the belief in the superiority of ones' own country's practices and products
Social Mobility
the movement of individuals from one social class to another
a myth that is common to many cultures
behavior analysis
focuses on how learning can be modified through incentives and offers, counteroffers, and other forms of rewards and punishments
relationship between marketers and consumers in the marketplace often resembles a negotiation
it may seem that marketers hold the cards because it is their intention to change the consumer's ________
the consumer always hold the trump card: choice
brand knowledge
don't just know brand name; know specific benefits that the brand provides
Extended Family
a household consisting of a husband, wife, offspring, and at least one other blood relative
Consumer-to-Consumer Sale
occurs when one customer sells a product directly to another with or without the assistance of a commercial intermediary; ex: garage sales, swap meets, etc
Adopter Categories
bell curve of adoptions of an innovator over time; innovators, early adopters, early majority, late majority, then laggards
McGuire's Psychological Motives
system to help marketers isolate motives likely to be involved in various consumption situations
cognitive preservation motives: need for consistency, attribution, categorize, objectification
cognitive growth motives: need for autonomy, stimulation, teleological need, utilitarian
affective preservation motives: need for tension reduction, expressions, ego defense, reinforcement
affective growth motives: need for assertion, affiliation, identification, modeling
Social Comparison:
A process by which consumers evaluate themselves by comparing themselves with others (particularly comparisons with idealized images of people in advertising)
Diffusion of Innovation
the framework for exploring the spread of consumer acceptance of new products throughout the social system
3 crucial variables for ELM
involvement, argument strength, source characteristics
What is self congruence?
The overlap between ideal/actual self and the product
a sign that is connected to a product because they share some property
Consumer Hyperchoice
a condition where the large number of available optionsforces us to make repeated choices that drain psychological energy and diminish our ability to make smart decisions
Cultural Categories
the grouping of ideas and values that reflect the basic ways members of a society characterize the world
cultural relativism
when a person views or judges any behavior, value, or norm within its own social and cultural setting
brand-user test
this test is a simple procedure in which subjects are asked to describe the typical brand user
Unplanned Purchases
purchases made in a retail outlet that are different from those the consumer planned to make prior to entering that retail outlet
Brand Equity
the value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product; reputation of the brand by economic value
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Personality results from the clash of 3 forces - the id, the ego, and the superego
Problem Recognition
- occurs when a buyer becomes aware of a difference between a desired state and an actual condition
Freudian Theories of Personality
much of one's adult personality stems from a fundamental conflict b/w a person's desire to gratify her physical needs and the necessity to function as a responsible member of societywe r ruled by 4 conscious levels:1. Id (immediate gratification)(opeartes according to:2. Pleasure Principle(our basic desire to max pleasure and avoid pain guides our behavior)3. Superego(works to prevent the id from seeking selfish gratification)4. Ego(mediates/works for a balance between the Id & the SuperEgo)
What are positive and negative consequences of enduring involvement?
Positive: Rewards of participation, social benefits, expertise, recognition
Negative: Time & spending, hobby replaces job, product stress
high power distance culture
those where the difference in power between the most and least powerful individuals or groups is great
Cognitive Learning Theory
a theory of learning based on mental information processing, often in response to problem solving
Perceptual defense:
People see what they want to see - and don’t see what they don’t want to see
What is undifferentiated segmentation?
All buyers are put into one segment and targeted in the same way
How can the link between attitudes and buying be weakened?
-Vagueness of attitude measured
-Impulse buying
-Situational factors
Five Steps for Addressing Situational Factors
1) discover the various usage situations that influence the consumption of the product
2) survey a larger sample of consumers to better understand & quantify how the product is used & the benefits sought in the usage situation by the market segment
3) construct a person-situation segmentation matrix
4) evaluate each cell in terms of potential
5) develop & implement a marketing strategy for those cells that offer sufficient profit potential given your capabilities
perceptual defense
-if it is in line with the way we feel we tend to embrace it-if its agasint, we tend to ignore that idea
using reliable and valid measures of consumer behavior constructs
- once consumer researchers identify the appropriate consumer behavior model to use to guide their reserach, they select reliable and valid measures of the constructs inherent in the selected models
- researchers typically do this by conducting a review of the literature to identify reliable and valid measures that have been published in scientific journals related to consumer behavior
- quantitative - can't sample 2 people, sample a group
PRIZM (Potential Rating Index by Zip Market):
Classifies every U.S. Zip Code into one of 62 categoriesRankings in terms of income, home value, and occupation on a ZQ (Zip Quality) Scale Categories range from most affluent “Blue-Blood Estates” to the least well-off “Public Assistance”Different clusters exhibit different consumption patterns
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