Consumer Behavior Exam Cards Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Brand Personality
how one lives
source credibility
two essential components
 source credibility affects consumer persuasion through the process of internalization
time poverty
feeling pressed for time
outsiders transform their original meanings
Emotional Elements
environmental events, physiological changes, cognitive thought, behaviors, subjective feelings
the learning of one's own culture
Brand Loyalty
consumers’ consistent preference and /or purchase of the same brand in a specific product or service category
anything that stands for something else
the process of retrieving information from memory; in advertising research the extent to which consumers can remember a marketing message without being exposed to it during the study
consumers who derive pleasure from large-scale purchasing
short-term memory
transmitted from sensory memory, information is first analyzed and assigned meaning in _____-_____ ________
basic concept that increases the strength of the association between a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus and slows the process of forgetting
Cause/Social Marketing
the application of marketing principles and tactics to advance a cause, such as a charity, and ideology, or an activity; benefits a cause without glamour to the product
turning the sound off during commercial breaks
process of learning the value system and behaviors of another culture (often to understand consumers and markets in foreign countries)
Single-Variable Index
uses one socioeconomic variable to evaluate social-class membership
learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object
attraction effect
occures b/c the inferior vbrand increases the attractiveness of the doninant brand
Popular Culture
the music, movies, sports, books, celebrities, and other forms of entertainment consumed by the mass market
Subliminal Perception
the processing of stimuli presented below the level of the consumer's awareness
Cult Products
items that command fierce consumer loyalty and devotion
Search Engines
softwaare that helps consumers access information based upon their specific requests
groups that form around a strong shared identification with an activity or art form
a set of multiple, symbolic behaviors that occurs in a fixed sequence and is repeated periodically
forward conditioning
occurs when the conditioned stimulus is presented first, followed by the unconditioned stimulus
picture interpretation
involves presenting subjects with a pictures of a scene in which the brand is somewhat embedded in the picture
Ongoing Search
done to acquire information for possible later use and because the process itself is pleasurable; ex: individuals highly involed in tennis are apt to seek information about tennis-related products constantly without a recognized problem with their existing equipment
the process managers use to manipulate the physical retail environment to create specific mood responses in shoppers; important online and is receiving increasing attention from marketers
Comparative Ads
directly compare the features or benefits of two or more brands
consumption at the low end of involvement
a person who identifies a need or desire, makes a purchase, and then disposes of the product during the stages of the consumption process
Discontinuous Innovation
a dramatically new product entry that requires the establishment of new consumption practices
Opinion Leaders
a person who informally gives product information and advice to others
fear appeals
use only a moderate threat or consumers will tune it out
gender subcultures
gender roles are an important cultural component and require products that are either exclusively or strongly associated with the members of one sex
Accommodative Purchase Decision
the process of using bargaining, coercion, compromise, and the weilding of power to achieve agreement among group members who have different preferences or priorities
Product Line Extension
related products to an established brand
Social Judgment Theory
the perspective that people assimilate new information about attitude objects in light of what they already know or feel; the initial attitude acts as a frame of reference and new information is categorized in terms of this standard
Perceived Risk
belief that a product has potentially negative consequences
Status Hierarchy
a ranking of social desirability in terms of consumers' access to resources such as money, education, and luxury goods
the way a system adapts to it habitat
value a sense of belonging, being well respected, and security
early adopters
are more sensitive to reference group values and norms
someone paid to give an endorsement or testimonial, even if they do not actually approve of the product
Buying Centers
individuals from various areas of the firm (accounting, engineering, marketing) who meet specifically to make a purchase decision
a segment of a larger culture whose members share distinguishing values and patterns of behavior
Laddering/Means-End/Benefit Chain
a popular tool for identifying motives beyond projective techniques; identifying benefits of benefits until no addtional ones are able to be identified
Purchase Situation Involvement
Differences that may occur when buying the same object for different contexts
Cross-Cultural Consumer Research
research methods designed to find the similarities and differences among consumers in a marketer's domestic market and those it wants to target in a foreign country
- Single trait theories
emphasize one personality trait as being particularly relevant to understanding a particular set o f behaviors
What is relationship marketing?
Interacting with customers on a regular basis and giving them reasons to maintain a bond with the company over time
Differential Threshold
the ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences among stimuli
Habitual Decision Making
choices made with little or no conscious effort
Cultural Formula
a sequence of media events in which certain roles and props tend to occur consistently
social class
a status hierarchy by which groups and individuals are classified on the basis of esteem and prestige- people feel most comfortable when they are with others who are, in general, much like themselves in behavior, values, occupation group, and wealth- basic unit of a ______ ____ scheme is not the individual but the family or household
right to a healthful environment
the Envinronmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets and regulates policies to protect the environment
Relative Importance
a large discrepancy that exists in a problem and the cosumer may not proceed to information search if the problem is small
Attribute Framing
where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame; positive framing yields the most positive evaluations because it emphasizes the desirable aspects of the specific attribute
Differential Threshold:
The ability of a sensory system to detect changes or differences between two stimuli. The minimum difference that can be detected between two stimuli is known as the j.n.d. (just noticeable difference).
Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM)
theory that suggests that a person’s level of involvement during message processing is a critical factor in determining which route to persuasion is likely to be effective. Goes with Central/peripheral routes to persuasion
implications of perception for marketing
help us understand positioning and coming up with a positioning strategy-----positioning strategy-->fundamental part of a company's marketing efforts as it uses the differen elements of the marketing mix (product-price-placement-promotion, etc) to influence consumers' interpretation of its meaning
What is BIRG and CORF?
Basking In Reflected Glory
Cut Off Reflected Failure
baby boomers
- born between 1946 and 1964- buy more and save less- highly education, less likely to marry, health conscious- 2 distinct boomer segments by age, plus "yuppies"- prolonged adolescence- marketplace behavior: less materialistic; show concern for the environment; some still purchase status brands- marketing to them: nostalgia works well; "retro revival" in candy and toys; relaxed-fit jeans and bifocal eyeglasses
Foot In The Door Technique
theory of attitude change that suggests individuals form attitudes that are consistent with their own prior behavior
Reality principle:
The ego finds ways to gratify the id that will be acceptable to the outside world
What are the advantages and disadvantages of primary research?
+: collected specifically for your purpose, tailored to problem
-: costly, takes time

What is perceptual selection?
People only pay attention to a small portion of stimuli to which they are exposed
Consumer Bill of Rights
1) Right to be Safe
2) Right to choose freely
3) Right to be heard
4) Right to be informed
how do we interpret what we notice?
1. gestalt psycology --> totality/ overall picture2. principle of closure -- fill in blanks based on past experiences3. principle of similarity - group together objects of similar characteristics --- ex. brand extension4. figure ground principle -- one part of stimulus will dominate while others recede into the background
- The price of the innovation affects its adoption, especially the timing of the adoption
- Price affects the adoption of technological innovations
Methods like VALS 2, PRIZIM and RISC often result in:
clever descriptions of a target market that can result in stereotypes.can result in managers disparaging the target group.can cause managers to view the target market as more homogeneous than it really is.
well-known brand names
value system
set of cultural rankings
brand relationships
1. interdependance2. self-concept connection3. nostolgic connection4. commitment5. love/passion (ex. harley davidson)6. intimacy
types of innovation
- continuous
-dynmically continuous
service scripts
guides consumers behavior in commercial settings
shopping orientations
1. economic shopper2. personalized shopper3. ethical shopping4. apathetic shopper5. recreational shopper6. e-commerce: clicks vs. bricks
M- Commerce
Mobile commerce. When marketers promote their goods and services via wireless devices like cell phones, PDAs or Ipods
predisposition to evaluate an object or product positively or negatively
Self-Perception Theory
an alternative explanation of dissonance effects; it assumes that people use observations of their own behavior to infer their attitudes toward some object
Collectivist Culutres
people subordinate their personal goals to those of a stable in-group.
Consumption Guilt
similar to postpurchase dissonance; occurs when negative emotions or guilt feelings are aroused by the use of a product or service; people lower their expectations to reduce post-purchase dissonance
Consumption-Related Attitudes
cognitive and affective orientations toward marketplace stimuli such as advertisement, salespeople, warranties, and so forth; value of things
Symbolic Interactionism:
Stresses that relationships with other people play a large part in forming the self
the sum total of learned beliefs, valued, and customs that serve to direct the consumer behavior of members of a particular society
Broadcasting vs. Narrowcasting
o Broadcasting: where large audiences are reached with the same electronic or print messages. Becoming obsolete.o Narrowcasting: a technique that allows marketers to send very directed messages to smaller audiences on an ongoing basis
two or more individuals who interact to accomplish either individual or mutual goals
objective measures
consist of selected demographic or socioeconomic variables concerning the individuals under study
perception occurs when the stimulus is below the level of the consumers' awareness-->how do consumers choose what to pay attention to?
a process of acquiring information and storing it over time so that it will be available when needed
the practice of promoting and selling goods and services via wireless devices including cell phones, PDAs and iPods
Activity Stores
a retailing concept that lets consumers participate in the production of the products or services being sold in the store
a custom with a strong moral overtone
gender role state where the individual experiences or acts out a blurring of gender roles
Stimulus Generalization
the inability to perceive differences between slightly dissimilar stimuli
Instrumental Motives
activate behaviors designed to achieve a second goal
Environment-Oriented Values
a society's relationship to its economic and technical as well as its physical environment (cleanliness, performance/status, tradition/change, risk taking/security, problem solving/fatalistic, nature)
any change in the content or organization of long-term memory or behavior and is the result of information processing
Field of study that examines the correspondence between signs and symbols and their role in the assignment of meaning.
mass customization
is the personalization of products and services for individual customers at a mass-production price. i.e LL Bean, customizes backpacks
Describe the marketer vs. Consumer perspective difference in Role of influence
Marketer: influence behavior
Consumer: handle behavioral influence (consumer empowerment) 
Brand Equity
the value inherent in a well-known brand name
typical consideration set = ?
2-8 (more for extended)
Consumed Consumers
those people who are used or exploited, whether willingly or not, for commercial gain in the marketplace
Gender Convergence
blurring of sex roles in modern society; men and women increasingly express similar attitudes about balancing home life and work
Unconditioned Stimulus
a stimulus that is naturally capable of causing a response
Attitude Object
anything toward which one has an attitude
japanese term for the one true source of information
Consumer Style
a pattern of behaviors, attitudes, and opinions that influence all of a person's consumption activities - including attitudes toward advertising, preferred channels of information and purchase, brand loyalty, and price consciousness
Who are influences on kids?
-Parents (by observation)
-Peers (real-their friends, symbolic- Hannah Montana)
-Media and advertising
social norm
any rule of behavior for meeting societal expectations
green consumers
- consumers who are very conscientious aabout proecting the environment
- males tend to have higher and better knowledge about green issues than females
- however, females tend to exhibit both higher concern and participate more frequently in various types of green activities
Information Overload
situation in which the consumer is presented with too much product or brand-related information
Social Surroundings
the other individuals present in the particular situation; people's actions are frequently influenced by those around them
Other-Oriented Values
reflect a society's view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups within that society (individual/collective, youth/age, extended/limited family, masculine/feminine, competitive/cooperative, diversity/uniformity)
Regulatory Focus Theory
suggests that consumers will react differently depending on which broad set of motives is most salient
principle of similarity (Gestalt)
consumers tend to group together objects that share similar physical characteristics
Differential Decay
the memory of a negative cue (low credibility source) simply decays faster than the message itself, leaving behind primary message content
above average effect
ppl see themselves as better drivers, better workds, better organized, more logical than others
Heavy Users
a name companies use to identify their customers who consume their products in large volumes
Multiattribute Attitude Models
those models that assume that a consumer's attitude of an attitude object depends on the beliefs he or she has about several or many attributes of the object, the use of a multiattribute model implies that an attitude toward a product or brand can be predicted by identifying these specific beliefs and combining them to derive a measure of the consumer's overall attitude
Social Loafing
the tendency for people not to devote as much to a task when their contribution is part of a larger group effort
What is an attitude?
A lasting general evaluation of something learned over time
Direct Marketing vs. Direct Mail
o Direct marketing: a marketing technique that uses various media (mail, print, broadcast, etc) to solicit a direct response from a consumer. Also known as database marketing. o Direct mail: advertising that is sent directly to the mailing address of a targeted consumer
Purchase Involvement
the level of concern for, or interest in, the purchase process triggered by the need to consider a particular purchase; a temporary state of an individual or household influenced by the interaction of individual, product, and situational characteristics
Hemispheric Lateralization
a term applied to activities that take place on each side of the brain
left side= rational thought
right side= images & impressions
Two-Step Flow of Communication Theory
a communications model that portrays opinion leaders as direct receivers of information from mass-media sources who, in turn, interpret and transmit this information to the general public
Fundamental attribution error (FAE) [subset of the representative heurisitcs]
you overattritbe others to their personalility and underattribute to the situation
issues in persuasive communication
WHO should be featured in the communication? HOW should the message be constructed? WHAT media should transmit the message? WHAT characteristics of the target market influence the commnications' acceptance?

What is the closure principle?
We will automatically perceive an incomplete picture as complete.
We can read neon signs that have burned out letters
influence on media use
members of the upper class and upper-middle class are more interested in current events and drama on TV, whereas as one moves lower on the class scale, soap operas and situation comedies are more popular
Program Context Effects
moods that play important roles in the communications situation; relate to the nature of the programming surrounding the focal ad; arousal influences information-processing activities
Formal vs. Informal Communications Sources
o Formal: a source that speaks on behalf of an organization—either a for-profit (commercial) or a non-for-profit organizationo Informal: acquaintance that gives product info or advice
Lattitudes of Acceptance and Rejection
in the social judgement theory of attitudes, the notion that people differ in terms of the information they will find acceptable or unacceptable; they form latitudes of acceptance and rejection around an attitude standard; ideas that fall within a latitude will be favorably received, but those falling outside of this zone will not
influence of religion on socialization
the passing on of culture through socialization is most pronounced in those culture in which religion is a dominant force
Sensory, Short-Term, and Long-Term Stores
o Short Term: the stage of real memory in which information received from the sensory store for processing is retained briefly before passing into the long-term store or forgotten.o Long Term: the stage of real memory where information is organized, reorganized, and retained for relatively extended periods of time

What is the figure-ground principl?

One part of a stimulus will dominate and other parts recede into the background.
Describe college students as an age segment.
-75% are also working
-$60B in buying power
-Active gift buyers
-Important to marketers because they're a huge potential market (all the stuff have yet to buy)
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