Consumer Behavior Key Words Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Identity Marketing
Ideal of Beauty
What is conation?
Behavioral intention
reinforcement performed before the desired consumer behavior actually takes place
a corporate-sponsored event intended to promote strong brand loyalty among customers
literally translated as personal connections/relationships on which an individual can draw to secure resources or advantages when doing business as well as in the course of social life
immediate response of our sensory receptors to basic stimuli
Involvement Theory
theory of consumer learning postulating that consumers engage in a range of information processing activity, from extensive to limited problem solving, depending on the relevance of the purchase
problem recognition
occures when consumemr sees differences between actual and ideal state
strangers organize online around a specific product or service and arrange to meet at a certain date and time in a real-world store to negotiate a group discount
What are three fan id levels?
an innovation's benefits compared to the money paid for it
- does it offer this for money?
the atmosphere when describing a service business as a hospital, bank, or restaurant
involves switching channels when a commercial appears
When a stimulus loses its attention-getting abilities by virtue of its familiarity
Subjective Measures
individuals are asked to estimate their own social-class positions
Knowledge Function
a component of the functional approach to attitude-change theory that suggests that consumer have a strong need to know and understand the people and products with which they come into contact
consumer hyperchoice
consumers having too many options- forces us to make repeated choices
the result of acquiring and processing stimulation over time
one way that forgetting occurs; as additional information is learned, it displaces the earlier information
an audio broadcast that people listen to on portable MP3 players or laptops
Restricted Codes
the ways of expressing and interpreting meaning that focus on the content of objects, which tend to be used by the working class
Reality Engineering
the process whereby elements of popular culture are appropriated by marketers and become integrated into marketing strategies
extent to which messages inserted in certain media vehicles will be exposed to the audience
- media vehicles may be selected on the basis of this, aka the maximum exposure they can provideto their target audience
how-brand-is-different test
this test asks subjects to distinguish between various brands in a particular product category
Attribution Toward things
consumers judge a product’s performance and attribute its success or failure to the product itself
Marketing Channel
includes all individuals and firms involved in the process of making a product or service available to customers
One-Sided Messages
generally presenting only the benefits of their product without mentioning any negative characteristics it might possess; one point of view is expressed
Memory Interference
comsumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way
Preattentive Processing
The nonconscious processing of stimuli in peripheral vision.
Downscale Consumers
low income, may be more brand loyal
two or more persons related by blood, marriage, or adoption who reside together
avoidance avoidance conflict
a choice involving only undesirable outcomes
advertising using compensatory choice...
assume compentacy model..emphazixce on certain aspects..CONPENSATE for lack of something
perceptual vigilance
-tend to notice things that are interest to you-tend to ignore things that aren't
Closure Principle
the gestalt principle that describes a person's tendency to supply missing information in order to perceive a holistic image
Physiological Need
a basic need required to maintain survival of the organism
Variety Seeking
the desire to choose new alternatives over more familiar ones
Discretionary Income
the money available to a household over and above that required for necessities
Craft Product
a creation valued because of the beauty with which it performs some function; this type of product tends to follow a formula that permits rapid production and it is easier to understand than an art product
behavioral intention
describes attitude not toward a brand but toward brand purchase and, as such, is a far better predictor of behavior than either beliefs or affective responses
culture is dynamic
- the influence of technology: technological developments gain acceptance only because cultural norms and values have already changed or are changing- the influence of cultural diffusion- the influence of natural, political, and conflict events
Self-Perception Theory
a theory that suggests that consumers develop attitudes by reflecting on their own behavior
Attitude-based Choice
involves the use of general attitudes, summary impressions, intuitions, or heuristics; no attribute-by-attribute comparisons are made at the time of choice; longer choice process
two or more individuals who share a set of norms, values, or beliefs and have certain implicity or explicity define relationships to one another such that their behaviors are interdependent
Message Framing
presenting one of two equivalent value outcomes either in positive or gain terms (positive framing) or in negative loss terms (negative framing)
Perceptual vigilance:
Consumers are aware of stimuli that relate to their current needs
Continuous Inovation
a new product entry that is an improved or modifies version of an existing product rather than a totally new product. a continuous innovation has the least disruptive influence on established consumption patterns
Normative Reference Groups
a group that influences the general values or behavior of an individual
many times the decision process proceeds in 2 stategs...
first consideration set...non conpensatory methods.... reduced consideration set.... copensatory method...CHOICE
Network Effect
each person who uses a product or service benefits as more people participate
Limited Problem Solving
a problem solving process in which consumers are not motivated to search for information or to rigorously evaluate each alternative; instead they use simple decision rules to arrive at a purchase decision
Digital Natives
young people who have grown up with computers and mobile technology; multitaskers with cell phones, music downloads, and instant messaging on the internet, who are comfortable communicating online and by text and IM rather than by voice
consumer lifestyles
the purpose of exploring _______ is to obtain more precise pictures of how ______ think and act than may be available from demographics alone
unit pricing
- the FTC has ruled that retailers must provide consumers with two prices for every packaged goods item: the price per package andthe price per unit of measure
- allow consumers to make value comparisons among products and package sizes
Lexicograph Decision Rule
requires the consumer to rank the criteria in order of importance; selects the brand thta performs the best on the most important attribute, if there is a tie, move onto the next most important criteria; plays a "winner take all" game with dimensions
Market Segmentation
selecting one or more portions of a larger market whose needs differ somewhat from the larger market; 4 steps
1) Identifying product-related need sets
2) Grouping customers with similar need sets
3) Describing each group
4) Selecting an attractive segment(s) to serve
Perceptual selection:
People attend to only a small portion of the stimuli to which they are exposed.
Verbal vs. Nonverbal Messages
verbal is spoken or written, nonverbal is a photography, illustration, symbol, or combination of the two
What does the study of consumer behavior cover?
Pre purchase behavior
Purchase behavior
Post purchase behavior
Perceived Age
how old a person feels as compared to his or her true chronological age
emotions and postpurchase evaluation
emotions play an important role in determining the extent of satisfaction or dissatisfaction with purchased products or services
diffusion of innovations
- the best new products are developed around important consumer benefits and within markets that are large enough to support them
- the benefits consumers seek are constantly changing as values shift, lifestyles change, and new technologies emerge
Product Positioning
a decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment; major impact of the long-term success of the brand; often interchangeable with "brand image"
why do we like variety?
satiation (get tired of the same thing); stimulation(individual diff); preference uncertainty

What is the difference between normative and comparative influence?
Normative is more general, comparitive refers to influence regarding specific purchase
the effect of consumption on the quality of life
satisfaction with material possessions tends to contribute to overall life satisfaction, but only for materialistic people
Describe teens as an age segment.
-More of them than baby boomers
-Very trend aware
-Diverse & open-minded
-Minds change quickly
class systems in other cultures
- Japan has a large middle class- Scandinavian countries also have a large middle class - the dominant class among the Latin American countries is the lower class- in Indian, the two top classes are part of what is termed a "caste system" and are small compared with the working class
consumer advocacy and the right to safety
consumer research into safety issue is the most important activity of consumer advocacy groups
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