Key Terms 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
solute
Carbon
C
Te
Tellurium
U
Uranium
Rf
Rutherfordium
Lithium
Li
Cesium
Cs^(+)
NH(4)charge
negative
SO42-
Sulfate
Ferrous
Fe2+
Cl
chlorine
sr
strontium
mg
magnesium
Bk
Berkelium
PO4(3-)
Phosphate
carbonate
CO3(2-)
hexa
6
Bromite
BrO2 -1
Cyanide
CN -
Neon
Ne 10
-273K
Absolute zero
NaOh
sodium hydroxide
HBr
Hydrobromic acid
ClO -
hypochlorite
Hydroxide
OH —
ClO2 -1
Chlorite
HPO4(2-)
hydrogen phosphate
Hg2Br2
Mercury (I) Bromide
Insol.
H2O
water, dihydrogen monoxide
HSO4 -
Hydrogen Sulfate
Chlorate Ion
ClO3 -
Disassociation
to remove from association
a low Kow means...
hydrophilic/polar
beta (-) particle
An electron.
noble gases do not
react
solid
-least energy
-vibrates around fixed positions
-absorbs heat to turn into liquid
-has definite shape and volume
Group 1 aka 1A
Alkali metals
Pound
The English unit for weight
weight
measure of the gravitational attraction of a body
nonmetals are (more/less) electronegative because they are trying to (gain/lose) electrons
more, gain
Ionic has what charge type
no charge
Sulfate
generally soluble
except with Sr, Ca, Ba, Hg, Pb, Ag, Hg2
Radioactivity
the spontaneous emission by unstable nuclei of particles or electromagnetic radiations, or both
atomic orbital
describes the electons probable location
How hott is the sun
40,000,000 calvin
Substances that cannot be decomposed by further chemical means
Elements
ionic bond
The electrostatic attraction of positive and negative ions in an ionic compound.
all organic compounds contain the element
carbon
The metric system's unit of energy
Joule
In the chemical formula 10AL(C2H3O2)3, the numeral 10 is a what?
Coefficient
Matter
anything that has mass and occupies space.
Transition metals are further divided into ___________ __________ and inner transition metals
Transition Metals
scentific notation
a way of representing numbers consisting of a product between a nonexponential number and 10 raised to a whole number exponent that may be positive or negative
The force of attraction between oppositely charged ions is a(n)_______.
Ionic bonds
pure substances
anything that has a chemical formula
The Calcium Ion has a similar electronic structure to this element.
Argon
A COMPOUND THAT FORM HYDROGEN IONS (H+) WHEN DISSOLVED
ACID
What devive is used to measure atmospheric pressure?
barometer
According to Bohr's atomic model, the smaller an electron's orbit, the _____________ the atom's energy level
Lower
lowest energy state of an atom
ground state
which metal is a liquid at room-temp?
Hg
Dynamic Equilibrium
concentrations remain constant but the individual atoms can switch places
the study of heat changes from chemical reactions and phase changes
thermochemistry
what is the charge of an anion
negative
centi (c)
ten to the negative second power
Arrhenius acid
A substance that produces hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.
ELEMENT
A substance that cannot be broken down into other substances by chemical or physical means
The weakest base will be the ________ leaving group.
Best
Types of Indicators for Acids and Bases
Bromthymol blue
What is the general formula for amino acids?
RCH(NH2)COOH
Observations such as texture or colore that use non-numberical data.
qualitative data
Battery-
a galvanic cell, or series of combined galvanic cells, that can be used as a source of direct electrical current at a constant voltage. Are self contained and require no salt bridge.
Quatum
The Minimum Amount Of Energy That Can Be Gained Or Lost By An Atom
Hypertonic Solution
A solution with a higher osmotic pressure than that found within cells.
sublimation
the process by which particles of a solid escape from its surface and form a gas
hexa-
six (i will place six hexas on you)
Solution
A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase.
physical change
a change that alters the substance without altering its composition
dihydroxy alcohol
An organic compound with two hydroxyl groups.
physical property
property of matter that can be measured without changing its chemical composition
ethanol with small amounts of noxious materials added
denatured alcohol
Molecule
A group of at least two covalently bonded atoms
energuy required to melt a solid
heat of fusion
Ideal Gas Law
Derived from Boyles and Charles Law
melting pt
temp at which solid turns to a liquid
half-life
the length of time it takes for half of the atoms in a sample of a radioactive element to decay into atoms of another element
Hund's Rule
Every orbital in a subshell is singly occupied with one electron before any one orbital is doubly occupied and all electrons in singly occupied orbitals have the same spin.
lone pair electrons
A pair of electrons associated with only one atom.
frequency
number of waves that pass a point in agiven second
LDL (low density lipoprotein
carry cholesterol from the liver through the bloodstream to the tissues
Boyle’s Law
The volume fixed mass of gas varies inversely with pressure at constant tempature
Subscript
a number that shows how many of each kind of atom are in the compound
ionic compound
formed when a metal atom transfers some or all of its valence electrons to a nonmettal -cation/anion -metal and nonmetal -electrostatic -dimensional lattice of oppisitely charged atoms
ion
A particle in which the numbers of the protons and electrons are not equal.
Which of the following types of reactions are always redox reactions?
single-replacement and combustion
what is the form of energy that exhibits wavelike behavior as it travels through space?
electromagnetic radiation
Define “steric factor.”
It is the relative ease the nucleophile has of approaching the site of reaction
binary ionic compund
a compund composed of a metal cation and a non-metal anion
Excited State
State in which an atom has a higher potential energy than it has in its ground state
variable that can be controlled experimentally
concentration, pressure, volume, and temperature
What are transition elements?
Found btw the alkaline earth metals. Metals. Hard, high melting and boiling pnts. Malleable and conductive to electricity because of partially filled d orbitals and d electrons are held loosely and mobile. Low IE. Positively charged.
Isotope
one of two or more atoms with the same atomic number but with different numbers of neutrons
Atomic number
Number of protons in the nucleus of an atom.
Define density
How much mass there is for the volume of an object.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Elements in group 2 of the periodic table.
What is the function of thromboxanes in the blood?
induces platlets aggregation and vessel constriction
How does a solid melt?
There is enough energy (usually heat) to increase vibrations enough to break down the solid's 3D structure to a liquid.
What are the 5 common functional groups?
Hydroxyl (alcohols), amino (amines), carbonyl (aldehydes), carbonyl (ketones), carboxyl (carboxylic acids)
what is freezing point?
the temp at which a substance changes state from LIQUID to SOLID
What decreases the solubility of a salt?
the presence of a common ion
What are amphiphilic molecules? Give an example.
Molecules with polar and apolar parts, so they can have long hydrophobic chains with polar groups at the end of the chain; Fatty acids
what is a particle?
a general word used when we can;t be exact about the type of things being discribed
What did J.J thompson do?
he used the Cathode ray tube to find electronshe also used the plum pudding model
Q: True or false? More concentrated buffers are more effective.
A: True! They contain a greater total number of buffer molecules per unit volume and more is better.
How many atoms of each element are present in 2Al2(SO4)3?
4 Al, 6 S, and 24 O
What is an amu? How was this chosen?
Atomic Mass Unit = mass of 1 proton (1.66 x 10 to the -24th grams). Chosen so that carbon-12 (with 6 protons and 6 neutrons) has a mass of 12 amu.
leather
cuero
bei gani?
how much?
Nikes greatest product
Their image!
SWOT
strengths, weakness opurtunity, threats
Strategy
an organization’s long-term course of action that delivers a unique customer experience while achieving its goals.
situational influences
Influences resulting from circumstances, time, and location that affect the consumer, buying decision process
Marketer's self-interested, unintended consequences on demand
Demand-side market failure
Multiple markets within different dynamics and needs
Environment
5 Steps of the adoption process:
Awareness
Interest
Evaluation
Trial
Adoption
Organization
Consists of its structures, policies, and corporate culture, all of which can become dysfunctional in a rapidly changing business enviroment
Independent Intermediaries:Manufacturer Owned- Intermediaries
Sales branches Sales offices Manufacturer show rooms
staples
products that are bought often, routinely and without much thought.
megabranding
weeding out weaker or slower-growing brands and focusing their marketing dollars only on brands that can acheive the number-one or number-two market share positions with good growth prospects in their categories
Voluntary Chain
a wholesaler-sponsored group of independent retailers that engages in group buying and common merchandising ex. Independent Grocers Alliance
product concept
premise- consumers favor products offering the most quality, performance, or innovative features.

focus on:
-making superior products
-improving them over time
Marketing research to gather preliminary information that will help to better define problems and suggest hypotheses.
Exploratory Research
promotion
public relations.. can increase, but doesnt mean sales will
franchising
An arrangement in which a supplier (franchiser) grants a dealer (franchisee) the right to sell products in exchange for some type of consideration
Atmospherics
The physical elements in a store's design that appeal to consumers' emotions and encourage buying
Coupons
voucher entitling the holder to a discount off a particular product.
Marketing Information Management
gathering information about customers, trends, and competing products then storing it analyzing it to collect information.
Corporate VMS
The company own production and distribution
Case study
A comprehensive examination of a particular firm or organization.
catalog aggregator
brings together many catalog companies to create a new searchable database of products for buyers
corporate social responisibility
business's concern about social welfare
Segmentation
The process of dividing a larger market into smaller pieces based on one or more meaningful shared characteristics.
business marketing
marketing to firms governments, or non-for-profit organizations
NEW MARKETING REALITIES (FEWER CUSTOMERS TO GO AROUND)
1.CHANGING DEMOGRAPHICS2.MORE SOPHISTICATED COMPETITORS3.OVERCAPACITY IN MANY INDUSTRIES
marketing
An organizational function and a set of processes for creating, communicating, and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organizers and stakeholders
precycling
efforts by manufactors to reduce waste by decreasing the amount of packaging they use
assumptive close
asks for decision on delivery, warranty, financing
Specific media within each general media type, such as specific magazines, television shows, or radio programs. that influence and limit various organizations and individuals in a given society.
Media vehicle
What is a service?
Intangible customer benefits produced by people or machines that cannot be separated from the producer. Service cannot be returned, nor tryed before bought.
IMC or Integrated Marketing Communication does what?
Integrates all communication channels
Category Membership
Important to state for: new product, to show product belongs
Differential Benefit
Properties of a product which makes them unique (different from the competition's product) and are therefore sought after (iphone)
Target Return Pricing
occurs when firms employ pricing strategies designed to produce a specific return on their investment, usually expressed as a percentage of sales.
total quality management
A philosophy that uniform commitment to quality in all areas of the organization will promote a culture that meets customers' perceptions of quality
situation analysis
 informal study of what info is already available in the problem area
Consumer markets
Consumer markets are the markets for products and services bought by individuals for their own or family use
General Electric Business Screen
Categorizes strategic business units and products in terms of industry attractiveness and company business strengths. Y-Axis: Company Business Strengths. X-Axis: Industry Attractiveness.
The amount of money charged for a product or service, or the sum of the values that consumers exchange for the benefits of having or using the product or service.
price
Customer Value
Constantly looking for ways to give customers more for less.
Intangible
That is; they can't be held, touched or seen before the purchase decision.
Direct marketing
The use of the telephone, Internet, and non-personal media to introduce products to customers, who can then purchase them via mail, telephone, or the Internet. (Non-store, direct to customer)
Time Value
-Making the product available when the customer needs it.
-ex. 24 hr kroger, drive thru
Which of the folowing would qualify as a physiological need according to Maslow's hierarchy
Water
factors of suppiers (4)
availability of supply, availability of alternative sources term and prices and distribution policies
Marketing Tactics   
Short term actions taken to achieve the marketing strategy
Sales Orientation
Produce it, then get consumers to buy it.
Pricing Strategies Based on Costs:Advantages
-Simple to calculate-relatively risk free
Brand Advertising
Builds an image for a brand or company.
Mass Customization
An approach that modifies a basic good or service to meet the needs of an individual. -Computer Companies are starting to use this (Creation of own personal computer)
Optional product pricing
______ takes into account optional or accessory products along with the main product – ex: Buying a car
The sum of the fixed and variable costs for any given level of production.
Total costs
BCG MatrixStarmarket share and growth?strategies?
high market sharehigh market growhtgenerates sustantial cash flowrequires large investmentbuild, maintain
Production era
a time when a company focuses on production of a few specific products--perhaps because few of these products are available in the market.
the stream of profits a customer will create over the life of his orher relationship to a business.
Lifetime value
A price reduction to buyers who pay their bills promptly.
Cash discount
lifestyle shopping center
"A type of shopping center that is typically open-air and features upscale specialitty, dining, and entertainment stores."
steps in the creative selling process
Prospecting and qualifying Preapproach Approach Sales presentation Handling Objections Closing the sale Follow up
Market follower
A firm that is happy to follow the leaders in a market place without challenging them, perhaps taking advantages of opportunities created by leaders without the need for much marketing investment of its own
Fundamentals of Strategic Planning6) Developing marketing plan
marketing plans emanate from the overall strategic planning
channel of distribution
any series of firms or individuals who participate in the flow of products from producer to final user or consumer
A curve that shows the number of units the market will buy in a given time period, at different prices that might be charged.
Demand Curve
Diffusion of innovation
the process by which the use of an innovation spreads throughout a market group, over time and over various categories of adopters
promotion budget: percentage of sales
The most common method of budgeting for promotion expenditures is to compute a percentage of past or anticipated future sales. This method is very straightforward. But it is also mechanical and does not consider situational variables or other market forces
what are the 6 factors affecting consumers in the macro enviroment?
1.) culture2.) political and legal influences3.) economic4.) demographics5.) social trends6.) technology
Why do marketers put technical details about complex products and services in the "fine print"?
Consumers participate in a two-step "cue utilization process". Consumers use advertising informational cues to reduce perceived risk, especially when objective quality is quite complex, and/or the consumer does not have extensive experience with an infrequently purchased item. Ads are more persuasive than informative, leading consumers to perceive artificial difference between brands.
Define the term lifetime value of a customer.
the revenues and intangible benefits that a customer brings to the seller over an average lifetime, less the amount the company must spend to acquire, market to, and service the customer, are calculated.
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