Key terms for the Chinese Revolution Flashcards

Terms Definitions
japanese army
larger collective farms
Jiang Jieshi becomes president/communist resist rule
National Assembly
French Revolutionary assembly (1789-1791). Called first as the Estates General, the three estates came together and demanded radical change. It passed the Declaration of the Rights of Man in 1789. (p. 585)
Hong Kong controlled by Britain
A military commander exercising civil power in a region, whether in nominal allegiance to the national government or in defiance of it.
It was another Japanese conquered territoy
Three Principals of the People
economic security
Jiang Jieshi
nationalist leader who dominated southwestern China
large collective farms that had peasants live and work together
assumption of super human, iclyllic bliss.all goods and services are shared equally.
Shanghai Massacre
killing of thousand of Chinese Communists in April 1927 by the nationalists headed by Chiang Kai-shek
Project 571
Secret plan to assassinate Chairman Mao
Zhao Ziyang
party secretary, said the protesters at tianamen had some points, but that it needed to be stopped, eventually recommends crackdown and it works
"speaking bitterness"
CUCR: Village courts where people could complain about their landlords and they could be punished
US involvement
CAW: Supports and supplies the GMD
Korean War
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
1914-1918 China wins but looses land to Japan
Lin Biao
Minister of Defense. In 1964, published "Little Red Book," with quotations from Chairman Mao Zedong. Appointed as Mao's successor, but died in a plane crash in 1971 (scholars unsure if it was an accident or planned). Lin and Mao had grown apart. Lin was accused of betraying Mao, and some claimed he had planned a coup d'etat.
Hua Guofeng
Mao's designated successor who brought the Cultural Revolution to an end and ousted the Gang of Four from political power, but was forced into retirement because of his insistence on continuing the Maoist line
5-Year Plan
a five-year economic plan that collectivized farms in China and put them into communes
Extraterritorial Rights
under these rights, foreigners were not subject to Chinese law at Guangzhou and four other Chinese ports
Sun Yixian
first leader of the nationalist party
boxer rebellion
a campaign against the Dowager Empress's rule and foreign privilege (beijing)
cultural revolution
started 1966. red guards (students who responded to mao's dissaprovment in new economic polices) led this uprising. GOAL- establish a society of peasants and workers which are equal. red guards targeted ANYONE who seemed to have special privilages or resisted the regime. this lead to chaos which closed down factories and threatened farm production. mao stopped revolution, and army dissolved red guards.
6 attributes for revolution
violence, wide-spread support, propaganda, charasmatic leader, complete change of system, intelligencia led.
Sun Yat-Sen
Charasmatic leader, his coat tailed person was ching-kai shek. Physician who formed a revolutionary alliance that suceeded in overthrowing the Quing dynasty (Pu Yi) "father of modern china. creater of "three principles of the people" handed presidentcy to Yuan Shinkai.
Wuchang Rebellion
PCC: considered the beginning of the revolution, armies attacking supposed rebels so Yuan Shikai is put in power
Yuan Shikai
Warlord in northern China after fall of Qing dynasty; hoped to seize imperial throne; president of China after 1912; resigned in the face of Japanese invasion in 1916.
Zhou Enlai
Zhou Enlai was a prominent and influential member of the Chinese Communist Party during the time of Mao. He played a large role in China's reestablishing ties with the West.
Zhang Xueliang
warlord in Manchuria who becomes an ally of Chiang Kai-shek and controls China's NE Army. he retreats and does not fight back against Japanese forces. he later forces Chiang Kai-shek to join forces with the Commies, and is placed on house arrest by Chiang Kai-shek for over 50 years
Name for Hua and his supporters as they declared that whatever Mao said and decided must be obeyed and put into action.
Taiping Rebellion
The most destructive civil war before the twentieth century. A Christian-inspired rural rebellion threatened to topple the Qing Empire.
Rape of Nanking
infamous genocidal war crime committed by japanese military in Nanjing. started in 1937 and lasted a few weeks. japanese army raped, stole and killed prisoners of war and civilians
US-China relations
CUCR: US refuses to formally recognize the PRC for 30 years after created
Responsibility System
To deal with poverty, Deng worked toward collective farming. Rural household were assigned land and other assets that they could treat as their own. They were given incentives to increase their production. People could work fields and keep assets for a certain amount of crops.
Sun Yatsen
This man was a radical Chinese reformer who sought to overthrow the government
Li Peng
Former premier and chair of the National People's Congress; the most visible representative of China's government who backed the use of force to quell the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989
Chiang Kaishek
Leader of the Nationalist Party after 1925
Opium War
open clash between the British and Chinese which started in 1839
open door policy
policy that protected both U.S. trading rights in China, and China's freedom from colonization
Nationalists in the Chinese
Leader- Jiang Jieshi (Chiang Kai-shek)Area ruled- S chinaForeign support- USDomestic Policy-deafeat of CommunistsPublic Support-weak due to inflationand failing economyMilitary Organization- ineffective, corrupt leadership and poor morale.
northern expedition
a military campaign to defeat the warlords controlling northern China and unify the country under the KMT
Zhang Zuolin
Father of the man who captured Chiang Kai-shek, was assasinated by rouge agents of the Kwantung Army
Rural Service
A loan program under the Department of Agriculture designed to meet the needs of low-income and moderate-income rural residents to purchase, construct, repair or relocate a dwelling and related facilities.
United Front
What was formed when the Communist and the Nationalist parties teamed up to fight Japanese seizure of the land.
21 Demands
List of demands to make China a Japanese protectorate-Chinese gave in
Sino- Soviet split
The Sino-Soviet split was the gradual worsening of relations between the People Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the Cold War.
People's Liberation Army (PLA)
the Chinese armed forces; originally the armed branch of the CCP (originally called the Red Army)
extermination campaigns
PCC: Chiang Kaisheks plan to wipe out the communists
Mao Ze dong
The father of communist china, who was responsible for the great leap forward, communist victory, redistribution, and cultural revolution. He marched by his soldiers which gave him authority and widespread popular support.The younger working class gave mao popular support because of cultural revolution.wanted to reshape china's economy based on marxist socialism. (haves take advantage of have nots).
backyard steel campaign
CUCR: people in china would make this in their backyard and give to the government, but Mao admits that the stee produced is not able to be used and the campaign fails
Cixi (Dowager Empress)
ruler of China who allowed some of China to be reformed
Tiananmen Square Uprising
people that had a protest but the millatary inclosed every one and killed thousands of them
Puyi (Prince Chun)
PCC: Last emperor of China; deposed as emperor while 3 years old in 1912
May Fourth Movement
on May 4th, 1919, over 3,000 angry students gathered in the center of Beijing; this caused a national movement
cultural revolution
led by the red guard, filtered out the intellectuals to make a society of peasants and workers
Communists in the Chinese civil war.
Leader- Mao Zedong.Area Ruled-North China Foreign Support- Soviet UnionDomestic policy-national liberation Public Support-Strong dueto promised land reform Miliatry Organization- Experienced, motivated, guerrilla army.
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